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Copyright 1996,1997,1998,1999,2000 by Magic Dragon Multimedia.
All rights reserved Worldwide. May not be reproduced without permission.
May be posted electronically provided that it is transmitted unaltered, in its entirety, and without charge.
We examine both works of fiction and important contemporaneous works on non-fiction which set the context for early Science Fiction and Fantasy.
There are 48 hotlinks here to authors, magazines, films, or television items elsewhere in the Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide or beyond. Most recently updated: 21 Sep 2000 [36 Kilobytes]; 3 July 2000 [28 KB].
This web page draws heavily on FACTS as listed in "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. It does not copy the TEXT of that fine and recommended reference, and has value added in correlating the scientific and literary production of the century, and in hotlinking to additional resources.
Facts were also checked against "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A. Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795. It also utilizes facts from Volume I of D.E. Smith's "History of Mathematics" [(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958]. Jump Straight to the Chronology, or else first read:

2nd MILLENNIUM B.C.: Executive Summary

This is the era described in the Old Testament. It runs from the height of Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilization through the completion of Stonehenge, the era of the Trojan Wars sung about by Homer, and the Classical Age of China. SOMETHING enormous and violent, around 1628 or 1637 B.C., changed events worldwide, and may have caused a "mini-ice-age." It was probably the explosion of a volcano on the island of Santorini (or Antikithera). See below, at 1,650 BC to 1,600 BC. This era is still considered Ancient History, but more and more we discover that archaeology confirms the written record which has sometimes been dismissed as merely legend and Fantasy. more {to be done}

Mathematical/Scientific/Philosophical People of the Millennium:

  1. Ahmes
  2. see: 1650-1600
  3. King Hammurabi
  4. see: 1750 to 1700 BC
  5. Homer
  6. see: 1,400 BC (era he sang about, not when he lived)
  7. Moses
  8. see: 1,292 to 1,225 BC
  9. Confucius
  10. see: 1,027 BC
  11. Mencius
  12. see: 1,027 BC
  13. Lao-Tze
  14. see: 1,027 BC
  15. The Duke of Chou
  16. see: 1,050 to 1,000 BC
  17. David
  18. see: c.1,000 BC
  19. more {to be done}

Chronological list of Politico-Military Names

  1. Abraham
  2. see: 2,000 BC to 1,950 BC
  3. King Hammurabi
  4. see: 1750 to 1700 BC
  5. Thutmose III
  6. see: 1468 BC
  7. King Tutankhamun
  8. see: 1,338 BC
  9. Ramses II
  10. see: 1,292-1,225 BC
  11. Moses
  12. see: 1,292 to 1,225 BC
  13. Nebuchadnezzar
  14. see: 1,124 BC
  15. Saul
  16. see: 1,020-1004 BC
  17. David
  18. see: c.1,000 BC
  19. more {to be done}
Fiction About the 2nd MILLENNIUM B.C. I particularly enjoy "At the Palaces of Knossos", by Nikos Kazantzakis, translated by Theodora Vasils and Themi Vasils [Athens: Ohio University Press, 1988]. With the help of Princess Aradne, and other friends in the palace at Crete, Theseus enters the Labyrinth and slays the hideous Minotaur, thus spearheading the resistance of the Athenian people against King Minos. Technically a Young Adult novel, this is rich, deep, and equally suitable for adults. Although I enjoyed the visual effects in Disney's "Prince of Egypt", I feel that it distorts the Old Testament and archaological records so much as to be a bad fictional treatment of a crucial historical era. More... {to be done} Jump to Century-by-Century Chronology of 3rd MILLENNIUM B.C.: 2,000 BC to 1,950 BC 1,950 BC to 1,900 BC 1,900 BC to 1,800 BC 1,800 BC to 1,750 BC 1,750 BC to 1,700 BC 1,700 BC to 1,650 BC 1,650 BC to 1,600 BC 1,600 BC to 1,550 BC 1,550 BC to 1,500 BC 1,500 BC to 1,450 BC 1,450 BC to 1,400 BC 1,400 BC to 1,350 BC 1,350 BC to 1,300 BC 1,300 BC to 1,250 BC 1,250 BC to 1,200 BC 1,200 BC to 1,150 BC 1,150 BC to 1,100 BC 1,100 BC to 1,050 BC 1,050 BC to 1,000 BC 1,000 BC to 950 BC

