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We examine both works of fiction and important contemporaneous works on non-fiction which set the context for early Science Fiction and Fantasy.
There are 0 hotlinks here to authors, magazines, films, or television items elsewhere in the Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide or beyond. Most recently updated: 20 April 2003 [Expanded from 37 to 68 kilobytes].
This web page draws heavily on FACTS as listed in "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. It does not copy the TEXT of that fine and recommended reference, and has value added in correlating the scientific and literary production of the century, and in hotlinking to additional resources.
Facts were also checked against "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A. Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795, and the Wikipedia. It also utilizes facts from Volume I of D.E. Smith's "History of Mathematics" [(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958]. Executive Summary of the 12th Century Major Books of the Decade 1100-1110 Major Books of the Decade 1110-1120 Major Books of the Decade 1120-1130 Major Books of the Decade 1130-1140 Major Books of the Decade 1140-1150 Major Books of the Decade 1150-1160 Major Books of the Decade 1160-1170 Major Books of the Decade 1170-1180 Major Books of the Decade 1180-1190 Major Books of the Decade 1190-1200 Other Key Dates and Stories of this 12th Century Major Writers Born this 12th Century Major Writers Died this 12th Century Decade by Decade Science Background Decade by Decade Mundane Background Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology Where to Go for More: 51 Useful Reference Books

Executive Summary of the 12th Century

The 12th Century, according to D.E. Smith, "was to Christian Europe what the 9th Century was to the eastern Mohammedan world, a period of translations. In the case of Baghdad, these translations were from the Greek into Arabic; in the case of Christian Europe, from the Arabic into Latin. The reasons for this desire to know the science of the East are not difficult to find.... the advancement of Moorish Spain in the arts and sciences was already causing intellectual unrest in the higher classes of Church schools in France, Italy, and England. The result of this unrest was an influx of students into Spain, an acquiring of some knowledge of Arabic on the part of various scholars, and a strong desire to know and make known the science of the East. Just as Baghdad never translated the Greek literature, but sought to known Greek science, so Europe gave little attention to Arab letters, but devoted great care to those works on astronomy, arithmetic, trigonometry, optics, astrology, geometry, and medicine that had acquired reputation in the capital of the caliphs. Even the 'Elements' of Euclid became known to the scholars of the Latin Church chiefly through its Arabic translation instead of through the original Greek." [pp.200-201] There was no great Mathematician of the Century, the way Fibonacci was to the 13th century. Yet there were several Masters of Logic to which are attributed to books existing in at least two manuscripts: * Various authors of the school of Alberic of Paris, "Introductiones Montanae maiores" * Anonymous, "Glosule" * Gerland of Besanon, "Dialectica" * Master Guido, In "Priscianum maiorem" * Various authors of the school of Jocelin of Soissons, "De generibus et speciebus" * Petrus Helyas, "Summa super Priscianum" * William of Conches, In "Priscianum maiorem" * William of Conches, "Commentaries on Cicero's De Inventione & Rhetorica ad Herennium" [according to Iwakuma Yukio, Fukui Prefectural University, Fukui, Japan, kuma@fpu.ac.jp] "There were many twelfth-century scholars who went to Spain in search of the new Arabic knowledge. Daniel of Morley was one of the few who left a record of his motives and experiences. In his book 'de naturis inferiorum et superiorum' he gives an account of his disgust at the state of learning in Paris, with its concentration on law and theology, and of his journey to Toledo in search of 'the world's wiser philosophers.' There he encountered Gerard of Cremona, who had translated among many other works Ptolemy's Almagest. Gerard had founded a school of translators and was actually giving lectures to students on astrology. Daniel returned to England, laden down with precious books, and encountered his patron, John, Bishop of Norwich. Daniel's book was inspired by the Bishop's questions about 'astronomy [and] those sublunary events which seem to serve the higher bodies by a kind of necessary obedience.' It was not the only book written at the request of a twelfth century bishop to spread the new learning." [source: Nicholas Whyte, Rhode-St-Gnse, "Astronomy and Astrology in the 12th century", 6th Irish Conference of Medievalists in Maynooth on 26 June 1992] Western Arab writers of the century included al-Hassar ("the computer") whose real name was Abu Bekr Mohammed ibn 'Abdallah, whose writings were later (1259) translated by Moses ben Tibbon. Italy and France: 12th Century Italy and France had four or five distinguished scholars who knew Arabic and understood mathematics, and were led to make Latin translations of Islamic and Greek classics. These were:
  1. Plato Tiburtinus (Plato of Tivoli) [c.1120] who translated: * the Astronomy of Albategnius (al-Battani) * the Spherics of Theodosius * the Liber Embadorum of Abraham bar Chiia (c.1120) * various works on astrology
  2. Gherardo Cremonense (Gerardo, or Gerard, of Cremona) [1114-1187] who studied in Italy, then Spain, learning Arabic in Toledo; he first used the word "sinus" for a half-chord, from which we get the name "sine" for the trigonometric function; and he translated: * the Elements of Euclid * the Data of Euclid * the Spherics of Theodosius * the Almagest of Ptolemy * a work by Menelaus * works by al-Kindi, Thabit ibn Qurra, Rhazes, al-Farabi, pseudo-Aristotle, Avicenna, Hippocrates, Aristotle, Euclid, Archimedes, Diocles, and Alexander of Aphrodisas
  3. Gherardo da Sabbionetta [13th Century, the younger Gerardo of Cremona] who wrote on astronomy
  4. Rudolph of Bruges (most of his work had French influence)
  5. Hermann of Carinthia, who translated the Planisphere of Ptolemy
There were three leading scholar/translators in England:
  1. Adelard of Bath [c.1090-xxxx], who studied at Toledo, Tours, Laon, in the East, and who travelled through Greece, Asia Minor, Egypt, perhaps Arabia, and brought numerous works back to England. He produced: * Questiones Naturales on the Scientific Method * Reguli Abaci (Rules of the Abacus) * Usage of the Astrolabium * al-Khowarizmi's Astronomical Tables (translated and wrote commentary)
  2. Robert of Chester, archdeacon of Pampeluna (northern Spain), travelled in Greece and Italy, who translated: * the Koran into Latin [1143], the first time this was ever done * al-Khowarizmi's Algebra [1145]
  3. Daniel Morley (or Merlai, Merlac, Marlach), who studied at Oxford (1180), Paris, and Toledo
The British scholar who best applied math to Astronomy, Optics, and Physics, was Robert Grosseteste ["Greathead"]. In Spain, there were at least two great Arab scientific authors:
  1. Averroes (Mohammed ibn Ahmed ibn Mohammed ibn Roshd, Abu Velid) [c.1126-1198 or 1199]
  2. Avenpace (Mohammed ibn Yahya ibn al-Saig, Abu Bekr), geometer of Seville and Granada
Various Jewish scholar wrote and translated scientific and mathematical works from Arabic to Hebrew. These include:
  1. Abraham ben Ezra, the most learned Jew of his time, who wrote: * Sefer ha-Echad (Book of Unity) * Sefer ha-Mispar (Book of Number) * Liber augmenti et diminutionis vacatus numeratio divinationis * Ta 'hbula, which included the Problem of Josephus * various items of astronomy, the calendar, the astrolabe, magic squares, and the Cabala
  2. Maimonides (Rabbi Moses ben Maimun) [1135-1204] astronomer of Cordova, physician to the sultan, who became Rabbi of Cairo in 1177
  3. Johannes Hispalensis [c.1140] who later professed Christianity
  4. Samuel ben Abbas, on arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and Hindu numerals
  5. an unknown Jew of England who wrote 'Mathematicum Rudimenta'
Science and mysticism eventually blended into the Jewish literary culture of Science Fiction {hotlink to Counties-Israel to be done}

