Jonathan Vos Post, Bill Moseid, Chuck Stone

Paper presented at, and in the Proceedings of, the 2nd ANNUAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM, sponsored by Space Transportation Systems Division, Rockwell International, 19-21 April 1988, Long Beach CA

The Software Engineering Department of Space Transport- ation Systems Division, Rockwell International, has implemented a system which integrates an 80286/80386 computer, color video monitor, high speed modem, magnetic tape, laser disk, and advanced user interface. The resulting VIDEO TECHNOLOGY COMPUTER SYSTEM (VTCS) allows geographically distributed user interaction with animated full-color hypermedia, combining television imagery, alphanumeric text, and audio. The design, implementation, use, maintenance, and analysis of this system used methodologies developed for text-only software engineering and for hardware/software systems engineering. What is the future of such hypermedia? Will current software engineering methodologies suffice?
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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF OUR SYSTEM STSD has designed and implemented a system which allows geographically distributed user interaction with animated full- color hypermedia, combining television imagery, alphanumeric text, and audio. The concepts of "hypermedia," an extension of the earlier concept of "hypertext," were both invented by Theodor H. Nelson, who influenced our philosophy much as he influenced Bill Atkinson's design of Apple Computer's major product "Hypercard." A section of this paper cites some key ideas of Ted Nelson. But our VTCS system also uses certain method- ologies developed for conventional (text-only) software engineering and for hardware/software systems engineering. Our system, which integrates an 80286/80386 computer, color video monitor, high speed modem, magnetic tape, laser disk, and advanced user interface, used the principles of Systems Engineering [Post, Dec. 1981]. For example, the WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) concept was used in designing outlines for the design documentation, including the project plan. In this sense, administration and management were inherently part of the design and implementation; this is a strength of Systems Engineering as practiced at the Software Engineering Department of Space Transportion Systems Division, Rockwell International. Software Engineering methodology [Post & Henrick, 1980] was employed as well. Once the target machine was identified (Apple IIe for proof-of-concept, 80286/80386 computer for "Model B"), the implementation language was selected by a software engineering process. Despite the many advantages of Ada (a particular strength of Department 282), at the time the system plan was developed (1985), Ada represented an insufficient tool set and inadequate maturity/availability. As there was insufficient time scheduled for the implementers to master Ada and extend the tool set, C was chosen for proof-of-concept. The approach known as Evolutionary Prototyping was selected. This method is strongly supported today by the Department of Defense's STARS (Software Technology for Adaptable Reliable Systems) initiative [Druffel, 1982]. Over a 3 year period, the Evolutionary Prototyping approach sufficed to develop an electronic briefing and generation system capable of being networked. Software and Systems Engineering also played a role in reusable software, reusable hardware, and technology transfer. COTS (Commercial Off-the-Shelf Software) and off-the-shelf hardware were reused and integrated into the system, with typical changes no more than 10-20%. Technology transfer was provided, through information sharing, which benefited all vendors worked with in this project. A "skunk-works" fast- track approach was utilized, consistent with the Evolutionary Prototyping notion, and supported by being moved through Purchasing in 30 days. This is not a trivial point, because of the "travelling" effect that technology changes have had upon available hardware and supporting programmer tools. The custom software (50,000 lines of 'C' code) was quickly written by three bright, young Cal Poly graduates: Dave Jones, Rodney Kent, and Steve Mildon. Along with a Software Engineering/ Systems Engineering approach, a project requires a highly placed "mentor" -- or the project will fail. When our mentor retired, we already had enough capability (technical and personnel) for numerous groups to want "a piece of the action," namely participation in moving from proof-of-concept "Model A" to deliverable "Model B." The system allowed hypertext linkages, art clipped from videotape or video camera, object-oriented storage and retrieval ... the entirety constituting "reusable information." The primary objective for the Video Technology Computer System was that the system, in order to operate as an executive briefing chart production system, would be designed around the user interface (what Ted Nelson calls "front-to-back" design), that the system be based upon the English language, and that no