2,000 BC to 1,950 BC

2,000 BC: Beginning of Settled Agriculture in the Niger River Valley [David W. Koeller] circa 2,000 BC: Aryans move into the Indus Valley [David W. Koeller] circa. 2,000 BC: Stonehenge [David W. Koeller] 2,000 BC: Ur was destroyed by Elamites, ending the Sumerian control of Mesopotamia. [Hammond Almanac, p.788] 2,000 BC: Native North-Americans had settled in permanent villages, where they domesticated dogs, and cultivated manioc, squash, maize, and beans. [1979 Hammond Almanac, p.788]
2,000-1,900 BC: In this era, Abraham was said to have lived, who founded Judaism, and was father to both the Jews and Arabs. [Hammond Almanac, p.788] 2,000-1,700 BC: The Hebrews existed as wandering shepherds in the land of Canaan. [Hammond Almanac, p.788] circa 2,000 BC: Abraham [from the Hebrew "the father is high"] was, according to Genesis 17.5 "the father of many" ... namely of the Jews and the Arabs. He was the progenitor of the Hebrews, through his son Isaac, and of the Arabs, through his son Ishmael. He was the founder of Judaism, received God's word that his people would reach the promised land (Canaan). He demanded the ritual of circumcision among his people, and is revered by Jew, Christian, and Mohammedan alike for his utter faith in God, as evidenced by his willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac, as told in Genesis; and also for his kindness toward the problematic nephew Lot. 2,000-1,700 BC: The Greek-speaking Mycenaeans settled in the mainland of Greece, grew into a thriving civilization, and traded with island kingdom of Crete. [Hammond Almanac, p.788] The guinea pig is domesticated in Peru. [Hellemans p.13] Contraceptives are introduced in Egypt. [Hellemans p.13] Alfalfa is domesticated in Iran. [Hellemans p.13] The first zoo in China, the Park of the Intelligence, is founded. [Hellemans p.13] Physicians form an important professional group in Bablyon and Syria; their medical practice is strongly based on astrology and belief in demons. [Hellemans p.13] Mesopotamian cultures learn to solve quadratic equations; that is, equations in which the highest power [of the unknown] is two. [Hellemans p.13] The Cretan palace of Minos introduces interior bathrooms with a water supply. [Hellemans p.13] The Sumerian system of measures includes, besides the shekal and mina [see 2,500 BC to 2,400 BC], units of capacity: the log [541 millilieters, or 33 cubic inches]; the homer, 720 logs; and the cubit and the foot, which is two-thirds of a cubit; a cubit is the distance from the tip of the middle finger to the elbows, about 43 to 56 centimeters [17 to 22 inches] [Hellemans p.13] The ard, a primitive form of plow, is found in Uruk (Iraq) [Hellemans p.15] The earliest iron plowshares are in use in Canaan (Israel) [Hellemans p.15] Paddy culture of rice occurs in southeastern Asia. [Hellemans p.15]

1,950 BC to 1,900 BC

A copper bar from Nippur weighing 41.5 kilograms [91.3 pounds] and 110.35 centimeters [43.44 inches] long is an early standard measure; it is divided into 4 "feet" of 16 "inches" each. [Hellemans p.15]

1,900 BC to 1,800 BC

Mesopotamian mathematicians discover what is now known as the Pythagorean Theorem. [Hellemans p.15] c. 1900-1600 BC: The Babylonian Empire [David W. Koeller] 1,894 BC: Babylon becomes the capital of a small kingdom of Canaanites [Hellemans p.12; but erroneously shown in row for "2000 to 1951 BC"]

1,800 BC to 1,750 BC

Multiplication tables appear in Mesopotamia. [Hellemans p.15]

