COLOR VIDEO MANIPULATION: APPLICATION OF SOFTWARE
ENGINEERING METHODOLOGY TO HYPERMEDIA IMPLEMENTATION
Jonathan Vos Post, Bill Moseid, Chuck Stone
Paper presented at, and in the Proceedings of,
the 2nd ANNUAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM,
sponsored by Space Transportation Systems Division,
Rockwell International, 19-21 April 1988, Long Beach CA
The Software Engineering Department of Space Transport-
ation Systems Division, Rockwell International, has implemented
a system which integrates an 80286/80386 computer, color
video monitor, high speed modem, magnetic tape, laser disk, and
advanced user interface. The resulting VIDEO TECHNOLOGY
COMPUTER SYSTEM (VTCS) allows geographically distributed user
interaction with animated full-color hypermedia, combining
television imagery, alphanumeric text, and audio.
The design, implementation, use, maintenance, and analysis
of this system used methodologies developed for text-only
software engineering and for hardware/software systems
engineering. What is the future of such hypermedia? Will
current software engineering methodologies suffice?
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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF OUR SYSTEM
STSD has designed and implemented a system which allows
geographically distributed user interaction with animated full-
color hypermedia, combining television imagery, alphanumeric
text, and audio. The concepts of "hypermedia," an extension of
the earlier concept of "hypertext," were both invented by
Theodor H. Nelson, who influenced our philosophy much as he
influenced Bill Atkinson's design of Apple Computer's major
product "Hypercard." A section of this paper cites some key
ideas of Ted Nelson. But our VTCS system also uses certain
method- ologies developed for conventional (text-only) software
engineering and for hardware/software systems engineering.
Our system, which integrates an 80286/80386 computer,
color video monitor, high speed modem, magnetic tape, laser
disk, and advanced user interface, used the principles of
Systems Engineering [Post, Dec. 1981]. For example, the WBS
(Work Breakdown Structure) concept was used in designing
outlines for the design documentation, including the project
plan. In this sense, administration and management were
inherently part of the design and implementation; this is a
strength of Systems Engineering as practiced at the Software
Engineering Department of Space Transportion Systems Division,
Software Engineering methodology [Post & Henrick, 1980]
was employed as well. Once the target machine was identified
(Apple IIe for proof-of-concept, 80286/80386 computer for
"Model B"), the implementation language was selected by a
software engineering process.
Despite the many advantages of Ada (a particular strength of
Department 282), at the time the system plan was developed
(1985), Ada represented an insufficient tool set and
inadequate maturity/availability. As there was insufficient
time scheduled for the implementers to master Ada and extend
the tool set, C was chosen for proof-of-concept. The approach
known as Evolutionary Prototyping was selected. This method is
strongly supported today by the Department of Defense's STARS
(Software Technology for Adaptable Reliable Systems)
initiative [Druffel, 1982]. Over a 3 year period, the Evolutionary
Prototyping approach sufficed to develop an electronic briefing
and generation system capable of being networked.
Software and Systems Engineering also played a role in
reusable software, reusable hardware, and technology transfer.
COTS (Commercial Off-the-Shelf Software) and off-the-shelf
hardware were reused and integrated into the system, with
typical changes no more than 10-20%. Technology transfer was
provided, through information sharing, which benefited all
vendors worked with in this project. A "skunk-works" fast-
track approach was utilized, consistent with the Evolutionary
Prototyping notion, and supported by being moved through
Purchasing in 30 days.
This is not a trivial point, because of the "travelling" effect
that technology changes have had upon available hardware and
supporting programmer tools. The custom software (50,000
lines of 'C' code) was quickly written by three bright, young Cal
Poly graduates: Dave Jones, Rodney Kent, and Steve Mildon.