programming or computer skills be required by the user. Some interesting system achievements were as follows: (1) under 10 seconds for site-to-site black & white document transfer using dial-up phone lines, (2) 60-80 seconds for color document transfer using dial-up phone lines, (3) remote briefing control, (4) adaptation of a commercial off-the-shelf image editor, and (5) full integration of image editor, audio, video, text, storage, and networking capabilities. By "briefing" we mean: a presentation of scenes which have a relationship to a given audience or topic; normally a short, accurate summary of details on the subject is given to an audience (not necessarily at one location) with a particular interest in the subject matter. All objectives were realized; effective briefings were conducted with the system. The future system, "Model C," will incorporate a huge library of text, images, and sound. "Model C" will perform desktop publishing and desktop video studio functions, with on-line, real-time decision making on a network. Hypertext linkage of graphics, text, music, and utterances as a network of objects will be included. Each icon in "Model B" had an associated text segment; this was the kernal of the planned hypertext/ hypermedia enhancement. The demonstrated use of voice- activated screen commands allowed a briefing to be orchestrated entirely by spoken words. A planned Artificial Intelligence (AI) front end to the system will give it the capabilities imagined by Vannevar Bush [Bush, 1945] as "Memex" -- over 40 years ago! HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF HYPERTEXT AND HYPERMEDIA Theodor Nelson, the acknowledged inventor of hypertext [Conklin, 1987], as an underground guru predicted the personal computer during the legendary days of the old mainframes. Like a time-traveler stranded years before his time-machine was invented, Ted remembered the future of computers and tried to explain it all to fascinated audiences [Nelson, 1967, 1974, 1980]. He came across just this side of mad scientist or prophet, an Oz before the Osborne was invented, a Walt Disney waiting for animation to be perfected. Ted Nelson's ideas lead us into a re-evaluation of the relationship between computers and literature [Post, 1978]. It's not a simple conflict between punch card and library card. Computers are "literary machines" [Nelson, 1981]. Never mind number- crunching -- computers can chew, swallow and help us to digest the debugged database called literature [Post, April 1983]. And literature includes electronic recordings of the oral/visual exchanges of briefings, negotiations, conferences, and symposia. From a user's point of view, the key idea in hypertext is the reuse of Literature, rather than burning the libraries to the ground and using an illiterate programmer's crude concept of information storage and retrieval [Nelson, 1981]. LITERATURE IS DEBUGGED " Literature is debugged. In other words, even though in every field there is an ever-changing flux of emphasis and perspective and distortion, and an ever-changing fashion in content and approach, the ongoing mechanism of written and published text furnishes a flexible vehicle for this change, continually adapting. Linkage structure between documents forms a flux of invisible threads and rubber bands that hold the thoughts together." LITERATURE LINKAGES "The point is clear, whether in science or business or belles lettres . Within bodies of writing, everywhere, there are linkages we tend not to see. The individual document, at hand, is what we deal with; we do not see the total linked collection of them all at once. But they are there, the documents not present as well as those that are, and the grand cat's-cradle among them all." IN A LOOKING GLASS "From this fundamental insight, we have endeavored to create a system [Xanadu] for text editing and retrieval that will receive, and handle, and present, documents with links between them. We believe there is something very right about the existing system of literature; indeed we suspect that there are things right about it that we don't even know, as with Nature. And so we have tried to mirror, and replicate, and extend, existing literary structure as we have here described it." WHAT'S THE WORD "In our Western cultural tradition, writings in principle remain continuously available -- both as recently quoted, and in their original inviolable incarnations -- in a great procession. So far we have stressed some of the processes of referral and linkage. But also of great importance are controversy and disagreement and reevaluation [as occur in some briefings]. "There is no predicting the use future people will make of what is written. Any summary, any particular view, is exactly that: the perspective of a particular individual (or school of thought) at a particular time. We cannot know how things will be seen in the future. We can assume there will never be a final and definitive view of anything. [Hence the emphasis on 'reusable information']." THE LITERARY PARADIGM "A piece of writing -- say, a sheet of typed paper on the table -- looks alone and independent. This is quite misleading. Solitary it may be, but it is probably also part of a literature. "By 'a literature' we do not mean anything necessarily to do with belles-lettres or leather-bound books. We mean it in the same broad sense of 'the scientific literature,' or that graduate- school question, 'Have you looked at the literature?'" OH, WHAT A TANGLED WEB WE WEAVE "A literature is a system of interconnected writings [including illustrations and the oral matrix of lectures, conferences, and arguments]. We do not offer this as our definition, but as a discovered fact. And almost all writing is part of some literature." "The way people write is based in large part on these interconnections." THE PLAIN TRUTH Ted Nelson's analysis excerpted here ("Literature is Debugged," "The Literary Paradigm") is a breath of common sense in the complicated world of databases [Post, October 1980] and electronic media. We agree with him that the information industry would be well advised to build systems to be extensions of Literature. Some critics disagree with literary common sense. Let's consider some of the reservations they have against the computerization of our literature. First, there are those who feel that the English language itself is too complicated to be suitable for storage on electronic media, and therefore incapable of being processed at all by computers. This position was dashed in recent years by the increasing sophistication of "Natural Language" software which creates and responds to typed English sentences. Similarly, "Speech Recognition" systems such as HEARSAY-II at Carnegie- Mellon University can correctly interpret over 90% of sample sentences spoken aloud. The critics hold fast: "these are misleading demonstrations which only apply to a small fraction of the full language. These linguistic microworlds are toys compared to the richness of the entire tongue." THE SOURCE To such critics, we note that the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), with its 500,000 entries, is generally regarded as the most complete and authoritative English-language dictionary in the world [Campbell, 1983]. Its publisher, Oxford University Press, computerized a full OED version -- the New Oxford English Dictionary (NOED) -- by September 1984 on an IBM 4321 processor. International Computaprint Corp. (an American subsidiary of Reed International) completed this on-line/print/ magnetic tape edition for $1.4 million plus a $425,000 grant from the British Government. Later, the University of Waterloo and potential NOED users put it on laser/videodisk, in interactive format, and will eventually implement on computer chips: the ultimate English authority in a slice of silicon! [Post, October 1983], [Publishers Weekly, 1984]. As Nature editor John Maddox had predicted in 1982 "The OED is uniquely a data base..., which will suggest to many that it should be stored on a long reel of magnetic tape, floppy disks, or some other means of data storage." The entire project will cost over $10 million, but it will forever unite computers and the English language. INFORMATION OVERLOAD Other critics warn that we are already suffering from "information overload," and that computerization can only make things worse. There is statistical information which both supports and challenges this position, as Ithiel de Sola Pool explains [Pool, 1983]. There is a "trend in modern industrial societies to move toward becoming information societies.... A Department of Commerce study shows the information sector rising from about 1/20 of the work force in 1870 to about a third in 1950 and about half of all employees today ... [but] the offering of informational material is growing far faster than what is being absorbed." Ithiel de Sola Pool's study shows that in both 1960 and 1977 "we have an estimate of 1.5 trillion words a day read from print media in the United States. But in that period the population was growing, and per capita the number of words read per day ... declined from an average of 11,000 to 8,500 words for adults." He also shows that electronic media have passed printed media in words supplied and consumed, and continue to gain in market share. The VTCS Project has concluded that 5,000 distinct words are all that are needed to allow most office personnel to use voice recognition effectively for tasks as complex as writing this report. Few people use more than 10,000 distinct words on a regular basis even if they are Ph.D.s writing for a living. Therefore 5,000 to 10,000 word recognition capability is all that is needed for practical utilization. But Ithiel de Sola Pool's figures show something that Ted Nelson and ourselves find even more significant. "Computer networking is for the first time bringing the costs of a point- to-point medium [like First-class Mail, or Telephone] ... down to the range of costs characteristic of mass media [like Radio, TV, Newspapers, Books, Magazines, Movies, or Classroom Education]." Computer economics will help to solve the "information overload" by making personal communication as cheap and easy