1,750 BC to 1,700 BC

The Code of Hammurabi, the first known set of laws, is written. [Hellemans p.14] King Hammurabi ruled Babylon from 1,750-1,708 BC, expanding it deep into Mesopotamia and Assyria. [Hammond Almanac, p.788] The Moscow Papyrus, dating from the Twelfth Dynasty, shows that the Egyptians possess considerable knowledge of geometry, including a formula for the volume of a truncated pyramid; the Moscow and Rhind papyruses (see also 1650-1601 BC) are the two main sources of knowledge of Egyptian mathematics. [Hellemans p.15] c. 1700 BC: Shang China [David W. Koeller]

1,700 BC to 1,650 BC

The Hyskos dominate Egypt. [Hellemans p.14]. Dates of 1,786-1,567 BC cover the rule by these kings, most likely from Canaan, whose warfare depended upon horse-drawn chariots. [Hammond Almanac, p.788] The Phoenicians are writing with a 22-letter alphabet. [Hellemans p.15] 1,700-1,500 BC: On the island of Crete, the Minoan civilization reached its high point, as exemplified by the sophisticated engineering and art of the palaces at Knossos and Phaistos. By about 1,500 BC it used the Linear B script for writing. [Hammond Almanac, p.788]

1,650 BC to 1,600 BC

Ahmes, an Egyptian scribe, affixes his name to a papyrus dealing with the solutions to simple equations; this papyrus known as the Rhind papyrus, after A. Henry Rhind, who purchased it in 1858 AD, is the main source of information about early Egyptian mathematics; Ahmes probably copied an earlier document from about 1,825 BC. The volcanic island of Thera, also known as Santorini, explodes in 1,628 BC or 1,645 BC, according to sequences of tree-ring dates from the United States and Ireland (1,628) or glacial cores found in Greenland (1,645); this eruption, which probably destroys the nearby Cretan civilization, is more conventionally placed at 1,550 BC; it may account for the unusually harsh winters from 1,628 to 1,626 BC as recorded in bristlecone pines. [Hellemans p.15] Jonathan Vos Post adds: it may also be the origin of the Myth of Atlantis. Earth : What a Blast by Philip Ball [19 Sep 2000] "While fashion tells us that Armageddon may descend from the skies in the form of a giant meteorite impact, there may be more to fear from the ground beneath our feet." "There is no evidence that meteorites have ever left a dent on human civilization. But volcanic eruptions have provided ample indication of their destructive potential. New research in Geophysical Review Letters1 shows just how far this disruption can reach: a massive eruption in Greece three and a half millennia ago seems to have caused environmental devastation even in Sweden." "Hakan Grudd from the Climate Impacts Research Centre in Kiruna, Sweden and colleagues have studied the growth rings in pine trees preserved in a peat bog in south-central Sweden. They have used radiocarbon dating to determine the age of the trees, finding that their samples grew during a 200-year period between 1695 and 1496 BC -- during the Bronze Age." "The tree rings became abruptly very narrow around 1637 BC (with an uncertainty of about 65 years in either direction). The researchers conclude that this blip was probably caused by harsher climate conditions at that time, suppressing growth of fresh wood." "What could have instigated this disturbance? Several earlier studies have uncovered evidence of a similar phenomenon further south. An analysis of pine tree rings in the USA showed that the growth had been severely affected by cold in 1627 BC. The same thing was found in Irish, English and German oaks, starting at just the same time. And the same signature has been found in Turkey." "All the signs imply that there was some catastrophic event in 1627/28 whose effects, the new work shows, were felt at least throughout the entire western Northern Hemisphere." "Historians and climate scientists are fairly sure they know the culprit. Some time around the middle of the 17th century BC, the Santorini volcano on the island of Thera in the Aegean Sea in Greece blew its top in one of the largest eruptions of the past 10,000 years. This explosion was considerably greater than that at Krakatoa in 1883, which was equivalent to the detonation of 200 million tons of TNT." "The Santorini eruption released about seven cubic miles of magma, and scattered ash over much of the eastern Mediterranean and Turkey. It blasted a crater perhaps 80 square kilometres in area, and buried the Minoan city of Akroteri, on the southern part of Thera, under about two metres of ash. The damage wrought by the eruption is widely thought to have caused the end of the Minoan civilization, which centred on the island of Crete." "The volcanic dust holds the key to its longer-ranged environmental impact -- for, injected into the upper atmosphere in a plume perhaps 23 miles high, it would have been carried right around the globe. Scattered in the air, it would have blocked out some of the sun's light and heat, triggering probably worldwide climate cooling." "A small drop in global mean temperature -- a few tenths of a degree -- was detected after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. Larger eruptions have more severe effects: the eruption of Tambora volcano in Indonesia in 1815 caused summer frost in New England and produced the latest wine harvest since 1482. But it seems that the Santorini eruption was even more terrible, prompting a kind of mini-ice age lasting several years." [see: Grudd, H., Briffa, K. R., Gunnarson, B. E. & Linderholm, H. W. Swedish tree rings provide new evidence in support of a major, widespread environmental disruption in 1628 BC. Geophysical Review Letters (2000). Macmillan Magazines Ltd 2000 - NATURE NEWS SERVICE

