TIMELINE 1910-1920

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TIMELINE 1910-1920

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What happened in the world of Science Fiction between 1910 and 1920? There are 3 hotlinks here to authors, magazines, films, or television items elsewhere in the Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide or beyond.
Executive Summary of the Decade Inventions and Innovations of the Decade Major Science Fiction/Fantasy Writers of the Decade Key Dates, Books and Stories of this Decade Major Films of this Decade Major Writers Born this Decade {to be done} Major Writers Died this Decade Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology Where to Go for More: 51 Useful Reference Books

Executive Summary of the Decade

This started as a wildly optimistic decade, with visions of technological wonders that would make human life ever more wonderful. Horribly, after the Archduke Ferdinand was assassinated (1914) in the Balkans, the world was plunged into the "War to End All Wars", with technology playing a deadly role, with high explosives, hardened steel tanks rolling over soldiers, poison gas (1915) attacking the lungs of combatants whose lives were changed. One such chlorine-gassed soldier was young Adolf Hitler, but that's another story. This World War I marked the collapse of the thrones of Hohenzollern, Wittelsbach, Hapsburg, and Romanov. But a "Spanish Flu" epidemic of Inluenza kills more people than all the bullets and bombs of the war. Other chaos was seen in the Irish Easter Rising (1916) and War of Independence (1919-21). English-speaking audiences were dazzled by entertainers such as Al Jolson (later to be in the first popular "talking motion picture"), Charlie Chaplin (an immortal master of cinematic comedy), and Bert Williams. Germany floats the first Zeppelins into the air. The Russian Revolution (1917) created the first country to put a satellite in orbit, and a human in space, though we would not know that for four to five more decades. Europeans emigrated in huge numbers to the United States, Canada, Australia, and other nations. Pope Saint Pius X was succeeded by Pope Benedict XV; President William Howard Taft gave way to President Woodrow Wilson; George V became King of England and Ireland; Franz Josef was crowned Emperor of Austria-Hungary; Herbert Asquith and Lloyd George had turns as prime Minister of Britain and Ireland; King Victorio Emanuele III ruled Italy; and Japan annexed Korea. Techno-enthusiasts such as Hugo Gernsback spread the message of engineering and science, and hobbyists built and tinkered with radios as avidly as they would with personal computers six decades later, and the magazine was the medium for spreading that message. The line between Fantasy and Science Fiction was blurred indeed; the term "science fiction" not having yet been invented. Jazz recordings were commercially released, and the American Middle Class felt entitled to own automobiles. Technology was known not to be perfect, though, as confirmed when the S. S. Titanic sank on her maiden voyage in 1912, drowning 1,513 people. Return to Top of TIMELINE 1920s page

Major Science Fiction/Fantasy Writers of the Decade

The major genre book and magazine writers included: Mihaly Babits, Sir James Matthew Barrie, J. D. Beresford, Algernon Blackwood, Edgar Rice Burroughs, James Branch Cabell, Ray Cummings, Arthur Conan Doyle, George Allen England, J. U. Giesy, H. Rider Haggard, Lafcadio Hearne, William Hope Hodgson, Franz Kafka, Frigyes Karinthy, Murray Leinster, David Lindsay, Jack London, H. P. Lovecraft, Arthur Machen, Abraham Merritt, Victor Rousseau, Garrett P. Serviss, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, H. G. Wells, and Yevgeny Zamiatin. Yet this is our after-the-fact compilation; it is overwhelmingly likely that not any single person in the decade 1910-1920 read more than 20 of these 26 writers, due to differences of language, the gap between "high" and "low" culture, and the lack of publishers' differentiation of this genre from the mainstream of fiction. How many readers could have believed that the fiction of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, an obscure Russian schoolteacher, would someday be collected by people who travelled into in space and called Tsiolkovsky the "father of spaceflight?" Or that, in another part of Russia, Yevgeny Zamiatin's was penning the novel "We", which projected the oppression of Communism to a level worse than the USSR would experience before its breakup half a century later... How many readers of the 1912 issues of "The All-Story Magazine" would imagine that the new hero "Tarzan" would take his place beside Sherlock Holmes as a universally known and endlessly portrayed character beyond all bounds of literature as such? Who knew that the obscure Franz Kafka would someday be so well known that the adjective "kafkaesque" would be used by people who never read one of his stories? The esoteric scribbler H. P. Lovecraft, known to a handful of obsessive fans, would hardly have seemed the sort of man to launch an entire "school" of writers, whose influence would persist into the next century and beyond? Science projected the world to last for millions of years, but whether that future would be glorious or monstrous could not be determined. Still, the writers wrote, the artists illustrated, the actors trod the stage, and the audience grew and grew until they changed the world to better fit their imaginations.