as impersonal broadcasting. And our VTCS system explicitly demonstrates this. THE OPEN DOOR Stephen A. Weyer of the Xerox Palo Alto Research Centers agrees with the goals of Ted Nelson, and relates them to other systems [Weyer, 1982]. "A dynamic book is a new way of interacting with information. Ideally, it should be portable, with all the ease of use we associate with paper books. A dynamic book can react to its readers, not only by changing the medium of the information from text to animated pictures or sound, but also by transforming the organization of its content into a more useful form and by actively aiding the reader in the search process. A dynamic book is a particular view on an interconnected network of knowledge: it may correspond to an actual entity written and published by an author, or it may be a virtual book built by looking at other books and materials from specific points of view." Alan Kay refers to this idea as "Dynabook" [Kay & Goldberg, 1977]. It is also discussed in [Berkeley, 1981], [Popular Computing, 1983]. "Several actual systems that exhibit aspects of dynamic behavior are the NLS system of Englebart & English (1968), Negroponte's Dataland [Negroponte,1979], systems for full-text search such as Mead Data Central's LEXIS, Carbonell's [Carbonnel,1970] SCHOLAR system (that inferred answers from a semantic network of geographical knowledge) and an on-line aircraft manual evaluated by Rouse & Rouse [ Rouse & Rouse, 1980]. Hypothetical systems have provided visions of dynamic books also: Bush's (1945) 'Memex,' a desk-sized information tool, and Nelson's (1981) 'Xanadu hypertext' system for dynamic document content and linkages with other documents." THE ELECTRONIC BOOK As we had been saying for years on panel discussions at conferences, fiction has crossed the barrier between literature and computer media. The first interactive computer fiction to be widely distributed (the mid-70's Cambridge/Stanford ADVENTURE) has led to MIT alumnus Marc Blank's Infocom mystery novel DEADLINE and his co-authored multi-episode fantasy adventure ZORK. Time reported in late 1983 [ Elmer- DeWitt, 1983] that ZORK I "is the bestselling piece of recreational computer software on the market, with sales of 250,000 copies." Other early interactive computer novels include Stuart Galley's THE WITNESS, Michael Berlyn's INFIDEL and SUSPENDED, and Steven Meretzky's PLANETFALL. THE JAMES COCO DIET, a Bantam hardcover bestseller, was sold to International Computer Group for a six-figure price ... to appear on floppy disk. Science fiction publishers to watch in this new field include Jim Baen, Inc. (which pays the highest royalties to software authors) and Byron Preiss Video Productions "electronic books" to be published by Trillium Software -- interactive fictions based on Ray Bradbury's FARENHEIT 451, Arthur C. Clarke's RENDEZVOUS WITH RAMA, and the group production of DRAGONWORLD. Thomas M. Disch's AMNESIA is held by many to be the first true work of literary art to be created as an interactive floppy disk. The New Oxford English Dictionary and these diet books, mystery novels, and science fiction games are just the beginning of the wave of change which will transform books into dynamic books, literature into linked databases, text into hypertext, and media into hypermedia. This will affect education [Post, 1977], scientific research [Post, August 1980], [Post, December 1980], medicine [Post, November 1980], the military [Post, 1979], and all other segments of society [Post, March 1982], [Post, April 1982], [Post, September 1982], [Post, December 1983]. CONCLUSION Today's disputes between literacy, video literacy, and computer literacy will, very soon, look foolish as the three skills merge. Computers are "literary machines" -- and they will help to break the lexical logjam called "information overload" or "data-glut." The computer will help to transform impersonal broadcast media into highly personal author/reader intercommunication. The primary objective for the Video Technology Computer System is that the system should be designed around the user interface, that the system be based upon the English language, and that no programming skills be required by the user. This is a system for human beings. The user controls the system, not the other way around. Computers could turn a fragmented reading/writing/ presentation system into an interactive connection with the living body of world literature. Thus, the literature of technology, science, and commerce is extended by the use of hypermedia video briefing systems such as the VTCS which we have described. APPENDIX: "MODEL B" CAPABILITIES AS PLANNED IN 1985 (1) ELECTRONIC BRIEFINGS IN VIDEO QUALITY WITH: * 32,000 colors * canned sounds * canned music * animation * custom speech * voice control * live interaction * simplified chart making * icon libraries (2) ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN COMPUTERS FOR: * video conferencing * interactive briefings * automated management information centers * key offices * portable conditions [excerpted from the "Model B" Project Plan]: "The Model B project is expected to produce increased understanding of the potential for custom hardware and software applications to enhance [government] and industry aerospace programs. Test site personnel will evaluate the concept of being able to access or build briefings within their office area using telephone lines and a personal computer before the operational system is initiated. They may have briefings presented in color and/or black and white .... Charts may be changed ... at the last minute prior to or during the presentation. Briefings may be shown simultaneously at Downey and [a remote site] under control of a single computer at either site." "The computer will generate charts from data base information imported from other computers. These charts will be compatible with hand art charts, video based charts, and techniques for animation. Rapid chart assembly using an icon library will allow chart making to be simple in construction and readily transferable to other terminals. Animation of selected charts will be easy using the prestructured animation software. Integrated audio may be generated to support special effects as required by the briefer. Voice synthesizer capability will be available to read text from the screen or from a script not shown on the screen. The briefing may be operated automatically, or under briefer control, as the briefer prefers. An electronic pointer will be available to allow the briefer to direct attention to special information on the display. The briefing may be run forward or backwards, and be shifted in and out of the various features mentioned above, in order to respond to various conditions." "The briefing computer will also respond to direct voice control from the briefer. This allows ultimate flexability during the course of a briefing. 'What if' scenarios may be tested on the ... screen during the briefing using a 'spreadsheet to chart building' capability." "[Model B] will have the ability to use live video in multiple windows on the same screen. The windows may be divided into static charts, live video, and/or animation simulations. Use of these multiple windows could be used to show the faces of the meeting attendees at the other site, while showing the briefing in parallel." "The icon library concept will be demonstrated using existing sections of live video tapes, hand-drawn art, and live camera images. The library will have a common storage facility located in ... each of the test sites. The user will have the ability to locate different views and angles of a particular ... image, briefing chart, or other pertinent piece of information using advanced data base searching techniques. Images may be connected with actions, sounds, and/or voice controls and become icons. Calling up an icon will bring the associated actions, sounds, and/or voice controls into play automatically. These associated features may be modified for custom briefing needs, and thereby become new icons for later use by others. The user would simply call upon these icons and insert the appropriate one in the desired place in new briefings. Alternate forms of storage for these images and icons will be investigated and possibly implemented in the 'Model C' operational version...." "Additionally the 'Model B' design will be able to work intermittently and on an integrated basis with other equipment already available.... Black and white paper copy of the briefings will be available directly from 'Model B' systems through the PC dot matrix printers. Alternate forms of color printing with up to 16 million colors are being experimented with, and will be considered for implementation in the operational 'Model C' version." "Progress" from 1985 to 1988 was to have accomplished these planned features and to have prepared us to start the "Model C" version in 1988. Hardware advances to date have given new low cost, high quality feature compatibilities which were not available in the past. REFERENCES Edmund C. Berkeley, "The Static Book and the Dynamic Book," Computers and People, November-December 1981. Beverly Beyette, "College Computer to Hold Work of Novelist Irving Wallace, family," Los Angeles Times, 2 June 1983. William J. Broad, "Journals: Fearing the Electronic Future," Science, Vol. 216, 28 May 1982, p. 964-8. Vannevar Bush, "As we may think," Atlantic Monthly, 176 (July 1945), pp. 101-108. Robert Campbell, "Bookwatch: IT for the OED," New Scientist, 29 September 1983. Carbonnel, J.R., "AI in CAI: an artificial intelligence approach to computer-aided instruction," IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine Systems, MMS-11, 1970, p. 190-202. Jeff Conklin, "Hypertext: An Introduction and Survey," IEEE Computer, Vol. 20, No. 9, September 1987, pp.17-41. Larry Druffel, ed., Strategy for a DOD Software Initiative, Volume II: Appendices, Office of Undersecretary of Defense (Research and Advanced Technology) Ada Joint Program Office, report number AD-A121738, 1 October 1982, 321 pages. Philip Elmer-DeWitt, "Putting Fiction on a Floppy," Time, 5 December 1983, p. 76. Englebart, D.C. and English, W.K., "A research