1,600 BC to 1,550 BC

c.1,600 BC: The dynasty of Babylon was overthrown by Hittites, who came from Anatolia (Turkey) and Syria. [Hammond Almanac, p.788] In Mesopotamia the Kasserites rule. [Hellemans p.14] The Zodiac is identified by Chaldean astrologers in Mesopotamia. [Hellemans p.14] 1,567-1,027 BC: The New Kingdom is started in Egypt. [Hellemans p.14] The Hykos kings are thrown out; power and glory reach their greatest Egyptian heights. [Hammond Almanac, p.788] Bellows are used in the manufacture of glass and in metallurgy. [Hellemans p.15] True plows made of bronze are in use in Vietnam. [Hellemans p.15]

1,550 BC to 1,500 BC

1523 - 1027 BC: Xia dynasty in China [David W. Koeller]. Also called the Shang dynasty, with a high culture of writing, money, and ancestor worship. [Hammond Almanac, p.788] The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus is written, although it appears to be a copy of a manuscript written about 2,500 BC; the papyrus is a scientific treatise on surgery. [Hellemans p.17] The Papyrus Ebers gives a description of 700 medications; it also shows that physicians prescribe diets, fasts, and massage and that some practice hypnosis. [Hellemans p.17]

1,500 BC to 1,450 BC

1,500-500 BC: Barbarian Aryans (speaking Sanskrit) emigrate from central Asia to invade India, overthrowing the Indus valley culture, and eventually compose the Vedas {hotlink to be done}. [Hammond Almanac, p.789] c. 1,500 BC: Olmec Civilization in America [David W. Koeller] c.1,500 BC: What the Old Testament calls Horites (the Mitanni Kingdom of Hurrians) rule a great deal of Assyria and Mesopotamia. [Hammond Almanac, p.788] 1,468 BC: At the Battle of Megiddo, Thutmose III leads the Egyptians to conquer Syria and some of Mesopotamia. [Hammond Almanac, p.788] Thutmose III, and his brother Thutmose II were the sons of Thutmose I (Thothmes), himself the successor to Amenhotep I in the XVIII Dynasty of Egypt. Thutmose I also had a daughter, Hatshepsut, who became the wife of Thutmose III. Thutmose III deposed his father (1501 BC); Thutmose II had a brief reign; and Hatshepsut ruled the longest of all as "king." Thutmose IV was the son, and successor to Amenhotep II, and reigned circa 1420-1411 BC. Pictograph writing appears in Shang Dynasty China. [Hellemans p.16] Archaeological evidence (distinctive axes, swords, etc.) from China are found at various Middle Eastern sites, showing considerable contact and trade between China and the Middle East. [Hellemans p.16] The gnomon, an L-shaped indicator used as a sundial, is known to the Egyptians. [Hellemans p.16] Thutmose III erects in Heliopolis, Egypt, the "Needle of Cleopatra"; and use its shadow to calculate the time, seasons, and solstices. [Hellemans p.16] Bone inscriptions in China refer to the making of beer. [Hellemans p.16] Liquor is distilled in parts of Asia. [Hellemans p.17] The soybean is cultivated in Manchuria. [Hellemans p.17] Light carts with two spoked wheels are used in warfare. [Hellemans p.17] The Sumerians invent the single-tube seed drill. [Hellemans p.17]