1100-1110 AD

1100: King Henry I is crowned in England. [Helleman, p.74] He reigns from 1100 to 1135, obtains control of Normandy, and incurs endless difficulties in trying (and failing) to be succeeded by his daughter Matilda (who is technically to inherit the throne, but the nobles prevent her from taking power). 1101: King Henry I takes the length of his own arm [fingertip to nose] and decrees it to be the length measure of a yard in England. [Helleman, p.74] 1101: A stone planisphere of the heavens is built in China, it is used to show the correct explanations of solar eclipses and lunar eclipses. [Helleman, p.74] 1101: Jia Xian writes how to create what we now call Pascal's Triangle, the layout of which was almost surely known even earlier. [Helleman, p.74] 1105: A pagoda is built in China which is 78 feet (28 meters) in height, built from cast iron, each storey having been cast as a single piece. [Helleman, p.75] 1107: Multicolor printing is invented in China, primarily for anti- counterfeiting of paper money. [Helleman, p.75] 1108: Louis VI (Louis the Fat) crowned King of France, rules from 1108 to 1137, battles with King Henry I of England, and stops an invasion from Germany. Persian Mathematician, Astronomer, and Poet Omar Khayyam (born 15 May 1048 in Nisipar, Iran) is the first human to solve some cubic equations (those of degree three, i.e. with the unknown raised to the third power). [Helleman, p.75] A book on the History of Science is written by Abu 'l Fath Al-Chuzini, including tables of Specific Density and the Laws of Gravity. [Helleman, p.75] In Salerno, ITALY, ethyl alcohol is distilled. [Helleman, p.75] Wine is distilled into brandy, in ITALY. [Helleman, p.75]

1110-1120 AD

1111: Questiones Naturales by Adelard of Bath (born c.1090) is one of the first writings towards what is now called the Scientific Method. He summarizes knowdge gained from Arab sources including Acoustics, Botany, Meteorology, and Optics. Roughly this time, he also writes Rules of the Abacus and Usage of the Astrolabium [Helleman, p.74] 1113: Grand Duke of Kiev Vladimir Monomakh reigns 1113 to 1125, and increases the power of Kiev 1114: Birth of Italian scholar Gerard of Cremona in ITALY. See: 1170-1180 1114: Birth of Indian Astronomer Bhaskara (a.k.a. Bhaskara II) 1117: P'ingchow Table Talk by Chu Yu, has the first known mention in China of a compass being used for oceanic navigation. [Helleman, p.75] 1118: Founding of the Order of Knights Templar

1120-1130 AD

1122: Peter Abelard (born 1079 in Le Pallet. Brittany) writes Sic et Non [Yes and No] to show that authorities contract themselves and each other in various writings, and that one must therefore use one's own reason rather than pure reliance of authorities [Helleman, p.76] 1122: Abbe Sugar of Saint-Denis becomes a major statesman in the reigns of Louis VI and Louis VII [1122-1152]. See 1129. 1125: End of Grand Duke of Kiev Vladimir Monomakh's reign (1113-1125) 1126: Birth of Arab philosopher Averroes (Abu-Al-Walid Muhammad ibn Ahmad Rushd) in Cordoba, Spain. He has a major influence on European thought throughout the Middle Ages, through his detailed (almost hyptertext) commentaries on Aristotle. [Helleman, p.76] See: 10 Dec 1198 The period of roughly 1120-1220 was the spread of Aristotelian philosophy through Christian Europe, mostly by translations of Averroes and Maimonides. 1126: Al-Khowarizmi's Astronomical Tables translated from Arabic to Latin by Adelard of Bath. Roughly this time, he also translates Al- Khowarizmi's Liber ysagogarum alchorismi (about arithmetic) from Arabic to Latin [Helleman, p.76] See: 1142 1127: Haly Abba's Liber regalis (an encyclopedia of medicine) is translated by Stephen of Antioch [Helleman, p.76] 1128: Alfonso I Henriques crowned King of Portugal, reigns 1128-1185. Portugal obtains consent of the Pope to become an independent kingdom in 1144. 1129: Abbe Suger begins building the abbey church of St.Denis, which will be the first Gothic church with flying butresses. [Helleman, p.77]

1130-1140 AD

1130: Adelard of Bath studied at Toledo; later to study at Tours, Laon, in the East, and who travelled through Greece, Asia Minor, Egypt, and beyond... 4 Dec 1131: Persian Astronomer, Mathematician, and Poet Omar Khayyam dies in Nishapur, Iran [Helleman, p.76] 1134-1150: Construction of the Western facade of Chartres Cathedral. 1135: End of the reign of King Henry I of England. c.1135: History of the Kings of Britain is finished by author Geoffrey of Monmouth. This book becomes a major source of the legends of King Arthur. 30 Mar 1135: Jewish Physician/Philosopher Maimonides (Moses ben Maimon) is born in Cordoba, Spain. He becomes best known for his Guide to the Perplexed, which tries to reconcile the Old Testament with Aristotle. [Helleman, p.76] 1137: End of the reign Louis VI (Louis the Fat), King of France from 1108 to 1137.