Along with a Software Engineering/ Systems Engineering
approach, a project requires a highly placed "mentor" -- or the
project will fail. When our mentor retired, we already had
enough capability (technical and personnel) for numerous groups
to want "a piece of the action," namely participation in moving
from proof-of-concept "Model A" to deliverable "Model B." The
system allowed hypertext linkages, art clipped from videotape
or video camera, object-oriented storage and retrieval ... the
entirety constituting "reusable information."
The primary objective for the Video Technology Computer
System was that the system, in order to operate as an executive
briefing chart production system, would be designed around the
user interface (what Ted Nelson calls "front-to-back" design),
that the system be based upon the English language, and that no
programming or computer skills be required by the user.
Some interesting system achievements were as follows: (1)
under 10 seconds for site-to-site black & white document
transfer using dial-up phone lines, (2) 60-80 seconds for color
document transfer using dial-up phone lines, (3) remote briefing
control, (4) adaptation of a commercial off-the-shelf image
editor, and (5) full integration of image editor, audio, video,
text, storage, and networking capabilities.
By "briefing" we mean: a presentation of scenes which have a
relationship to a given audience or topic; normally a short,
accurate summary of details on the subject is given to an
audience (not necessarily at one location) with a particular
interest in the subject matter. All objectives were realized;
effective briefings were conducted with the system.
The future system, "Model C," will incorporate a huge library
of text, images, and sound. "Model C" will perform desktop
publishing and desktop video studio functions, with on-line,
real-time decision making on a network. Hypertext linkage of
graphics, text, music, and utterances as a network of objects
will be included. Each icon in "Model B" had an associated text
segment; this was the kernal of the planned hypertext/
hypermedia enhancement. The demonstrated use of voice-
activated screen commands allowed a briefing to be orchestrated
entirely by spoken words. A planned Artificial Intelligence (AI)
front end to the system will give it the capabilities imagined by
Vannevar Bush [Bush, 1945] as "Memex" -- over 40 years ago!
HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF HYPERTEXT AND HYPERMEDIA
Theodor Nelson, the acknowledged inventor of hypertext
[Conklin, 1987], as an underground guru predicted the personal
computer during the legendary days of the old mainframes. Like
a time-traveler stranded years before his time-machine was
invented, Ted remembered the future of computers and tried to
explain it all to fascinated audiences [Nelson, 1967, 1974,
1980]. He came across just this side of mad scientist or
prophet, an Oz before the Osborne was invented, a Walt Disney
waiting for animation to be perfected.
Ted Nelson's ideas lead us into a re-evaluation of the
relationship between computers and literature [Post, 1978]. It's
not a simple conflict between punch card and library card.
Computers are "literary machines" [Nelson, 1981]. Never mind
number- crunching -- computers can chew, swallow and help us
to digest the debugged database called literature [Post, April
1983]. And literature includes electronic recordings of the
oral/visual exchanges of briefings, negotiations, conferences,
From a user's point of view, the key idea in hypertext is the
reuse of Literature, rather than burning the libraries to the
ground and using an illiterate programmer's crude concept of
information storage and retrieval [Nelson, 1981].
LITERATURE IS DEBUGGED
" Literature is debugged. In other words, even though in
every field there is an ever-changing flux of emphasis and
perspective and distortion, and an ever-changing fashion in
content and approach, the ongoing mechanism of written and
published text furnishes a flexible vehicle for this change,
continually adapting. Linkage structure between documents
forms a flux of invisible threads and rubber bands that hold the
"The point is clear, whether in science or business or belles
lettres . Within bodies of writing, everywhere, there are
linkages we tend not to see. The individual document, at hand, is
what we deal with; we do not see the total linked collection of
them all at once. But they are there, the documents not present
as well as those that are, and the grand cat's-cradle among them
IN A LOOKING GLASS
"From this fundamental insight, we have endeavored to create
a system [Xanadu] for text editing and retrieval that will
receive, and handle, and present, documents with links between
them. We believe there is something very right about the
existing system of literature; indeed we suspect that there are
things right about it that we don't even know, as with Nature.