Mundane Literature:

1910: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Paul J. L. Heyse (Germany) 1911: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Maurice Maeterlinck (Belgium) (well, okay, Maeterlinck wrote some Fantasy) 1912: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Gerhardt Hauptmann (Germany) 1913: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Rabindragath Tagore (India) (Tagore did write some fiction influenced by Hindu legends) 1914: Nobel Prize for Literature -- no award 1915: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Romain Rolland (France) 1916: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Verner von Heidenstam (Sweden) 1917: Nobel Prize for Literature shared by Karl A. Gjellerup (Denmark) and Henrik Pontoppidan (Denmark) 1918: Nobel Prize for Literature won by -- no award 1919: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Carl F. G. Spitteler (Switzerland) 1920: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Knut Hamsun (Norway) The first flickering, silent, black and white science fiction, fantasy, and horror movies were still a novelty, but became more and more sophisticated both as works of art and as a medium of mass communication. See: Science Fiction Films of 1910-1920 Return to Top of TIMELINE 1920s page

Some inventions and innovations of 1910-1920

1910: "Week-End" gains in USA popularity (versus 6 or 6 1/2-day week) 1910: Automatic Transmission Engine, invented by Fottinger (Germany) 1910: Cosmic Rays, discovered by Gockel (Switzerland) 1910: U.S. Postal Savings Program begins 1910: Father's Day first celebrated (Spokane, Washington) 1910: Manhattan Bridge finished in New York (started 1901) 1910: Halley's Comet observed 1911: Air Conditioning, invented by Curtiss (USA) 1911: Self-starter for Automobile, invented by Kettering (USA) 1911: Gyrocompass, invented by Sperry (USA) 1911: Klieg Lamp, invented by A. & J. Kliegl (Germany) 1911: British Official Secrets Act becomes law 1912: First successful Parachute Jump 1912: Wind Tunnel, invented by Eiffel (France) 1912: Telephone Amplifer, invented by De Forest (USA) 1912: Isotopes (Theory), discovered by Soddy (England) 1912: Automatic Pilot for Airplane, invented by Sperry (USA) 1912: Mercury Vapor Lamp, invented by Hewitt (USA) 1912: Ductile Tungsten, invented by Coolidge (USA) 1913: Tungsten Filament for Lightbulb, invented by Coolidge (USA) 1913: X-Ray Tube, invented by Coolidge (USA) 1913: Incandescent Gas Lamp, invented by Langmuir (USA) 1913: Multigrid Electron Tube, invented by Langmuir (USA) 1913: Atomic Numbers, discovered by Moseley (England) 1913: Geiger Counter, invented by Geiger (Germany) 1913: Cracked Gasoline, invented by Burton (USA) 1913: Assembly Line techniques predominate in Henry Ford's factory 1913: Cascade Tuning Radio Receiver, invented by Alexanderson (USA) 1913: Heterodyne Radio Receiver, invented by Fessenden (USA) 1913: Double-Acting Wrench, invented by Owen (USA) 1913: Vitamin A, discovered by McCollum & Davis (USA) 1913: Schick Test, invented by Schick (USA) 1913: Zippers way up in popularity (though used since 1891) 1913: Foxtrot becomes the favored new dance 1914: Conditioned Reflex, discovered by Pavlov (Russia) 1914: Military Tank, invented by Swinton (England) [H.G. Wells prophecy] 1914: Panama Canal opens for shipping business 1914: Robert A. Goddard begins rocket experiments in Massachusetts 1914: Triode Modulation Radio Transmitter, invented by Alexanderson (USA) 1915: Radio Tube Triode, invented by De Forest (USA) 1915: Radio Tube Oscillator, invented by De Forest (USA) 1915: Long-Distance Radio-Telephone, invented at AT&T (USA) 1915: Motorized Taxis first in widespread service 1915: Hydrogen-cooled Dynamo, invented by Schuler (USA) 1916: Condenser Microphone for Telephone, invented by Wente (USA) 1916: Stainless Steel, invented by Brearley (England) 1916: Depth Bomb, invented by Tait (USA) 1916: Vitamin B, discovered by McCollum (USA) 1916: Prohibition nears as 24 USA states vote against alcohol 1916: "Summertime" (daylight-savings time) begins in Britain 1917: Bobbed Hair lady's fashion spreads fast through Britain, USA 1917: Electric Razor, invented by Schick (USA) 1917: Hybrid Corn, invented by Jones (USA) 1918: Automatic Toaster, invented Strite (USA) 1918: First Airmail Postage; regular New York-Washington Airmail 1918: Radio Crystal Oscillator, invented by Nicolson (USA 1918: Time Self-Regulator, invented by Bryce (USA) 1918: Mass Spectroscope, invented by Dempster (USA) 1919: Arc Welder, invented by Thomson (USA) 1919: Proton, discovered by Rutherford (New Zealand) 1919: Atom-Smashing (Theory), invented by Rutherford (England) 1919: First Non-stop Transatlantic Flight (J.W. Alcock & A. Whitten) 1919: "Black Sox" World Series bribery scandal upsets USA Baseball 1919: Mechanical Rabbits (Oliver Smith, California) change Greyhound racing 1920: First American radio broadcast station opened by Westinghouse, in Pittsburgh 1920: Autogyro invented by de la Cierva (Spain) 1920: Waterskiing begins as a sport, at Lake Annecy, Haute Savoie, France 1920: Prohibition goes into effect across USA (18th Amendment passed) Return to Top of TIMELINE 1920s page