1140-1150 AD

1140: Decree of Roger II, Norman king, that medicine may only be practiced by physicians with a government license 21 Apr 1142: Death of French scholar Peter Abelard (1079-1142) in Chalon-sur-Saone. Abelard's own writings best describe his life, especially the autobiography "Historia Culamitatum, and his famous correspondence with Heloise. References on Abelard are extensive, mostly monographs on different aspects of his philosophy. Charles de Remusat's "Abelard" (2 vols., 1845) is authoritative; not to be confused with his drama "Abelard" (1877). McCabe's "Life of Abelard" gives detailed analysis of other sources. 1142: Euclid's Elements translated from Arabic to Latin by Adelard of Bath (15 books, of which we now consider only 13 to be genuine) [Helleman, p.77] 1143: Robert of Chester translates the Koran into Latin, apparently the first to ever do this. 1144: Portugal obtains consent of the Pope to become an independent kingdom, under Alfonso I Henriques [reign 1128-1185] 1144: Turks under Zengi (who had previously conquered Syria) capture Edessa in the Middle East (which triggers the Second Crusade in 1147) 1145-1174: Zengi's son Nureddin, Sultan of Syria, reigns. He drives the Crusaders out of northern Syria, makes Damascus his capital [1154], and conquers Egypt [1171]. 1145: Al-Khowarizmi's Algebra translated from Arabic to Latin by Robert of Chester [Helleman, p.77] 1147: St.Bernard of Clairvaux preaches, stirs Christendom to start the Second Crusade, which is led by King Louis VII of France and King Conrad III of Germany. 1149: Ghazni in Afghanistan is captured by the rulers of Ghor, making it their headquarters for repeated campaigns into India; Upper India is thus subjugated by 1203. c.1150: The temple of Angkor Wat is completed in Cambodia


The first rockets are designed, built, and flown in China (note the significance of this to warfare, the Space program pages of this web domain, and the Science Fiction pages about Space Travel) {hotlinks to be done} [Helleman, p.77] One of first descriptions ever of a purported perpetual motion machine, by Bhaskara (a.k.a. Bhaskara II): a wheel alleged to turn forever. [Helleman, p.77] Siddhanta siromani [Head Jewel of an Astronomical System] by Bhaskara (a.k.a. Bhaskara II) (born 1114) summarizes mathematical knowledge in India, particularly thorough on what we now call Diophantine Equations [Helleman, p.77] Death of English scholar Adelard of Bath [Helleman, p.76] Publication of the Almanac of Solomon Jarchus 1152: Frederick I (Barbarossa) crowned King of Germany, He is later crowned Holy Roman Emperor [1155], expands German control into Italy, Poland, and more of Germany. Louis VII annuls his marriage to Eleanor of Acquitaine (who marries Henry Plantagent). Frederick Barbarossa drowns in Asia Minor, in the Third Crusade [1190]. 1154: Ptolemy's Optics translated from Arabic to Latin by Eugenius of Palermo 1154: Henry II (Henry Plantagenet) crowned King of England, reigns 1154-1189, He centralizes administration within the royalty, marries Eleanor of Acquitaine, and appoints Thomas a Becket as Chancellor. 1154-1213: The Golden Age of Georgian Literature, as the power of Georgia reaches its zenith in Russia. Some of that Literature would, today, be considered Fantasy and Horror. 1154: Zengi's son Nureddin, Sultan of Syria, who drove the Crusaders out of northern Syria, makes Damascus his capital. 1155: The oldest known printed map, made in and about Western China 1155: Frederick I (Barbarossa) crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 1156: Aristotle's Meterorologica translated from Greek to Latin by Henricus Aristippus 8 Sep 1157: Birth of Alexander Neckham in St.Albans, England. See: 1190-1200 1157: The Khorezm Shah conquers the Seljuk Empire. 1158: University of Bologna formally founded in ITALY. 1159: Two important works of literature: * Sentences, by Peter Lombard, Bishop of Paris, is begun as a work of theology * Polycraticus, by John of Salisbury, is completed as a treatise on government, and is dedicated to Thomas a Becket. If one is looking for an illustrative twelfth-century intellectual, one cannot do much better than John of Salisbury. Book II of his Policraticus is devoted to a general discussion of omens, divination and the philosophical problems of predestination. He makes his distaste for astrologers clear, lumping them in with 'practitioners of other trivialities', but it is clear that his difficulties with them were not entirely due to a philosophical disagreement. In chapter 19, he says: "It is plausible that there is some power in the phenomena of the heavens ... Therefore inquisitive minds investigate the powers of celestial phenomena and endeavour to explain by the rules of their type of astronomy everything which comes to pass on this world below. Now astronomy is a noble and glorious science if it confines its disciples within the bounds of moderation, but if it be presumptuous enough to transgress these it is rather a deception of impiety than a phase of philosophy. There is indeed much that is common to astronomy and astrology, but the latter tends to exceed the bounds of reason, and, differing in its entire aim, does not enlighten its exponent but misleads him." John emphatically does not deny that God has given us some means of supernatural fore-knowledge. He takes pains to describe the astrological characteristics of each of the planets, and he believes in weather lore. But he is against the casting of horoscopes to answer trivial queries, and he argues that astrologers are subversive of true religion and of the concept of free will. 'They impose upon things a sort of fatality under the pretext of humility and reverence for God.' [source: Nicholas Whyte, Rhode-St-Gnse, "Astronomy and Astrology in the 12th century", 6th Irish Conference of Medievalists in Maynooth on 26 June 1992]