1,450 BC to 1,400 BC

Egyptians build water clocks, or clepsydras. [Hellemans p.17] Writing on parchment and the use of the balance with a pointer for weighing are developed in Egypt. [Hellemans p.17] Stonehenge achieve the form in which it is known today. [Hellemans p.17]

1,400 BC to 1,350 BC

1,400 BC: Mycenaea (based in the northern Pelopennesus) dominated the Mediterranean, especially after the fall of Knossos. [Hammond Almanac, p.788] Homer called these warriors Achaeans, and they built what later became Greek civilization. [Hellemans p.16] Multiple cropping within the same year is in use in China. [Hellemans p.17] Manioc (cassava) is grown in South America, and sunflowers in North America. [Hellemans p.17] The Egyptians and Mesopotamians produce glass; a glassworks from Tel-el-Amarna is discovered by Flinders Petrie in 1894 AD. [Hellemans p.17]

1,350 BC to 1,300 BC

The Assyrian supremecy in Mesopotamia begins. [Hellemans p.16] Decimal numbers are in use in China. [Hellemans p.17] 1338 BC: At this time, Tutankhamen died, king of Egypt in the XVIII Dynasty. He was the son-in-law of Ikhnaton, whose policies he'd revived, bringing his country back to the worship of Amon, and restoring the capital to Thebes. Harmhab was his chief officer. His tomb, the tomb of "King Tut", was opened by the Earl of Carnavon and Howard Carter, in 1922, dazzling the world with treasures and a renewed fascination with ancient Egypt.

1,300 BC to 1,250 BC

1,292-1,225 BC: Egypt under the rule of Ramses II completes the temples of Abu-Simbel, Karnak, Luxor, and Thebes. Moses (in the Exodus) leads the Hebrews out of Egypt. [Hammond Almanac, p.788]; [Hellemans p.16] Ramses I (Ramesses) was the successor to Harmhab, who had been chief officer to Tutankhamen. Ramses I started construction of the hypostyle at Karnak. His son was Seti I, whose son in turn (but not heir) was Ramses II. Ramses II usurped the throne, established the XX Dynasty, and led Egypt to its greatest height of power. The empire now reached from Southern Syria to the 4th cataract of the Nile, and brought astonishing luxury to the aristocracy. There was a construction boom under Ramses II, which included the completed temple at Karnak, the mortuary temple at Thebes, and the Abu-Simbel rock temple. Long did he war against the Hittites. Ramses II was succeeded by Merneptah, and a period of chaos and anarchy ensued, until ended by Ramses III. His wife, Tiy, conspired against him, but failed. Moses was the Lawgiver, the prophet who led his people from slavery in Egypt to the border of cannan, the Promised Land, which he beheld but knew he would never himself reach. God chose Moses to give his people the Ten Commandments, the criminal code, and the body of liturgical law -- together known as the Mosaic Law. The story of Moses, from his rescue among the bullrushes, his divine contact with the burning bush, and his leading his people from bondage is told in the books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. These four books, plus Genesis, collectively known as the Pentateuch, are legendarily ascribed to Moses himself. The "Assumption of Moses" is one of the Pseudoepigrapha.