Important Dates

1911 Camille Flammarion, astronomer, "La Fin du Monde" (1911) explores the death of our world circa 10,000,000 A.D. 1911 Garrett P. Serviss' "The Second Deluge" in "Cavalier" retells the Noah story, but with a flood from outer space 1911 Hugo Gernsback starts his 12-part serial "Ralph 124C41+: A Romance of the Year 2660" in his own magazine, "Modern Electrics." Terrible from a literary perspective, it was enormously influential for its panoply of technological speculations which later came true: fluorescent lights, microfilm, radar, tape recorders, and television (he claims to have invented the very name) 1911 J. D. Beresford's novel "The Hampdenshire Wonder" 1911 F. W. Mader's novel "Wunderwelten" [Worlds of Wonder, published in English translation as "Distant Worlds"] features the first fictional faster-than-light spaceship trip to the Alpha centauri star system 1912 William Hope Hodgson's bleak science-fantasy-horror novel "The Night Land", about a distant future of mutants and monsters constantly attacking the last humans who are holed up in "The Last Redoubt" -- a pyramid seven miles tall Feb 1912 Normal Bean [mis-corrected to "Norman Bean] story "Under the Moons of Mars" in "All-Story Magazine." He was really Edgar Rice Burroughs (1875-1950), and the story of John Carter and Dejah Thoris, Princess of Helium, later appeared as the book "A Princess of Mars." 1912 Arthur Conan Doyle's "The Lost World" published in "The Strand" -- the first of the Dinosaurs Still Alive fictions that made "Jurassic Park" possible. 1912 Edgar Rice Burroughs' novel "Tarzan of the Apes" appears in "The All-Story Magazine", launching the greatest pulp-novel series of all time 1912 Edgar Rice Burroughs' novel "Under the Moons of Mars" 1912 George Allen England's "Darkness and Dawn" begins as a serial in "Cavalier" 1913 George Allen England's "Beyond the Great Oblivion" and "The Afterglow" begin as serials in "Cavalier" 1913 Edgar Rice Burroughs' "The Gods of Mars" published by "All-Story Magazine" as the sequel to "A Princess of Mars." 1913 First appearance of James Branch Cabell's fantasy world Poictesme 1913 Hugo Gernsback changes the name of his magazine from "Modern Electrics" to "The Electrical Experimenter" 1913 "The Lodger" by Belloc Lowndes is one of the best and earliest fictions about Jack the Ripper 1913 Bernhard Kellerman's novel "Der Tunnel" introduces the fiction of a Trans-Atlantic tunnel 1913 M. P. Shiel's novel "The Yellow Peril" is the best-remembered racist novel of its day, and the title became widely known 1914 Edgar Rice Burroughs' "At the Earth's Core" published by "All-Story Magazine", launching the Pellucidar series 1914 H. G. Wells' novel "The World Set Free" foretells an atomic bomb 1914 J. D. Beresford's novel "Goslings" 1914 "Cavalier" merged into "All-Story Magazine" under Robert H. Davis. 1914 Igor Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring" musically depicts a girl dancing herself to death in a pagan ritual 1914 H. H. Munro's novel "When William Came" published under pseudonym "Saki" 1914 anonymous novel "Malice in Kulturland" spoofs Lewis Carol while proclaiming sentiments against Germany 1914 Arthur Machen's story "The Bowmen" [London Evening News] has the tide of World War I turned by archers resurrected from the Battle of Agincourt, or maybe appearing as ghosts (later rewritten as angels) 1914 Arthur Conan Doyle's novel "The Poison Belt" 1914 George Allen England's novel "Darkness and Dawn" published as book 1915 Guy Thorne's novel "The Cruiser on Wheels" predicts armored tanks in World War I, a couple of years before relaity caught up with fiction 1915 Charles B. Stilson's "Polaris of the Snows" in "All-Story Magazine", a speculative Antarctica story, and sequel "Minos of Sardanes" 1915 Jack London's novel "The Star Rover" 1915 Charlotte Perkins Gilman's feminist "Herland" 1915 Street & Smith launch "Detective Story Magazine" 1915 Archibald Marshall's novel "Upsidonia" 1915 Hugo Gernsback starts his series of science-based comic stories "The Scientific Adventures of Baron Munchhausen" in "The Electrical Experimenter" 1915 Edgar Rice Burroughs' "Pellucidar", sequel to "At the Earth's Core", continuing the Pellucidar series 1915 Edgar Wallace's novel "1925: The Story of a Fatal Peace" 1915 The United States is now destined to be drawn into the war, despite considerable isolationist feelings, after the sinking of the Lusitania 1915 Albert Einstein publishes the General Theory of Relativity, which later hints at methods of time-travel and gravity control. 