And so we have tried to mirror, and replicate, and extend,
existing literary structure as we have here described it."
WHAT'S THE WORD
"In our Western cultural tradition, writings in principle
remain continuously available -- both as recently quoted, and in
their original inviolable incarnations -- in a great procession.
So far we have stressed some of the processes of referral and
linkage. But also of great importance are controversy and
disagreement and reevaluation [as occur in some briefings].
"There is no predicting the use future people will make of
what is written. Any summary, any particular view, is exactly
that: the perspective of a particular individual (or school of
thought) at a particular time. We cannot know how things will
be seen in the future. We can assume there will never be a final
and definitive view of anything. [Hence the emphasis on 'reusable
THE LITERARY PARADIGM
"A piece of writing -- say, a sheet of typed paper on the
table -- looks alone and independent. This is quite misleading.
Solitary it may be, but it is probably also part of a literature.
"By 'a literature' we do not mean anything necessarily to do
with belles-lettres or leather-bound books. We mean it in the
same broad sense of 'the scientific literature,' or that graduate-
school question, 'Have you looked at the literature?'"
OH, WHAT A TANGLED WEB WE WEAVE
"A literature is a system of interconnected writings
[including illustrations and the oral matrix of lectures,
conferences, and arguments]. We do not offer this as our
definition, but as a discovered fact. And almost all writing is
part of some literature."
"The way people write is based in large part on these
THE PLAIN TRUTH
Ted Nelson's analysis excerpted here ("Literature is
Debugged," "The Literary Paradigm") is a breath of common sense
in the complicated world of databases [Post, October 1980] and
electronic media. We agree with him that the information
industry would be well advised to build systems to be extensions
of Literature. Some critics disagree with literary common
sense. Let's consider some of the reservations they have against
the computerization of our literature.
First, there are those who feel that the English language
itself is too complicated to be suitable for storage on electronic
media, and therefore incapable of being processed at all by
computers. This position was dashed in recent years by the
increasing sophistication of "Natural Language" software which
creates and responds to typed English sentences. Similarly,
"Speech Recognition" systems such as HEARSAY-II at Carnegie-
Mellon University can correctly interpret over 90% of sample
sentences spoken aloud. The critics hold fast: "these are
misleading demonstrations which only apply to a small fraction
of the full language. These linguistic microworlds are toys
compared to the richness of the entire tongue."
To such critics, we note that the Oxford English Dictionary
(OED), with its 500,000 entries, is generally regarded as the
most complete and authoritative English-language dictionary in
the world [Campbell, 1983]. Its publisher, Oxford University
Press, computerized a full OED version -- the New Oxford
English Dictionary (NOED) -- by September 1984 on an IBM 4321
processor. International Computaprint Corp. (an American
subsidiary of Reed International) completed this on-line/print/
magnetic tape edition for $1.4 million plus a $425,000 grant
from the British Government. Later, the University of Waterloo
and potential NOED users put it on laser/videodisk, in
interactive format, and will eventually implement on computer
chips: the ultimate English authority in a slice of silicon! [Post,
October 1983], [Publishers Weekly, 1984].
As Nature editor John Maddox had predicted in 1982 "The OED
is uniquely a data base..., which will suggest to many that it
should be stored on a long reel of magnetic tape, floppy disks, or
some other means of data storage." The entire project will cost
over $10 million, but it will forever unite computers and the
Other critics warn that we are already suffering from
"information overload," and that computerization can only make
things worse. There is statistical information which both
supports and challenges this position, as Ithiel de Sola Pool
explains [Pool, 1983]. There is a "trend in modern industrial
societies to move toward becoming information societies.... A
Department of Commerce study shows the information sector
rising from about 1/20 of the work force in 1870 to about a
third in 1950 and about half of all employees today ... [but] the
offering of informational material is growing far faster than
what is being absorbed."