1162: Thomas a Becket named Archbishop of Canterbury, where he pushes back against the efforts of Henry II to restrict ecclesiastical jurisdiction. 1163-1235: Construction of Cathedral of Notre Dame, in Paris, France. 1163: Berbers (Almohads) conquer North Africa, drive Normans out of Tunisia 1167-1168: Oxford University formally founded in England. There may have been lectures given there previously, as early as 1133. [Helleman, p.76] 1169-1173: Reign of Saladin, Sultan of Egypt, conquerer of Aleppo and Syria, defeater of Christian forces at the battle of Hattin, conquerer of Jerusalem, who signs a treaty with Richard I of England to allow Christians a small slice of Jerusalem coastline. Before 1170: The University of Paris formally founded in France. There was previous activity there, as early as 1100. [Helleman, p.76] Scholar (and teacher of Roger Bacon) Robert Grossetest is born in Stradbroke, Suffolk, England. Later, he delegates the translation from Greek of Aristotle, experiments with lenses, mirrors, and tries to analyze the rainbow. [Helleman, p.76]


1170: Thomas a Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, reaches formal reconciliation with King Henry II in their 8-year dispute, and, ironically, is murdered only 5 months later by Norman knights who think they are acting at Henry's request. 1171: Nureddin, Sultan of Syria, conquers Egypt. 1174: The Berber Moslems known as Almohades displace the Almoravides in Morocco, and go on to conquer much of northern Africa until 1550. 1176-1209: Construction of London Bridge. 1176: For the first time, infantry defeats a major force of feudal cavaly, as Barbarossa is defeated at Leganno by Northern Italy's Lombard League. Sir William Wallace does so even more strongly a century later. The age of Chivalry is ready to fade, but not before a final 13th Century flowering. Italian scholar Gerard of Cremona (born in ITALY c.1114) translates the Almagest of Ptolemy from Greek to Latin. He also translates from Arabic to Greek various works by al-Kindi, Thabit ibn Qurra, Rhazes, al-Farabi, pseudo-Aristotle, Avicenna, Hippocrates, Aristotle, Euclid, Archimedes, Diocles, and Alexander of Aphrodisas [Helleman, p.78]


c.1180: Chrestian de Troyes writes the first great lterary (as opposed to pseudo-historical) work about King Arthur 1180: Daniel Morley (or Merlai, Merlac, Marlach) studies at Oxford; later studies at Paris and Toledo. 1181: Supernova reported by witnesses in Japan and China, remaining visible for 183 days. [Helleman, p.78] 1182: France banishes the Jews (see 1189). 1185: end of the reign of Alfonso I Henriques, King of Portugal since 1128. 1185: Carvings of a rudder are oldest-known depictions in Western world. [Helleman, p.78] 1186: In Japan, start of the Kamakura era, rule by military warlords. The first Shogun is Yoritomo, who establishes this feudal, centralized system. The regime launches raids into Korea and China. The religion of Zen Buddhism expands its influence. The Kamakura era lasts until 1333. 1186-1199: William de Vere, who was the Bishop of Hereford from 1186 to 1199, encouraged the new scientific knowledge coming from the Arabic world. De Vere had visited the East himself before the fall of Jerusalem and was interested in the translation of manuscripts. c.1187: The first significant work of Russian Literature: Igor's Campaign, treats the historical events of Prince Igor's defeat by, and then release from captivity by Cumans. 1187: Death of Italian scholar Gerard of Cremona in Toledo, Spain. He'd translated the Almagest of Ptolemy, and many other works from Greek. See: 1170-1180 1187: Burgundio of Pisa translates several Galen treatises into Latin, from Greek. [Helleman, p.78] 1189: Jews return to France, from which they were banished since 1182. 1189: Herault, France, has a paper mill established, likely the first of its kind in Europe. 1189: Marco Polo bridge built across the Yung-ting river, 700 feet long (213 meters) it is still in use, by trucks and busses [Helleman, p.79] 1189: End of the reign of Henry II (Henry Plantagenet), King of England since 1154. 1189-1199: Richard the Lionhearted (Richard I) reigns as King of England. As he returns from the Third Crusade, he is captured by Leopold of Austria, is ransomed two years later, and then battles with Philip II of France. 1189-1193: Barbarossa, Philip II of France, and Richard I of England lead the Third Crusade. ca.1190 Bhaskara, mathematician of India, dies.


c.1190: Mongol tribes in central Asia are consolidated by Temujin; who (in 1206) takes the title Genghis Khan, and leads his hordes to conquer much of western Asia and eastern Europe. 1190: Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa drowns in Asia Minor, in the Third Crusade. 1190-1199: Founding of the German military/religious power known as the Teutonic Knights. 1191: First appearance of the Nibelungenlied. 26 Dec 1194: German Emperor Frederick II born in Iesi, ITALY [Helleman, p.78] 10 Dec 1198: Arab philosopher Averroes (Abu-Al-Walid Muhammad ibn Ahmad Rushd) dies in Marrakesh, Morocco [Helleman, p.78] De naturis rerum [On Natural Things] by Alexander Neckham (born 8 Sep 1157 in St.Albans, England) has first-known Western reference to a magnetic compass. [Helleman, p.79] Oldest-known depiction of a fishing reel (drawn in China). [Helleman, p.79]
Other Key Dates and Stories of this 12th Century {to be done} Major Writers Born this 12th Century 1114: Italian scholar Gerard of Cremona See: 1170-1180 1114: Indian Astronomer Bhaskara (a.k.a. Bhaskara II) 1126: Averroes (Mohammed ibn Ahmed ibn Mohammed ibn Roshd, Abu Velid) [c.1126-1198 or 1199] 1135: Maimonides (Rabbi Moses ben Maimun) [1135-1204] 1140: Johannes Hispalensis [c.1140] 8 Sep 1157: Birth of Alexander Neckham in St.Albans, England. See: 1190-1200 ca.1170: Scholar (and teacher of Roger Bacon) Robert Grossetest is born in Stradbroke, Suffolk, England. 1179: Snorri Sturlusson, Icelandic historian, author of the "Younger Edda." Major Writers Died this 12th Century 1109: Anselm, Philosopher/Theologian 4 Dec 1131: Persian Astronomer, Mathematician, and Poet Omar Khayyam dies in Nishapur, Iran 21 Apr 1142: Death of French scholar Peter Abelard (1079-1142) in Chalon-sur-Saone 1167: Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (1092 or 1093-1167) 1187: Death of Italian scholar Gerard of Cremona in Toledo, Spain. 1198: Averroes (Mohammed ibn Ahmed ibn Mohammed ibn Roshd, Abu Velid) [c.1126-1198 or 1199]

Decade by Decade Science Background

12th Century science background is integrated chronologically into the main text of this web page. For some later centuries, it is broken out from the chronological listings of important books, so as (for example) to describe inventions not yet described in print. An example from this century: the first Gothic building is established, with Sugar's reconstruction of the Abbey Church at St.Denis.