1916 Franz Kafka's most famous short story, Metamorphosis", about a man who awakens to find himself transformed into a beetle 1916 Hungarian author Mihaly Babits publishes the fantasy novel "The Nightmare" based upon the notion of split personality 1916 Gustav Meyrink's Austrian novel "Das grune Gesicht" [The Green Face] 1916 The magazine "Hugin" is first published in Sweden (editor Otto Witt), arguably the first science fiction magazine 1916 John Buchan's novel "Greenmantle" predicts rise of fundamentalist Islam in Iraq leading towards war (as in 2003) 1917 Charles B. Stilson's "Polaris of the Snows" trilogy ends with "Polaris and the Goddess Glorian" in "All-Story Magazine" 1917 Abraham Merritt's "Through the Dragon Glass" in "All-Story Magazine" 1917 Hungarian author Frigyes Karinthy's satirical novels "Capilarie" and "Faremido" appear as sequels to Jonathan Swifts's "Gulliver's Travels", and adding a society based on automation and robots 1917 T. S. Eliot's poetry "Prufrock and Other Observations" kicks literature towards modernism 1917 Victor Rousseau's novel "The Messiah of the Cylinder" is an end-of-the Earth dystopia through the viewpoint an awakening man from the present in a Socialist future. Widely viewed as a dark parody of H. G. Wells' "When the Sleeper Wakes." 1917 Sir James Matthew Barrie (Peter Pan) "Dear Brutus", a fantasy about an enchanted forest where unhappy characters are given their chances to live their lives over, but they never do better on the second try. A fantasy stab at the essence of time travel. 1917 The United States of America joins World War I 1917 The Russian Revolution 1917 Edgar Rice Burroughs' "A Princess of Mars" 1918 Abraham Merritt's "The People of the Pit" in "All-Story Magazine" 1918 Abraham Merritt's Novel "The Moon Pool" 1918 Gregory Owen's novel "Meccania" 1918 Rose Macaulay's novel "What Not" 1918 Oliver Onion's nopvel "The New Moon" 1918 J. U. Giesy launches astral-projection interstellar trilogy "Palos of the Dog Star Pack" 1918 Women in Great Britain win the right to vote June 1919 Abraham Merritt's "The Moon Pool" in "All-Story Magazine", featuring a spacewarp-to-another-world and "The Shing One" -- an alien robot constructed of pure energy 1919 H. P. Lovecraft's "Dagon" about monsters from a monumental gargoyle on a newly emerged desert island, in the obscure magazine "The Vagrant", so that the story was virtually unread until its 1923 reprint in "Weird Tales" 1919 Second appearance of James Branch Cabell's fantasy world Poictesme, in his popular and controversial novel "Jurgen" 1919 Murray Leinster's "The Runaway Skyscraper" in "All-Story Magazine", a groundbreaking time-travel adventure 1919 Ray Cummings starts lengthy career with "The Girl in the Golden Atom" 1919 H. Rider Haggard's novel "When the World Shook" 1919 Hugo Gernsback launches "Radio News" magazine, and renames "The Electrical Experimenter" as "Science and Inventions." This magazine had wonderful cover art by Howard V. Brown, and later by Frank R. Paul, arguably the Dean of Science Fiction Artists. 1919 Milo Hastings' story "Children of 'Kultur'" in "True Story" magazine (editor Bernarr Macfadden, under whom Your Humble Webmaster's father later worked). The story was later revised and retitled "City of Endless Night" and some say this was the orginal inspiration for Fritz Lang's "Metropolis" 1919 Adolf Hitler, quite obscure, becomes a government spy planted in the German Worker's Party 1919 Ernest Rutherford discovers the atomic nucleus 1920 Abraham Merritt's "The Metal Monster" in "All-Story Magazine" neatly combines science fiction and horror 1920 Yevgeny Zamiatin's novel "We" 1920 David Lindsay's novel "A Voyage to Arcturus" 1920 Edward Sjanks' novel "The People of the Ruins" 1920 Karel Capek's "R.U.R." brings the word "robot" into the world 1920 Konstantin Tsiolkovsky's novel "Beyond the Planet Earth" 1920 Harvard beats Oregon 7-6 on New Year's Day at Rose Bowl, establishing a tradition that continued uninterrupted to 1942 LOTS AND LOTS OF MATERIAL TO ADD HERE {to be done} L. Frank Baum... Algernon Blackwood (1869-1951), master of the supernatural ... Robert W. Chambers... Lafcadio Hearne... Arthur Machen... Return to Top of TIMELINE 1920s page