Ithiel de Sola Pool's study shows that in both 1960 and 1977
"we have an estimate of 1.5 trillion words a day read from print
media in the United States. But in that period the population
was growing, and per capita the number of words read per day ...
declined from an average of 11,000 to 8,500 words for adults."
He also shows that electronic media have passed printed media
in words supplied and consumed, and continue to gain in market
The VTCS Project has concluded that 5,000 distinct words
are all that are needed to allow most office personnel to use
voice recognition effectively for tasks as complex as writing
this report. Few people use more than 10,000 distinct words on
a regular basis even if they are Ph.D.s writing for a living.
Therefore 5,000 to 10,000 word recognition capability is all
that is needed for practical utilization.
But Ithiel de Sola Pool's figures show something that Ted
Nelson and ourselves find even more significant. "Computer
networking is for the first time bringing the costs of a point-
to-point medium [like First-class Mail, or Telephone] ... down to
the range of costs characteristic of mass media [like Radio, TV,
Newspapers, Books, Magazines, Movies, or Classroom Education]."
Computer economics will help to solve the "information
overload" by making personal communication as cheap and easy
as impersonal broadcasting. And our VTCS system explicitly
THE OPEN DOOR
Stephen A. Weyer of the Xerox Palo Alto Research Centers
agrees with the goals of Ted Nelson, and relates them to other
systems [Weyer, 1982]. "A dynamic book is a new way of
interacting with information. Ideally, it should be portable,
with all the ease of use we associate with paper books. A
dynamic book can react to its readers, not only by changing the
medium of the information from text to animated pictures or
sound, but also by transforming the organization of its content
into a more useful form and by actively aiding the reader in the
A dynamic book is a particular view on an interconnected
network of knowledge: it may correspond to an actual entity
written and published by an author, or it may be a virtual book
built by looking at other books and materials from specific
points of view." Alan Kay refers to this idea as "Dynabook" [Kay
& Goldberg, 1977]. It is also discussed in [Berkeley, 1981],
[Popular Computing, 1983].
"Several actual systems that exhibit aspects of dynamic
behavior are the NLS system of Englebart & English (1968),
Negroponte's Dataland [Negroponte,1979], systems for full-text
search such as Mead Data Central's LEXIS, Carbonell's
[Carbonnel,1970] SCHOLAR system (that inferred answers from a
semantic network of geographical knowledge) and an on-line
aircraft manual evaluated by Rouse & Rouse [ Rouse & Rouse,
1980]. Hypothetical systems have provided visions of dynamic
books also: Bush's (1945) 'Memex,' a desk-sized information
tool, and Nelson's (1981) 'Xanadu hypertext' system for dynamic
document content and linkages with other documents."
THE ELECTRONIC BOOK
As we had been saying for years on panel discussions at
conferences, fiction has crossed the barrier between literature
and computer media. The first interactive computer fiction to
be widely distributed (the mid-70's Cambridge/Stanford
ADVENTURE) has led to MIT alumnus Marc Blank's Infocom
mystery novel DEADLINE and his co-authored multi-episode
fantasy adventure ZORK. Time reported in late 1983 [ Elmer-
DeWitt, 1983] that ZORK I "is the bestselling piece of
recreational computer software on the market, with sales of
Other early interactive computer novels include Stuart
Galley's THE WITNESS, Michael Berlyn's INFIDEL and SUSPENDED,
and Steven Meretzky's PLANETFALL. THE JAMES COCO DIET, a
Bantam hardcover bestseller, was sold to International Computer
Group for a six-figure price ... to appear on floppy disk. Science
fiction publishers to watch in this new field include Jim Baen,
Inc. (which pays the highest royalties to software authors) and
Byron Preiss Video Productions "electronic books" to be
published by Trillium Software -- interactive fictions based on
Ray Bradbury's FARENHEIT 451, Arthur C. Clarke's RENDEZVOUS
WITH RAMA, and the group production of DRAGONWORLD. Thomas
M. Disch's AMNESIA is held by many to be the first true work of
literary art to be created as an interactive floppy disk.