Decade by Decade Mundane Background

People who are very big names of the mundane century, less interesting except as context to Science and Literature, include: * Alfonso I Henriques, First King of Portugal * Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, Abbot/Theologian (born 1090, at Fontaines, near Dijon, France; died at Clairvaux, August 21, 1153). Principal founder of the Cistercian order of monks. * Hugh of St.Victor (ca.1096-1141). Major scholar of 12th century Western Europe, sometimes linked to Peter Abelard as one of the "two lights of the Latins in France". Hugh of St.Victor was within the community of the Canons Regular of Saint Victor (also known as the Victorines) in Paris from ca.1115. By 1120, he was its foremost master. His teachings and books were about Philosophy, Theology, Scripture, and Mysticism. He was the 12th century's top commentator on Saint Augustine. * Richard of St.Victor (????-1173). Major Mystical Theologian of 12th century Paris. Although born and brought up in Scotland, he became Prior of the Abbey of Saint-Victor in Paris in 1162. His most influential book, "De Trinitate" ("On the Trinity") explains how to reach the core doctrine of the Trinity by the speculative reasoning. This later affected Bonaventure and Franciscan mysticism. * Saladin (1137-1193) ('Salah Ad-din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub) established the ethnically Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt and Syria. Born to a Kurdish family at Tikrit (20th century home of the tyrant Saddam Hussein) on the river Tigris. Military education by a Seljuk statesman and soldier. Saladin defended Egypt against Western European Crusaders, overthrew the Fatimid Caliphate in 1171 and restored Sunni orthodoxy in Egypt. Saladin recaptured Jerusalem 2 Oct 1187 after 88 years under Crusaders. He successfully defended Jerusalem against the Third Crusade. Yet he was not only a mighty enemy against the Christians, but was seen in Europe as a great knight in the tradition of chivalry. By the 14th century there are versions of an epic poem about his battles. Dante included him among the virtuous pagan souls in Limbo. His relationship with King Richard I of England, who bested him in battle in 1191, was a deeply respectful rivalry. When Richard was wounded, Saladin graciously offered ministrations by his personal physician. Soon after Richard left for England, Saladin died at Damascus, Syria. His tomb is a major tourist attraction. "Salah ad Din" means "Light of the Faith" or "Righteousness of the Faith", so Saladin has been for 9 centuries an inspiration for the Islamic world. A province surrounding Tikrit in modern Iraq, "Salah ad Din", is named after Saladin. President George W. Bush announded a "crusade" and conquered Iraq in 2003, with the last major area to fall being Salah ad Din and Tikrit. In Northern China, the Song Dynasty loses its control. In North America, the Anasazi civilization begins in the 12th century, and flourishes until (probably) climate changes including a century-long drought dooms their city. Western Europe fights the First Crusade, the Second Crusade, and the Third Crusade, against Islam. King Henry II of England becomes overlord of Ireland, as ordered by Pope Adrian IV.


8 Sep 1101: Rebellion against Edward the Confessor led by Earl Godwin of Wessex. 1102: Boleslav III takes throne as King of Poland. 1102: King Henry I of England orders the tomb of Edward the Confessor opened; Henry's body is miraculously uncorrupted. 1102: Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, is born. 1103: Emperor Toba of Japan is born. 1107: Emperor Horikawa of Japan dies. 1107: 4-year-old Emperor Toba nominally takes control of Japan May 1108: Battle of Ucles 1108: Chichester Cathedral Consecrated. 1108: Saint Magnus becomes the first Earl of Orkney 29 July 1108: King Philip I of France dies (1060-1108). 1109: Battle of Naklo 1109: Battle of Hundsfeld 1109: Fulk of Jerusalem becomes Count of Anjou 1109: Alfonso I of Aragon marries Urraca of Castile 1109: Alfonso VI of Castile dies 1100-1110: Invaders sack and demolish the crucial Nalanda Buddhist school/library. 1110: Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV launches invasion of Italy.


1111: Great poker hand of a year (four aces). 1111: Henry IV crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Paschal II. The Pope usually sided with the most militarily powerful candidate. 1112: The populace of Laon, France, assassinate their Bishop and proclaim a Commune. 1113: Peter Abelard begins his school in Paris. Eventually, he had literally thousands of students and guests there. 1113: Geoffrey of Anjou born. 7 Jan 1114: Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, marries Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV 1115: St. Bernard founds Clairvaux Abbey. 3 May 1117: Consecration of Merton Priory (Thomas Becket's school) 2 Feb 1119: Callixtus II becomes Pope 1119: Emperor Sutoku of Japan born.


1121: Council of Soissons condemns Peter Abelard's wwritings and teachings. 1121: Founding of Reading Abbey. 1122: Concordat of Worms resolves the Investiture Crisis. 1122: Peter Abelard writes "Sic et Non." 1123: First Council of the Lateran confirms Concordat of Worms, ordering that priests stay celibate. 1123: Emperor Toba's reign ends; Emperor Sutoku takes the throne of Japan. 1124: Pope Callistus II dies; Honorius II elected Pope. 1127: Emperor Go-Shirakawa of Japan is born. 1128: Marriage of Geoffery of Anjou to Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England. 1129: Emperor Shirakawa of Japan dies; Emperor Toba of Japan starts cloistered rule. 13 Feb 1130: Pope Honorius II dies; Innocent II elected Pope.