Science Fiction Films

1910 A Trip to Mars {no known hotlink} 1910 Frankenstein (the first version, not the beloved classic) directed by J. Searle Dawley, with the involvement of Thomas Edison Frankenstein (1910) 1911 The Pirates of 1920 [British] {no known hotlinks} 1913 A Message from Mars based on the play by Robert Ganthony 1914 Der Golem [German] Paul Wegener directed, Heinrich Galeen starred 1914 An Englishman's Home [British] future war scenario 1914 If England Were Invaded [British] future war scenario 1914 The Exploits of Elaine (the first of a series with Pearl White and Arnold Day as scientific detectives with far-out gadgets) 1916 Homunculus [German] the most popular serial in Germany, throughout World War I, influenced clothing styles, 6 chapters of 1-hour, actually totalled 401 minutes, Otto Rippert directed. Starred Friedrich Kuehne as the scientist and Olaf Foenss as the "perfect creature" he created, but which discovers it has no soul, seeks revenge by tyrannizing humanity, and is finally killed by a lightning bolt. One of Otto Rippert's assistants was Fritz Lang, educated as an architect, who soon made his own mark on Science Fiction film history. 1916 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea [Universal Studios] Stuart Paton directed his screen adaptation of the Jules Verne novel, starring Lois Alexander, Wallis Clark, Alan Holubar as Captain Nemo, Dan Hamlon as Professor Aronnax. There was a 1954 remake and a visually impressive 1997 TV remake. This 1916 masterpiece included remarkable underwater footage filmed in a vast watertank in a Nassau studio, not surpassed until the same technical team filmed the 1929 MGM "The Mysterious Island." 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1916) 1917 Himmelskibet ("Heaven Ship" or "The Airship" )[Denmark] Proto-Space-Opera with the daughter of the High Priest of Mars ending a planetary war 1918 Tarzan of the Apes Elmo Lincoln was the first screen Tarzan (along with his stunt double Frank Merrill), with Enid Markay as jane, as directed by Scott Sidney from the Fred Miller & Lois Weber adaptation of the Edgar Rice Burroughs series Tarzan of the Apes (1918) 1918 Alarune {German] Horror, Eugen Illes 1919 The First Men in the Moon {no known hotlink} 1919 The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari [German] Albert Wiene 1919 Die Spinnen [The Spiders] directed by Fritz Lang, who had been Otto Rippert's assistant on "Homunculus" (1914). This 2-part fantasy adventure was arguably the best of its genre until Steven Spielberg's "Raiders of the Lost Ark" (1981). 1920 Der Golem [German] Paul Wegener and Carl Boese, great sets, remake of 1914 film Return to Top of TIMELINE 1920s page