center for augmenting human intellect," AFIPS Proceedings, Fall Joint Computer Conference, 33 (1968) p. 395-410. W. Hershey, "Idea Processors," BYTE, June 1985, p.337. Alan Kay & A. Goldberg, "Personal Dynamic Media," IEEE Computer, March 1977, pp.31-41. William R. Moseid & George Kreglow, "Metastructure: In Pursuit of Software System Reliability," Rockwell International, 1975. Negroponte, N., "Books without pages," International Conference on Communications IV, Boston: IEEE, 1979, 156.56 (1), p.1-8. Theodor H. Nelson, "Getting it out of our system," Information Retrieval: A Critical Review, G. Schechter, ed., Washington D.C.: Thompson Books, 1967. Theodor H. Nelson, COMPUTER LIB/DREAM MACHINES, 1st Edition, Box 128, Swarthmore PA 19081, 1974. Theodor H. Nelson, "Replacing the Written Word: A Complete Literary System," Proc. IFIP, Oct. 1980, pp.1013-1023. Theodor H. Nelson, LITERARY MACHINES: The Report on, and of, Project Xanadu, concerning Word Processing, Electronic Publishing, Hypertext, Thinker-toys, Tomorrow's Intellectual Revolution, and certain other topics including Knowledge, Education, and Freedom, 3rd edition, 1981, available ($15) from Ted Nelson, Box 128, Swarthmore PA 19081 (valid check, please; no purchase orders or deferred-payment available). Ithiel de Sola Pool, "Tracking the Flow of Information," Science, 12 August 1983, Vol. 221, No. 4611, P. 609-13. Popular Computing, "Magazines without Pages," April 1983. Jonathan V. Post, Teachers' Guide to Computers and the Cybernetic Society, Academic Press, 1977, ISBN 0-12-069042-5, 96 pp. Jonathan V. Post, "Literature and Link Nodes," Tutorial on the Xanadu Hypertext System, Personal Computing Convention, Philadelphia, PA, 27 August 1978. Jonathan V. Post, "Cybernetic War," OMNI Magazine, pp. 44-104, May 1979, (lead article). Jonathan V. Post and John Henrick, "What is Software Engineering?", Module 0, Software Engineering Self-Study Program, Boeing Aerospace Company, August 1980. Jonathan V. Post, "Analysis of Enzyme Waves: Success through Simulation," Proc. Summer Computer Simulation Conference, Seattle, Washington, 25-27 August 1980, pp.691-695, AFIPS Press. Jonathan V. Post, "Quintillabit: Parameters of a Hyperlarge Database," Proc. 6th International Conference on Very Large Databases, Montreal, Canada, 1-3 October 1980. Jonathan V. Post, "Simulation of Metabolic Dynamics," Proc. 4th Annual Symp. on Computer Applications in Medical Care, Washington, D.C., 2-5 November 1980. Jonathan V. Post, "Enzyme System Cybernetics," Proc. International Conf. on Applied Systems Research and Cybernetics, Acapulco, Mexico, 12-15 December 1980, published in hardcover as: Applied Systems and Cybernetics, Vol. IV, Ed. G. E. Lasker, Pergamon Press, 1981. Jonathan V. Post, "Software Management Standards," Proc. National Aerospace & Electronics Conf. NAECON '81, Dayton, Ohio, 19-21 May 1981. Jonathan V. Post, "Distributed System Metrics," Proc. 6th Annual Software Engineering Workshop, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, December 1981. Jonathan V. Post, "This sentence contains ten words, eighteen syllables, and sixty-four letters.", Scientific American, Metamagical Schemas column, ed. Douglas Hofstadter, January 1982, p.16. Jonathan V. Post, "Computers: The Far Out Future," Keynote address, University of Washington Computer Fair, 3 March 1982. Jonathan V. Post, "Year 2000 Communications," address to joint meeting of IEEE Communications Society & Seattle Section of IEEE, Bellevue, WA, 22 April 1982. Jonathan V. Post, "Computers and the Future," keynote speech to the joint meeting of the Washington State House & Senate Committees on Science and Technology, Olympia, Washington, 23 September 1982. Jonathan V. Post, "The Role of Measurements in the Software Development Process," Proc. IEEE Computer Society's 6th International Computer Software & Applications Conference COMPSAC '82, Chicago, IL, 10-12 November 1982. Jonathan V. Post, Distributed Computing Systems: Impact on Quality, United States Air Force Rome Air Defense Center technical report, 1983. Jonathan V. Post, "Beyond Natural Language: Notes on Poetry and Artificial Intelligence," Proc. International Conference of the Association of Literary and Linguistic Computing, San Francisco, CA, April 1983. Jonathan V. Post, "The Age of Silicon," Call-A.P.P.L.E. Magazine, October 1983. Jonathan V. Post, "Robotics to Graphics," Call-A.P.P.L.E. Magazine, November 1983. Jonathan V. Post, "The Far Out Future," Call-A.P.P.L.E. Magazine, December 1983. Publishers Weekly, "Oxford Press to Computerize OED," 1 June 1984, p.18. Tim Robinson, "Dawn of the Electronic Newspaper," New Scientist, 13 May 82. S.H. Rouse & W.B. Rouse, "Computer-based manuals for procedural information," IEEE Transactions on Systems Man and Cybernetics, SMC-10 (8), 1980, p. 506-510. Gerald Salton, "Dynamic Document Processing," Communications of the ACM, July 1972, Vol. 15, No. 7, p. 658-668. Stephen A. Weyer, "The Design of a Dynamic Book for Information Search," Int. J. Man-Machine Studies (1982) 17, 87-107.
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