1132: Diarmaid Mac Murrough burns the Abbey of Kildare in Ireland, rapes the Abbess, and becomes King of Leinster (the province). Malachy is appointed Bishop of Armagh in Ireland to impose Roman liturgy on the independent Irish church. 1132: Italian Mystic/Abbot Joachim of Fiore born. 1132: Death of Ziya ad-Din Ghazi, Salduqid ruler of Erzurum. 5 Mar 1133: Henry II of England is born. Sep 1134: Alfonso I of Aragon dies. 1135: Stephen I crowned King of England. 1135: Jewish Philosopher Maimonides is born. 1 Dec 1135: Henry I of England dies. 1136: Start of construction on Saint Denis Basilica. 13 Mar 1138: Cardinal Gregory elected Anti-Pope, under title Victor IV, as successor to Anacletus II. 1139: Portugal begins its rise to empire by declaring independence from the Kingdom of Leon and Castille. 1139: Second Council of the Lateran. 1139: Emperor Konoe of Japan is born.


11 Feb 1141: Hugh of St.Victor (ca.1096-1141) dies. 1142: Emperor Sutoku of Japan's reign ends; Emperor Konoe takes throne. 1142: Death of Peter Abelard. 1143: Pope Innocent II dies; Celestine II elected Pope. 1143: Emperor Nijo of Japan is born. 1143: William the Lion of Scotland is born. 9 Mar 1144: Pope Celestine II dies; Pope Lucius II elected. 1146: Saint Bernard of Clairvaux launches the Second Crusade with a sermon at Vezelay, Burgundy. 1146: Historian Kim Pusik of Korea edits the book "Samguk Sagi". 1147: Lisbon captured from Muslims by Crusaders. 1147: Minamoto no Yoritomo born, later to be First Shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate. 1149: Castle of Carimate destroyed. 1149: Theologian/Philosopher Fakhr al-Din al-Razi born.


4 Mar 1152: Frederick I Barbarossa elected King of the Germans. 1152: Archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway is established. 1152: Alfonso II of Aragon is born. 1153: Pope Anastasius IV elected as to successor Pope Eugene III. 21 Aug 1153: Bernard of Clairvaux dies. 1153: King David I of Scotland dies. 1154: Pope Anastasius IV succeeded by Nicholas Breakspear, the only English pope, who is elected under the title Pope Adrian IV. 1154: Henry II becomes King of England. 1154: the Privilegium Minus elevates Austria to a Duchy ruled by the House of Babenburgs. 1154: Christianity introduced to Finland by King Eric of Sweden. ca.1154: Geoffrey of Monmouth dies. 1154: Stephen I, King of England (1135-1154) dies. 1154: Roger II, King of Sicily (1130-1154) dies. 1155: Frederick I Barbarossa crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 1155: Emperor Konoe of Japan dies; Emperor Go-Shirakawa takes the throne. 1156: Carmelite Order founded. 1156: Death of Emperor Toba of Japan; Hogen Rebellion starts. 8 Sep 1157: Richard I of England is born. 11 Jan 1158: Vladislav II ascends throne as King of Bohemia. 1158: Formal end of the formal reign of Emperor Go-Shirakawa of Japan; start of his cloistered rule (to his death in 1192); Emperor Nijo takes throne. 1159: Heiji Rebellion in Japan. 1160: Karl Sverkersson succeeds Erik den Helige of Sweden.


1161: Emperor Takakura of Japan is born. 1163: Ruler of Wales Owain Gwynedd recognized. 1163: Duchies of Silesia accept Holy Roman Empire suzerainty. 1163: Law of Succession is introduced in Norway. 1163: Council of Tours held, naming and condemning Albigensian heresy. 1163: Count Wilbrand founds Abbey of Lokkum in Hanover as a Cistercian house. 1163: Notre-Dame de Paris construction starts. 1163: Berengaria of Navarre, wife (dies 1230?) of Richard I of England is born. 1163: Henry I (crowned King of Poland, dies 1238) is born. 1163: Hojo Yoshitoki, Kamakura regent, is born. 1164: Marie de Champagne marries Henry I, Count of Champagne. 1164: Pope Adrian IV recognizes Uppsala as seat of the Swedish Metropolitan. 1164: Anti-pope Paschal III elected by cardinals supporting Frederick Barbarossa. 1164: King Olaf II of Norway canonized as Saint Olaf. 1164: Archbishop Rainald von Dassel carries alleged relics of Magi to Cologne from Italy. 1164: Thomas Becket, in contention with King Henry II, leaves England to obtain support from the King of France and the Pope. 1164: Emperor Rokujo of Japan is born. 23 Nov 1165: Pope Alexander III and his army enters Rome. 1165: One-year-old Emperor Rokujo nominally takes throne of Japan. 1165: William I crowned King of Scotland. 1165: Andronicus I escapes from prison. 1165: Henry II of England starts romance with Rosamund Clifford. 1165: Moslems capture Caesarea Philippi from Crusaders. 1165: Leipzig gains privileges of City and market. 21 August 1165: Philip II of France (1165-1223) is born. Nov 1165: Holy Roman Emperor Henry V (1165-1197) is born. 1165: Henry I, Duke of Brabant (1165-1235) is born. 1165: Hubert de Burgh, Justiciar (1165-1243) is born. 9 Dec 1165: King Malcolm IV of Scotland dies. 1165: Emperor Nijo of Japan dies. 1166: Patriarch of Alexandria Marko III succeeds Yoannis V. 1166: Henry the Lion of Scotland erects first bronze statue north of the Alps. 1166: Giraldo Sempavor captures Evora. 24 Dec 1166: John of England is born. 7 May 1166: William I of Sicily dies. 1166: Legend has it that Santa Rosalia dies. 10 Sep 1167: Death of Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, mother of Henry II of England 28 Jan 1167: Death of writer Abenezra, also known as Abraham ibn Ezra, also known as Ibn Ezra, or Abenezra. Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (1092 or 1093-1167), was a major Jewish scholar and writer of the Middle Ages. Born at Toledo, Spain; left by 1140 for a life of scholarly yet restless wandering, through North Africa, Egypt; Rome, Lucca, Mantua, Verona (Italy), Narbonne, Beziers (Southern France), Dreux (Northern France), London (England), and again South of France. Best known for his biblical commentaries, and Philosophy of Religion (basically Neo-Platonist) Astrology concerned him, and likewise Mathematics and Astronomy. He wrote at least 200 poems. 1168: Prince Richard of England becomes Duke of Aquitaine (later King Richard I of England). 1168: Emperor Takakura takes throne of Japan. 1168: King Valdemar of Denmark conquers the strongest pagan temple/fortress in Northern Europe: Arkona, on the Island of Rgen. 1169: Prince Andrey Bogolyubskiy captures Kiev, capital of Kievan Rus. 29 Dec 1170: Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, assassinated in Canterbury Cathedral.