Major Writers Born this Decade

1910 John W. Campbell, Jr. 1910 Hugh B. Cave 1910 Everett B. Cole 1910 Jim Dawson 1910 Lloyd Arthur Eshbach 1910 Harold Lawlor 1910 Fritz Leiber 1910 Harold Mead 1910 Raymond A. Palmer (1 Aug 1910) 1910 Hugh Walters 1911 Otto Binder (26 Aug 1911) 1911 Anthony Boucher (21 Aug 1911) 1911 Eli Colter 1911 William Crawford (10 Sep 1911) 1911 Jack Finney 1911 Gardner Fox 1911 Gerald Kersh (6 Aug 1911) 1911 C. L. Moore 1911 Mervyn Peake 1912 Frederic Arnold Kummer, Jr. 1912 Alice Mary Norton (wrote as Andre Norton and Andrew North) 1912 A. E. Van Vogt 1912 Basil Wells 1913 Charles Barren 1913 John Coleman Burroughs 1913 W. P. Cockcroft 1913 Joseph E. Kelleam 1913 David Levy 1913 Paul Myron Anthony Linebarger (wrote as Cordwainer Smith) 1914 Edd Cartier (1 Aug 1914) Artist 1914 Roger Dee 1914 Howard Fast 1914 Martin Gardner 1914 Philip E. High 1914 Leslie J. Johnson 1914 Frank K. Kelly 1914 R. A. Lafferty 1914 Shepard Mead 1914 Ralph Robin 1914 Wilson Tucker 1915 Saul Bellow 1915 Charles L. Harness 1915 Ernest Hill 1915 Henry Kuttner 1915 H. Nearing 1915 Arthur Porges (20 Aug 1915) 1915 Alice Sheldon (wrote as James Tiptree, Jr.) 1915 T. L. Sherred (27 Aug 1915) 1915 Leonard Wibberly 1915 Bernard Wolfe (28 Sep 1915) 1916 Forrest J. Ackerman 1916 Cy Condra (30 Sep 1916) 1916 Roald Dahl (13 Sep 1916) 1916 H. B. Hickey 1916 Frank A. Javor 1916 Robert A. W. Lowndes (4 Sep 1916-14 July 1998) 1916 Mary Stewart 1916 Jack Vance (28 Aug 1916) 1917 Robert Bloch 1917 Arthur C. Clarke 1917 Robert Conquest 1917 Charles L. Fontenay 1917 Rex Gordon 1917 Stanley Meltzoff 1917 Walt Sheldon 1917 Jean Sutton 1917 Louis Trimble 1917 Art Widner (16 Sep 1917) 1918 Philip Jose Farmer 1918 H. B. Fyfe (30 Sep 1918) 1918 Douglas R. Mason 1918 Martin Greenberg 1918 W. Macfarlane 1918 John Rankine (26 Sep 1918) 1918 Theodore Sturgeon 1918 Walter Sullivan 1919 John Boyd 1919 Larry Eisnberg 1919 Doris Lessing 1919 Primo Levi 1919 Frederik Pohl 1919 Milton A. Rothman 1919 E. C. Tubb 1919 Edward Wellen 1919 Zacherley 1920 Richard Adams 1920 William C. Anderson 1920 Isaac Asimov 1920 Everett F. Bleiler 1920 Sydney J. Bounds 1920 Ray Bradbury (22 Aug 1920) 1920 Frank Herbert 1920 P. D. James 1920 Joan North 1920 Peter Phillips 1920 Walter Popp 1920 William Sambrot 1920 Jack Speer (9 Aug 1920) 1920 Roy Squires (11 Sep 1920) 1920 William Tenn 1920 Theodore L. Thomas 1920 H. R. Van Dongen 1920 Richard Wilson (23 Sep 1920) For more on individual writers: AUTHORS: annotated list of 3,274 links, last updated 23 Sep 2000; also some brief notes on 6,107 authors and pseudonyms NOT on the Internet, last updated 4 May 2000, for a total of 9,381 authors' hotlinks or names or pseudonyms or notes. Return to Top of TIMELINE 1920s page