The New Oxford English Dictionary and these diet books,
mystery novels, and science fiction games are just the beginning
of the wave of change which will transform books into dynamic
books, literature into linked databases, text into hypertext, and
media into hypermedia. This will affect education [Post, 1977],
scientific research [Post, August 1980], [Post, December 1980],
medicine [Post, November 1980], the military [Post, 1979], and
all other segments of society [Post, March 1982], [Post, April
1982], [Post, September 1982], [Post, December 1983].
Today's disputes between literacy, video literacy, and
computer literacy will, very soon, look foolish as the three
skills merge. Computers are "literary machines" -- and they
will help to break the lexical logjam called "information
overload" or "data-glut." The computer will help to transform
impersonal broadcast media into highly personal author/reader
The primary objective for the Video Technology Computer
System is that the system should be designed around the user
interface, that the system be based upon the English language,
and that no programming skills be required by the user. This is a
system for human beings. The user controls the system, not the
other way around.
Computers could turn a fragmented reading/writing/
presentation system into an interactive connection with the
living body of world literature. Thus, the literature of
technology, science, and commerce is extended by the use of
hypermedia video briefing systems such as the VTCS which we
APPENDIX: "MODEL B" CAPABILITIES AS PLANNED IN 1985
(1) ELECTRONIC BRIEFINGS IN VIDEO QUALITY WITH:
* 32,000 colors * canned sounds
* canned music * animation
* custom speech * voice control
* live interaction * simplified chart making
* icon libraries
(2) ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN COMPUTERS FOR:
* video conferencing * interactive briefings
* automated management information centers
* key offices * portable conditions
[excerpted from the "Model B" Project Plan]:
"The Model B project is expected to produce increased
understanding of the potential for custom hardware and software
applications to enhance [government] and industry aerospace
programs. Test site personnel will evaluate the concept of being
able to access or build briefings within their office area using
telephone lines and a personal computer before the operational
system is initiated. They may have briefings presented in color
and/or black and white .... Charts may be changed ... at the last
minute prior to or during the presentation. Briefings may be
shown simultaneously at Downey and [a remote site] under
control of a single computer at either site."
"The computer will generate charts from data base
information imported from other computers. These charts will
be compatible with hand art charts, video based charts, and
techniques for animation. Rapid chart assembly using an icon
library will allow chart making to be simple in construction and
readily transferable to other terminals. Animation of selected
charts will be easy using the prestructured animation software.
Integrated audio may be generated to support special effects as
required by the briefer. Voice synthesizer capability will be
available to read text from the screen or from a script not
shown on the screen. The briefing may be operated
automatically, or under briefer control, as the briefer prefers.
An electronic pointer will be available to allow the briefer to
direct attention to special information on the display. The
briefing may be run forward or backwards, and be shifted in and
out of the various features mentioned above, in order to respond
to various conditions."
"The briefing computer will also respond to direct voice
control from the briefer. This allows ultimate flexability
during the course of a briefing. 'What if' scenarios may be
tested on the ... screen during the briefing using a 'spreadsheet
to chart building' capability."
"[Model B] will have the ability to use live video in multiple
windows on the same screen. The windows may be divided into
static charts, live video, and/or animation simulations. Use of
these multiple windows could be used to show the faces of the
meeting attendees at the other site, while showing the briefing
"The icon library concept will be demonstrated using
existing sections of live video tapes, hand-drawn art, and live
camera images. The library will have a common storage facility
located in ... each of the test sites. The user will have the
ability to locate different views and angles of a particular ...
image, briefing chart, or other pertinent piece of information
using advanced data base searching techniques. Images may be
connected with actions, sounds, and/or voice controls and
become icons. Calling up an icon will bring the associated
actions, sounds, and/or voice controls into play automatically.
These associated features may be modified for custom briefing
needs, and thereby become new icons for later use by others.