1171: Fatimid Caliphate abolished by Saladin, who restores Sunni rule to Egypt. 1171: Lord Rhys starts negotiation with Henry II of England. 1171: Cathedral of Saint Sabino in Bari completed. 1171: Stefan Nemanja begins sole reign of Serbia. 1171: Alfonso II of Aragon conquers Caspe and Teruel. 1172: Duke Richard of Aquitaine becomes Duke of Poitiers (later King Richard I of England). 1172: Sebastian Ziani became the 37th Doge of Venice. 1172: Synod of Cashel ends Celtic Christian system, brings followers under rule of Rome. 1172: Fujiwara Moroie, last of the Fujiwara Regents of Japan, is born. 1172: Agnes, daughter of Italian Count Amadeus III of Savoy, dies. 1173: Saint Thomas a Becket canonized, buried at Canterbury Aug 1173: Leaning Tower of Pisa begins construction. 1173: Welsh capture Castle at Abergavenny. 1173: Peter Waldo converts to Christianity. 1173: Qiandao era ends; Chunxi era starts, with Chinese ruler Song Xiao Zong. 1173: Boleslaus IV of Poland ends reign; start of reign of Casimir II. 1173: Eleanor of Aquitaine, plus her sons Richard I of England and Henry the Young King, launch rebellion against her husband, King Henry II of England. 1173: Welsh prince Llywelyn the Great is born. 1173: Richard of St. Victor dies. 1173: Belarussian nun Euphrosyne of Polatsk dies, was major contributor to Medieval Belarussian Culture. 1173: Alice, daughter of Italian Count Humbert III of Savoy, dies. 1174: Henry II of England acknowledges as his mistress Rosamund Clifford. 1174: Richard of Dover becomes Archbishop of Canterbury 1174: Peter II of Aragon is born. 1174: Saint Hedwig of Andechs is born. 1176: Emperor Rokujo of Japan dies. 1178: The Sung Document is written. 1178: Chronicle of Gervase of Canterbury written. 1178: Emperor Antoku of Japan is born. 1179: Third Council of the Lateran condemns Waldensians and Cathars as heretics; reforms clerical life.


1180: Philip II accedes to the throne of France. 1180: Reign of Emperor Takakura ends; Emperor Antoku ascends to the throne of Japan. 1180: Emperor Go-Toba of Japan is born. 1181: Emperor Takakura of Japan dies. 1183: Emperor Go-Toba takes throne of Japan. 1185: Emperor Antoku of Japan dies. 1186: Bulgaria comes under the sway of the House of Asen. 1186: Archbishop William of Tyre dies. 1187: Muslim fighters take the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, leading to the Third Crusade. 21 Jan 1189: Philip II of France and Richard I of England start assembling troops for Third Crusade. 6 July 1189: Death of Henry II of England 30 Sep 1189: Richard I officially King of England.


16 Mar 1190: Crusaders, for the glory of Christ, Prince of Peace, start the massacre of the Jews of York, England. 1190: First publication of "On the Harmony of Religions and Philosophy" (ar. Kitab fasl al-maqal). 1190: Richard I (Richard the Lion-Hearted) of England is Coronated. 1190: Anti-Jewish riots in England. 1191: Monks of Glastonbury Abbey announce that they have found the burial sites of King Arthur and Queen Guinevere. See: The Ultimate King Arthur Web Guide {hotlink to be done} 1191: Shihab al-Din Yahya ibn Habash ibn Amirak Abu 'l-Futuh al-Suhrawardi is executed. 1192: Emperor Go-Shirakawa dies; Minamoto no Yoritomo granted title of Shogun, marking start of the first Shogunate in Japan. 1194: Royal Charter awarded, granting priviliges to City of Portsmouth. 20 Feb 1194: Tancred, King of Sicily, dies. 1195: Founding of Priory of St Mary's, Bushmead 1195: Emperor Tsuchimikado of Japan is born. 26 Dec 1196: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, born. 1196: Alfonso II of Aragon dies. 1197: Emperor Juntoku of Japan is born. 1198: Emperor Go-Toba ends reign over Japan; Emperor Tsuchimikado takes throne. 8 Jan 1198: Pope Innocent III takes Papal Throne. 1199: Coronation of King John of England. He's the bad guy in the legend of Robin Hood. Some truth to that. 6 Apr 1199: King Richard I of England (Richard the Lion Hearted) dies. 1199: Minamoto no Yoritomo dies, founder and first Shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate of Japan. 1200: Whole lot of nothing. Roughly now, a symbol for "zero" is first used in China. 1200: University of Paris receives charter from King Philip II of France. 1200: Roughly this year, Alpetragius (Abu Ishaq, Nured-din al-Bitruji al-Ishbilt) who lived in Spain (most likely in Seville) wrote a mathematical theory of Astronomy. see: 1217 1200: "Fergus of Galloway", a self-pardoy chivalric romance by the pseudonymous Guillaume le Clerc [translated to English 1989]

Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology

|Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Precursors |Cosmic History:13 Billion BC to 3000 BC |6th Millennium BC: 6000-5000 B.C. |5th Millennium BC: 5000-4000 B.C. |4th Millennium BC: 4000-3000 B.C. |3rd Millennium BC: Gilgamesh and Cheops |2nd Millennium BC: Abraham to David |1st Millennium BC: 1000 BC-1 BC |1st Century: 1 AD-100 AD |2nd Century: 100 AD-200 AD |3rd Century: 200 AD-300 AD |4th Century: 300-400 |5th Century: 400-500 |6th Century: 500-600 |7th Century: 600-700 |8th Century: Beowulf, Charlemagne, 1001 Arabian Nights |9th Century: Gunpowder and the first printed book |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China |11th Century: Khayyam, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations [you are HERE] |13th Century: Final Flowering of Chivalry |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: This Decade |2010-2020: Next Decade |Cosmic Future: Billions, Trllions, Googols
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Where to Go for More