Major Writers Died this Decade

1910 Jean Anouilh (xxxx-1910) French playwright 1910 Benjamin Bjornson (1832-1910) Norwegian poet 1910 Leo Tolstoi (1828-1910) 1910 Mark Twain (1835-1910) wrote Science Fiction (i.e., Time Travel) 1911 W. S. Gilbert (1836-1911) some Fantasy libretti with Sullivan 1912 John Jacob Astor (in the Titanic) wrote Science Fiction 1912 Felix Dahn (1834-1912) German novelist 1912 Jacques Futrelle (in the Titanic) wrote Science Fiction 1912 Karl May (1842-1912) German, wrote many adventure novels 1912 W. T. Stead (in the Titanic) wrote Science Fiction 1912 Bram Stoker ("Dracula") 1912 August Strindberg (1849-1912) Swedish playwright 1913 {to be done} 1914 Paul J. L. Heyse (1830-1914) German author, 1910 Nobel Prize 1914 Frederic Mistral (1830-1914) French poet 1914 Christian Morgenstern (1871-1914) German poet 1914 Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914) Austrian novelist 1914 Georg Trakl (1887-1914) Austrian poet 1915 Rupert Brooke (1887-1915) English poet 1915 James Elroy Flecker (1884-1915) British poet 1916 Jose Echegaray (1832-1916) Spanish playwright 1916 Henry James (1843-1916) his epistolary debate with H. G. Wells relevant 1916 Jack London (1876-1916) adventures, also wrote Science Fiction 1916 Alan Seeger (1888-1916) American poet 1916 Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846-1916) Polish novelist 1916 Natsume Soseki (1867-1916) Japanese novelist 1917 {to be done} 1918 Henry Adams (1838-1918) American author 1918 Guillaume Appolinaire (1880-1918) French poet/essayist 1918 William Hope Hodgson, killed at Ypres, age 40, wrote Science Fiction 1918 Joyce Kilmer (1886-1918) American poet ("Trees") 1918 Wilfred Owen (1873-1918) English poet 1918 Peter Rosegger (1843-1918) Austrian poet/novelist 1918 Edmond Rostand (1868-1918) French playwright 1918 Frank Wedekind (1864-1918) German playwright 1919 Andrew Ady (1977-1919) Hungarian poet 1919 Leonid Andreyev (1871) Russian novelist/playwright 1919 L. Frank Baum ("Oz") 1919 W. W. Campbell (1861-1919) Canadian poet 1919 Karl A. Gjellerup (1857-1919) (Denmark) 1917 Nobel Prize 1919 Ella Wheeler Wilcox (1855-1919) popular American poet 1920 Richard Dehmel (1863-1920) German poet 1920 Ludwig Ganghofer (1855-1920) popular German novelist 1920 William Dean Howells (1837-1920) American novelist Other major figures who died this decade: 1920 {to be done} Return to Top of TIMELINE 1920s page
Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology |Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Precursors |Cosmic History: 13,000,000,000 - 3000 BC |4th Millennium BC: {name to be done} |3rd Millennium BC: Cheops, Gilgamesh, Sargon |2nd Millennium BC: Abraham to David |1st Millennium BC: {name to be added here} |1st Century: {name to be added here} |2nd Century: {name to be added here} |3rd Century: {name to be added here} |4th Century: {name to be added here} |5th Century: {name to be added here} |6th Century: {name to be added here} |7th Century: name to be added here |8th Century: Beowulf, Charlemagne, 1001 Nights |9th Century: Gunpowder and the first printed book |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China |11th Century: Kyahham, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Final Flowering of Chivalry |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age {you are HERE} |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: This Decade |2010-2020: Next Decade |Cosmic Future: Billions, Trllions, Googols Return to Top of TIMELINE 1920s page
Where to Go for More: 51 Useful Reference Books