1,250 BC to 1,200 BC

1,250 BC: On the coast of Syria and Lebanon, the Phoenicians establish the powerful city-states of Sidon and Tyre, while starting to colonize the coast of the Mediterranean. [Hammond Almanac, p.788] 1,250 BC: The Hebrews enter the land of Canaan. [Hammond Almanac, p.788] 1,250 BC: Olmecs start settlement of San Lorenzo, Mexico, extending widespread influence, and leaving huge sculptured heads weighing up to 20 tons, various figurines. Later they establish the La Venta cultural center (800-400 BC) for a Jaguar cult; and (at 31 BC by the equivalent carved date) Stele C at Tres Zapotes. [Hammond Almanac, p.789] The Egyptians build a canal from Lake Timsaeh (the Nile) to the Red Sea; this is the first of several canals linking the Nile and the Red Sea. [Hellemans p.17] The Babylonians develop an instrument that can determine when a star or planet is due South. [Hellemans p.17]

1,200 BC to 1,150 BC

c. 1,200 BC: Trojan Wars, in which Greece conquered Troy (Anatolia, Turkey, Asia Minor), while Doric barbarians (from the north) invaded Greece, starting a local Dark Ages. [Hammond Almanac, p.788] Bells cast in bronze appear in China. [Hellemans p.17] Founding of the Nok civilization in Nigeria, known for terra-cotta sculpture and advanced culture, but ended circa 200 BC. [Hammond Almanac, p.789]

1,150 BC to 1,100 BC

1,150-1,000 BC: Greeks create settlements on the Ionian coast of Asia Minor. [Hammond Almanac, p.788] 1,124 BC: The Amorite king Nebuchadnezzar takes control of Babylon. [Hellemans p.18]

1,100 BC to 1,050 BC

The Dorians complete their piece-by-piece invasion of the Mycenaeans, occupying the land that is now Greece. [Hellemans p.18]

1,050 BC to 1,000 BC

1,027 BC: The Shang Dynasty in China is overcome by the Chou (from what are now Kansu and Shensi provinces). [Hellemans p.18] This is later known as the Classical Age of China, known for: * The Five Classics * the teachings of Confucius * the teachings of Mencius * the teachings of Lao-Tze [Hammond Almanac, p.789] The Duke of Chou in China builds an early "south-pointing carriage" or magnetic compass; a south-pointing carriage uses a differential gear to keep a part of the carriage pointing in the same direction as the carriage turns. [Hellemans p.19] 1,020-1004 BC: Saul is the first King of the Hebrews. [Hammond Almanac, p.788] c.1,000 BC: David selects Jerusalem as the capital city of the Hebrews.

1,000 BC to 950 BC

c.1,000 BC: Teutonic tribes settle in northern Europe. [Hammond Almanac, p.789] c.1,000 BC: Latin tribes settle in Italy. [Hammond Almanac, p.789] 1,000-744 BC: The sea dominated by Phoenicians, who sail as far north as Cornwall (for Tin) and far down the west coast of Africa. [Hammond Almanac, p.789] The Etruscans use a form of false teeth, mostly for cosmetic purposes. [Hellemans p.19] Oats are cultivated in central Europe. [Hellemans p.19] Chinese counting boards originate. [Hellemans p.19] Dyes made from purple murex are introduced by the Phoenicians. [Hellemans p.19]
|Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Precursors |Cosmic History: 13,000,000,000 - 3000 BC |3rd Millennium BC: Gilgamesh and Cheops |2nd Millennium BC: [You Are Here] |1st Millennium BC: name to be added here |1st Century AD: {to be done} |2nd Century: name to be added here |3rd Century: name to be added here |4th Century: name to be added here |5th Century: name to be added here |6th Century: name to be added here |7th Century: name to be added here |8th Century: Beowulf, Charlemagne, 1001 Nights |9th Century: Gunpowder and the first printed book |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China |11th Century: Kyahham, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Fibonacci and final flowering of Chivalry |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: Future Prizewinners

Where to Go for More

Useful Reference Books Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources: "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. Facts were also checked against "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A. Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795. Volume I of D.E. Smith's "History of Mathematics" [(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958]. {more to be done}
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Copyright 1996,1997,1998,1999,2000 by Magic Dragon Multimedia.
All rights reserved Worldwide. May not be reproduced without permission.
May be posted electronically provided that it is transmitted unaltered, in its entirety, and without charge.