: 51 Useful Reference Books Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources: ALDISS: "Billion Year Spree: The True History of Science Fiction", Brian W. Aldiss (New York: Doubleday, 1973; Schocken Paperback, 1974) ALLEN: "Science Fiction Reader's Guide", L. David Allen (Centennial Press, 1974) AMIS: "New Maps of Hell", Kingsley Amis (London: Gollancz, 1960; New York: Harcourt Brace, 1960) ASH1: "Who's Who in Science Fiction", by Brian Ash (Taplinger, 1976) ASH2: "The Visual Encyclopedia of Science Fiction", edited by Brian Ash (Harmony Books, 1977) ASHLEY: "The History of the Science Fiction Magazine" [3 volumes] (London: New English Library, 1974) ASIMOV "Asimov on Science Fiction" (New York: Avon, 1981) ATHELING: "The Issue at Hand", "William Atheling, Jr." [James Blish] (Chicago: Advent, 1964) BARRON: "Anatomy of Wonder", edited by Neil Barron (Bowker, 1976) BAXTER: "Science Fiction in the Cinema", John Baxter (London: A. Zwemmer, 1970; New York: A. S. Barnes, 1970) BERGONZI: "The Early H.G. Wells", Bernard Bergonzi (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1961) BLEILER: "The Checklist of Fantastic Literature" Everett F. Bleiler (Chicago: Shasta, 1948) BRETNOR1: "Modern Science Fiction: Its Meaning and Future", edited by Reginald Bretnor (New York: Coward-McCann, 1953) BRETNOR2: "The Craft of Science Fiction", Reginald Bretnor (New York: Harper & Row, 1977) BRINEY: "SF Bibliographies", Robert E. Briney & Edward Wood (Chicago: Advent, 1972) CLARESON1: "SF: The Other Side of Realism", edited by Thomas D. Clareson (Gregg Press, 1978) CLARESON2: "Extrapolation, 1959-1969", edited by Thomas D. Clareson (Bowling Green, Ohio: University Popular Press, 1971) CLARKE: "The Tale of the Future", I. F. Clarke (London: The Library Association, 1961, 1972) CONTENTO: "Index to the Science Fiction Anthologies and Collections", William Contento G.K. Hall, 1978) DAY: "Index to the Science Fiction Magazine: 1926-50", Donald B. Day (Portland, Oregon: Perri Press, 1952) DeCAMP: "Science Fiction Handbook", L. Sprague DeCamp (New York: Hermitage House, 1953) ELLIK: "The Universes of E. E. Smith", Ron Ellik & Bill Evans (Chicago: Advent, 1966) EVANS: "The Index of Science Fiction Magazines", Bill Evans with Jack Speer (Denver: Robert Peterson, 1946?) FRANKLIN: "Future Perfect: American Science Fiction of the Nineteenth Century", H. Bruce Franklin (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966) FREWIN: "One Hundred Years of Science Fiction Illustration", Anthony Frewin (London: Jupiter Books, 1974) GOODSTONE: "The Pulps", Tony Goodstone (New York: Chelsea House, 1970) GUNN: "Alternate Worlds", James Gunn (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975) HARRISON: "John W. Campbell: Collected Editorials from Analog", Harry Harrison (Garden City NY: Doubleday, 1966) HOLMBERG: "Science Fiction History", John-Henri Holmberg (Vanersborg, Sweden: Askild & Karnekull, 1974) KNIGHT: "In Search of Wonder", Damon Knight (Chicago: Advent, 1956; enlarged 1967) KYLE: "A Pictorial History of Science Fiction", David Kyle (London: Hamlyn House, 1976) LOCKE: "Worlds Apart", edited by George Locke (London: Cornmarket Reprints, 1972) LUNDWALL: "Science Fiction: What It's All About", Sam J. Lundwall (New York: Ace Books, 1971) METCALF: "The Index of Science Fiction Magazines, 1951-1965", Norm Metcalf (J. Ben Stark, 1968) MILLIES: "Science Fiction Primer for Teachers", Suzanne Millies (Dayton OH: Pflaum, 1975) MOSKOWITZ#1: "The Immortal Storm", Sam Moskowitz (AFSO Press, 1954; Hyperion Press, 19??) MOSKOWITZ#2: "Explorers of the Infinite: Shapers of Science Fiction", Sam Moskowitz (Cleveland & New York: World, 1963) MOSKOWITZ#3: "Seekers of Tomorrow", Sam Moskowitz (Cleveland & New York: World, 1963) NESFA: "Index to the Science Fiction Magazines", New England Science Fiction Association (Cambridge MA: NESFA, 1971) PERRY: "The Penguin Book of Comics", George Perry & Alan Aldridge (London: Penguin, 1971) ROGERS: "A Requiem for Astounding", Alva Rogers (Chicago: Advent, 1964) ROTTSTEINER: "The Science Fiction Book", Franz Rottsteiner (London: Thames & Hudson, 1975) SADOUL: "Hier, L'An 2000 [Illustrations from the Golden Age of Science Fiction]", Jaxques Sadoul (Paris: Editions Denoel, 1973) STRAUSS: "The MIT Science Fiction Society's Index to the SF Magazines: 1951-64" Erwin S. Strauss (Cambridge MA: MIT Science Fiction Society, 1966) TUCK: "The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy, 2nd Edition", Donald H. Tuck (Hobart, Tasmania: Donald H. Tuck, 1959) VERSINS: "Encyclopedie des l'utopie, des voyages extraordinaires et de la science fiction", (Lausanne: L'Age d'Homme, 1972) WAGGONER: "The Hills of Faraway", Diana Waggoner (Athenaeum, 1978) WARNER: "All Our Yesterdays", Harry Warner, Jr. (Chicago: Advent, 1969) WELLS: "Fictional Accounts of Trips to the Moon", Lester G. Wells (Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Library, 1962) WILLIAMSON: "H.G. Wells: Critic of Progress", Jack Williamson (Baltimore: Mirage Press, 1973) WOLLHEIM: "The Universe Makers", Donald A. Wollheim (New York: Harper & Row, 1971)
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