Where to Go for More

51 Useful Reference Books Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources: ALDISS: "Billion Year Spree: The True History of Science Fiction", Brian W. Aldiss (New York: Doubleday, 1973; Schocken Paperback, 1974) ALLEN: "Science Fiction Reader's Guide", L. David Allen (Centennial Press, 1974) AMIS: "New Maps of Hell", Kingsley Amis (London: Gollancz, 1960; New York: Harcourt Brace, 1960) ASH1: "Who's Who in Science Fiction", by Brian Ash (Taplinger, 1976) ASH2: "The Visual Encyclopedia of Science Fiction", edited by Brian Ash (Harmony Books, 1977) ASHLEY: "The History of the Science Fiction Magazine" [3 volumes] (London: New English Library, 1974) ASIMOV "Asimov on Science Fiction" (New York: Avon, 1981) ATHELING: "The Issue at Hand", "William Atheling, Jr." [James Blish] (Chicago: Advent, 1964) BARRON: "Anatomy of Wonder", edited by Neil Barron (Bowker, 1976) BAXTER: "Science Fiction in the Cinema", John Baxter (London: A. Zwemmer, 1970; New York: A. S. Barnes, 1970) BERGONZI: "The Early H.G. Wells", Bernard Bergonzi (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1961) BLEILER: "The Checklist of Fantastic Literature" Everett F. Bleiler (Chicago: Shasta, 1948) BRETNOR1: "Modern Science Fiction: Its Meaning and Future", edited by Reginald Bretnor (New York: Coward-McCann, 1953) BRETNOR2: "The Craft of Science Fiction", Reginald Bretnor (New York: Harper & Row, 1977) BRINEY: "SF Bibliographies", Robert E. Briney & Edward Wood (Chicago: Advent, 1972) CLARESON1: "SF: The Other Side of Realism", edited by Thomas D. Clareson (Gregg Press, 1978) CLARESON2: "Extrapolation, 1959-1969", edited by Thomas D. Clareson (Bowling Green, Ohio: University Popular Press, 1971) CLARKE: "The Tale of the Future", I. F. Clarke (London: The Library Association, 1961, 1972) CONTENTO: "Index to the Science Fiction Anthologies and Collections", William Contento G.K. Hall, 1978) DAY: "Index to the Science Fiction Magazine: 1926-50", Donald B. Day (Portland, Oregon: Perri Press, 1952) DeCAMP: "Science Fiction Handbook", L. Sprague DeCamp (New York: Hermitage House, 1953) ELLIK: "The Universes of E. E. Smith", Ron Ellik & Bill Evans (Chicago: Advent, 1966) EVANS: "The Index of Science Fiction Magazines", Bill Evans with Jack Speer (Denver: Robert Peterson, 1946?) FRANKLIN: "Future Perfect: American Science Fiction of the Nineteenth Century", H. Bruce Franklin (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966) FREWIN: "One Hundred Years of Science Fiction Illustration", Anthony Frewin (London: Jupiter Books, 1974) GOODSTONE: "The Pulps", Tony Goodstone (New York: Chelsea House, 1970) GUNN: "Alternate Worlds", James Gunn (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975) HARRISON: "John W. Campbell: Collected Editorials from Analog", Harry Harrison (Garden City NY: Doubleday, 1966) HOLMBERG: "Science Fiction History", John-Henri Holmberg (Vanersborg, Sweden: Askild & Karnekull, 1974) KNIGHT: "In Search of Wonder", Damon Knight (Chicago: Advent, 1956; enlarged 1967) KYLE: "A Pictorial History of Science Fiction", David Kyle (London: Hamlyn House, 1976) LOCKE: "Worlds Apart", edited by George Locke (London: Cornmarket Reprints, 1972) LUNDWALL: "Science Fiction: What It's All About", Sam J. Lundwall (New York: Ace Books, 1971) METCALF: "The Index of Science Fiction Magazines, 1951-1965", Norm Metcalf (J. Ben Stark, 1968) MILLIES: "Science Fiction Primer for Teachers", Suzanne Millies (Dayton OH: Pflaum, 1975) MOSKOWITZ#1: "The Immortal Storm", Sam Moskowitz (AFSO Press, 1954; Hyperion Press, 19??) MOSKOWITZ#2: "Explorers of the Infinite: Shapers of Science Fiction", Sam Moskowitz (Cleveland & New York: World, 1963) MOSKOWITZ#3: "Seekers of Tomorrow", Sam Moskowitz (Cleveland & New York: World, 1963) NESFA: "Index to the Science Fiction Magazines", New England Science Fiction Association (Cambridge MA: NESFA, 1971) PERRY: "The Penguin Book of Comics", George Perry & Alan Aldridge (London: Penguin, 1971) ROGERS: "A Requiem for Astounding", Alva Rogers (Chicago: Advent, 1964) ROTTSTEINER: "The Science Fiction Book", Franz Rottsteiner (London: Thames & Hudson, 1975) SADOUL: "Hier, L'An 2000 [Illustrations from the Golden Age of Science Fiction]", Jaxques Sadoul (Paris: Editions Denoel, 1973) STRAUSS: "The MIT Science Fiction Society's Index to the SF Magazines: 1951-64" Erwin S. Strauss (Cambridge MA: MIT Science Fiction Society, 1966) TUCK: "The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy, 2nd Edition", Donald H. Tuck (Hobart, Tasmania: Donald H. Tuck, 1959) VERSINS: "Encyclopedie des l'utopie, des voyages extraordinaires et de la science fiction", (Lausanne: L'Age d'Homme, 1972) WAGGONER: "The Hills of Faraway", Diana Waggoner (Athenaeum, 1978) WARNER: "All Our Yesterdays", Harry Warner, Jr. (Chicago: Advent, 1969) WELLS: "Fictional Accounts of Trips to the Moon", Lester G. Wells (Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Library, 1962) WILLIAMSON: "H.G. Wells: Critic of Progress", Jack Williamson (Baltimore: Mirage Press, 1973) WOLLHEIM: "The Universe Makers", Donald A. Wollheim (New York: Harper & Row, 1971)
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