The user would simply call upon these icons and insert the
appropriate one in the desired place in new briefings. Alternate
forms of storage for these images and icons will be investigated
and possibly implemented in the 'Model C' operational version...."
"Additionally the 'Model B' design will be able to work
intermittently and on an integrated basis with other equipment
already available.... Black and white paper copy of the briefings
will be available directly from 'Model B' systems through the PC
dot matrix printers. Alternate forms of color printing with up
to 16 million colors are being experimented with, and will be
considered for implementation in the operational 'Model C'
"Progress" from 1985 to 1988 was to have accomplished
these planned features and to have prepared us to start the
"Model C" version in 1988. Hardware advances to date have given
new low cost, high quality feature compatibilities which were
not available in the past.
Edmund C. Berkeley, "The Static Book and the Dynamic Book,"
Computers and People, November-December 1981.
Beverly Beyette, "College Computer to Hold Work of Novelist
Irving Wallace, family," Los Angeles Times, 2 June 1983.
William J. Broad, "Journals: Fearing the Electronic Future,"
Science, Vol. 216, 28 May 1982, p. 964-8.
Vannevar Bush, "As we may think," Atlantic Monthly, 176 (July
1945), pp. 101-108.
Robert Campbell, "Bookwatch: IT for the OED," New Scientist, 29
Carbonnel, J.R., "AI in CAI: an artificial intelligence approach to
computer-aided instruction," IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine
Systems, MMS-11, 1970, p. 190-202.
Jeff Conklin, "Hypertext: An Introduction and Survey," IEEE
Computer, Vol. 20, No. 9, September 1987, pp.17-41.
Larry Druffel, ed., Strategy for a DOD Software Initiative,
Volume II: Appendices, Office of Undersecretary of Defense
(Research and Advanced Technology) Ada Joint Program Office,
report number AD-A121738, 1 October 1982, 321 pages.
Philip Elmer-DeWitt, "Putting Fiction on a Floppy," Time, 5
December 1983, p. 76.
Englebart, D.C. and English, W.K., "A research center for
augmenting human intellect," AFIPS Proceedings, Fall Joint
Computer Conference, 33 (1968) p. 395-410.
W. Hershey, "Idea Processors," BYTE, June 1985, p.337.
Alan Kay & A. Goldberg, "Personal Dynamic Media," IEEE
Computer, March 1977, pp.31-41.
William R. Moseid & George Kreglow, "Metastructure: In Pursuit
of Software System Reliability," Rockwell International, 1975.
Negroponte, N., "Books without pages," International Conference
on Communications IV, Boston: IEEE, 1979, 156.56 (1), p.1-8.
Theodor H. Nelson, "Getting it out of our system," Information
Retrieval: A Critical Review, G. Schechter, ed., Washington D.C.:
Thompson Books, 1967.
Theodor H. Nelson, COMPUTER LIB/DREAM MACHINES, 1st Edition,
Box 128, Swarthmore PA 19081, 1974.
Theodor H. Nelson, "Replacing the Written Word: A Complete
Literary System," Proc. IFIP, Oct. 1980, pp.1013-1023.
Theodor H. Nelson, LITERARY MACHINES: The Report on, and of,
Project Xanadu, concerning Word Processing, Electronic
Publishing, Hypertext, Thinker-toys, Tomorrow's Intellectual
Revolution, and certain other topics including Knowledge,
Education, and Freedom, 3rd edition, 1981, available ($15) from
Ted Nelson, Box 128, Swarthmore PA 19081 (valid check, please;
no purchase orders or deferred-payment available).
Ithiel de Sola Pool, "Tracking the Flow of Information," Science,
12 August 1983, Vol. 221, No. 4611, P. 609-13.
Popular Computing, "Magazines without Pages," April 1983.
Jonathan V. Post, Teachers' Guide to Computers and the
Cybernetic Society, Academic Press, 1977, ISBN 0-12-069042-5,
Jonathan V. Post, "Literature and Link Nodes," Tutorial on the
Xanadu Hypertext System, Personal Computing Convention,
Philadelphia, PA, 27 August 1978.
Jonathan V. Post, "Cybernetic War," OMNI Magazine, pp. 44-104,
May 1979, (lead article).
Jonathan V. Post and John Henrick, "What is Software
Engineering?", Module 0, Software Engineering Self-Study
Program, Boeing Aerospace Company, August 1980.
Jonathan V. Post, "Analysis of Enzyme Waves: Success through
Simulation," Proc. Summer Computer Simulation Conference,
Seattle, Washington, 25-27 August 1980, pp.691-695, AFIPS
Jonathan V. Post, "Quintillabit: Parameters of a Hyperlarge
Database," Proc. 6th International Conference on Very Large
Databases, Montreal, Canada, 1-3 October 1980.
Jonathan V. Post, "Simulation of Metabolic Dynamics," Proc. 4th
Annual Symp. on Computer Applications in Medical Care,
Washington, D.C., 2-5 November 1980.
Jonathan V. Post, "Enzyme System Cybernetics," Proc.
International Conf. on Applied Systems Research and
Cybernetics, Acapulco, Mexico, 12-15 December 1980, published
in hardcover as: Applied Systems and Cybernetics, Vol. IV, Ed. G.
E. Lasker, Pergamon Press, 1981.
Jonathan V. Post, "Software Management Standards," Proc.
National Aerospace & Electronics Conf. NAECON '81, Dayton, Ohio,
19-21 May 1981.
Jonathan V. Post, "Distributed System Metrics," Proc. 6th Annual
Software Engineering Workshop, NASA Goddard Space Flight
Center, December 1981.
Jonathan V. Post, "This sentence contains ten words, eighteen
syllables, and sixty-four letters.", Scientific American,
Metamagical Schemas column, ed. Douglas Hofstadter, January
Jonathan V. Post, "Computers: The Far Out Future," Keynote
address, University of Washington Computer Fair, 3 March 1982.
Jonathan V. Post, "Year 2000 Communications," address to joint
meeting of IEEE Communications Society & Seattle Section of
IEEE, Bellevue, WA, 22 April 1982.
Jonathan V. Post, "Computers and the Future," keynote speech to
the joint meeting of the Washington State House & Senate
Committees on Science and Technology, Olympia, Washington,
23 September 1982.
Jonathan V. Post, "The Role of Measurements in the Software
Development Process," Proc. IEEE Computer Society's 6th
International Computer Software & Applications Conference
COMPSAC '82, Chicago, IL, 10-12 November 1982.
Jonathan V. Post, Distributed Computing Systems: Impact on
Quality, United States Air Force Rome Air Defense Center
technical report, 1983.
Jonathan V. Post, "Beyond Natural Language: Notes on Poetry and
Artificial Intelligence," Proc. International Conference of the
Association of Literary and Linguistic Computing, San Francisco,
CA, April 1983.
Jonathan V. Post, "The Age of Silicon," Call-A.P.P.L.E. Magazine,
Jonathan V. Post, "Robotics to Graphics," Call-A.P.P.L.E.
Magazine, November 1983.
Jonathan V. Post, "The Far Out Future," Call-A.P.P.L.E. Magazine,
Publishers Weekly, "Oxford Press to Computerize OED," 1 June
Tim Robinson, "Dawn of the Electronic Newspaper," New
Scientist, 13 May 82.
S.H. Rouse & W.B. Rouse, "Computer-based manuals for procedural
information," IEEE Transactions on Systems Man and
Cybernetics, SMC-10 (8), 1980, p. 506-510.
Gerald Salton, "Dynamic Document Processing," Communications
of the ACM, July 1972, Vol. 15, No. 7, p. 658-668.
Stephen A. Weyer, "The Design of a Dynamic Book for Information
Search," Int. J. Man-Machine Studies (1982) 17, 87-107.
*** The End ***
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