TIMELINE 4th CENTURY


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TIMELINE 4th CENTURY

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We examine both works of fiction and important contemporaneous works on non-fiction which set the context for early Science Fiction and Fantasy.
There are 0 hotlinks here to authors, magazines, films, or television items elsewhere in the Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide or beyond. Most recently updated: 20 May 2003 [from 102 to 125 kilobytes].
This web page draws heavily on FACTS as listed in "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. It does not copy the TEXT of that fine and recommended reference, and has value added in correlating the scientific and literary production of the century, and in hotlinking to additional resources.
Facts were also checked against "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A. Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795. It also utilizes facts from Volume I of D.E. Smith's "History of Mathematics" [(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958]. Additional facts are from: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle : Fourth Century, This is part of the wonderful translations in Avalon Project at Yale Law School, and facts from it are cited as "[ASC]". Facts are also drawn from the 1911 Encyclopedia Brittanica, and the Wikipedia. Executive Summary of the 4th Century Mathematical/Scientific/Philosophical/Literary People of the Century Fiction About the 4th Century Non-Fiction About the 4th Century Major Books and Events of the Decade 300-310 Major Books and Events of the Decade 310-320 Major Books and Events of the Decade 320-330 Major Books and Events of the Decade 330-340 Major Books and Events of the Decade 340-350 Major Books and Events of the Decade 350-360 Major Books and Events of the Decade 360-370 Major Books and Events of the Decade 370-380 Major Books and Events of the Decade 380-390 Major Books and Events of the Decade 390-400 Other Key Dates and Stories of this Fourth Century Major Writers Born this Fourth Century Major Writers Died this Fourth Century Decade by Decade Fourth Century Science Background Decade by Decade Fourth Century Mundane Background Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology

Executive Summary of the 4th Century

A century of scholarship in decline, as the Roman Empire split apart, Popes and anti-popes battled for power, and political chaos made literature, science, and philosophy problematic. Without the patronage of a powerful ruler, general, or bishop, there was no way to live as a poet, mathematician, or non-theological philospher. And theologians put their lives on the line, here today, heresy tomorrow. China still led the world in astronomy and mathematics, but the West knew nothing of this, content to pick the bones of the works of great Greeks and Egyptians of centuries past. The Mayans built on the work of the Olmecs, but the Old World knew nothing of what was done in the New World. The Romans began retreating from Britain, which is why you are reading this in English rather than in Latin. The symbol of the Century is the burning of the Library of Alexandria in 389, during a riot betwen Christians and Pagans. What a poor way to honor God!

Mathematical/Scientific/Philosophical/Literary People of the 4th Century

:
  1. Pappas of Alexandria
  2. : see 300
  3. Iamblichus
  4. (c.250-c.330): see 325
  5. Metrodorus
  6. : see 325 (or maybe 500)
  7. Julius Firmicus Maternus
  8. : see 340
  9. Synesius of Cyrene
  10. : see 378
  11. Theon of Alexandria
  12. (c.335-c.405): see 390
  13. Chen Zhuo
  14. : see 300-309
  15. Hsi Han
  16. : see 304
  17. Hypatia
  18. (c.370-415): see 370-379, 390
  19. Claudius Claudianus (fl. AD 395-410) , a Greek born in Alexandria, is often considered the last great poet of the pagan world [see Historians of the 4th century]
  20. Martianus Capella
  21. , Mathematician, see: [400]
  22. Decius Magnus Ausonius
  23. (c.310-c.395), the foremost Latin poet of the 4th century, see: [392]
There was no great Mathematician of the Century, the way Fibonacci was to the 13th century.
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Fiction About the Fourth Century

As usual, all book reviews on this page are by Your Humble Webmaster, and included in my copyright notice. Novels listed below, in alphabetical order by author, include those by these 8 authors: * Allienne R. Becker * Irene Brand * T. Davis Bunn * Lewis de Wohl * Alan Fisk * Michael Curtis Ford * Kathleen Robinson * Joseph Thomas Rossettie Allienne R. Becker, "Eagle in Flight", [Writers Club Ltd., Jan 2002] ISBN 0-595-21393-6. The Patriarch of Alexandria is Athenasius, one day to become Saint Athenasius. He defends the theology of the Trinity against dangerous opposition. For this faith, he is five times exiled, and ultimately threatened with execution after false accusations of murder, rape, and treason. Will our hero die for his God? Irene Brand, "In This Sign Conquer", [Kregel Publications, 1996] ISBN 0-825-42144-6. The Trento Brothers, Marcus and Lucius, learn hard lessons from life as they become more spiritually mature. Through their eyes, we watch the consequences of the rise of Constantine towards the throne of empire. The meaning of the title is this: According to Eusebius of Caesarea, before the battle at Milvian Bridge (also called Rubra Saxa), Constantine sees a cross and hears the words 'in hoc signo vinces' ('In this sign, you will conquer') and defeats Maxentius at the battle. Constantine was called the 'Second Founder of the Empire.' [see 312] T. Davis Bunn, "To the Ends of the Earth", [Jan 1996] hardcover ISBN 0-785-27214-3; [May 1997] paperback. His father was ruined as a merchant, but favorite son Travis wants to understand why, and if this tragedy can be undone. So Travis sails from his home in Carthage to the mega-city of Constantinople. Lewis de Wohl, "The Restless Flame", [Ignatius Press, 1997]. Saint Augutsine, as is well-known, had a reckless party-animal youth, before his remarkable transformation from Pagan to Christian, and then rising through the ranks to become a Church Father. This novel takes that true story and makes it into vivid fiction. Alan Fisk, "Lord of Silver", The beautiful Roman noblewoman Marcella falls in love with a handsome young former barbarian, Austalis, in 366 AD. When the two are ripped apart from each other, the man seeks to revenge himself upon all of Roman society. Michael Curtis Ford, "Gods and Legions", The philosophical and shy Julian "The Apostate" is unexpectedly successful in the battles he commands for the Roman Army in Gaul. He is under orders from Emperor Constantius in this turning point of 354 AD. By the age of 30, he has conquered Rome, attacked Christianity, and found doom in Persia. An amazing read, with great depth of character and gripping drama. Kathleen Robinson, "Dominic", [Oct 1992; E-Reads, Oct 2000] ISBN 1-585-86085-9. A Little Person (in those pre-politically correct days called a "dwarf") is an orphan in Gaul, whose life prospects look bleak. But he prevails, bu training an acrobat and going on tour throughout the ancient world as part of a Greek circus troupe. Joseph Thomas Rossettie, "The Lycurgis Cup", In this novel, which extends from 4th to 5th century, deals with the life-or-death religious struggle between two fanatical sects. This is seen through the eyes of a scholar visiting Ephesus, namely Veritus. The cup in question, according to recent scientific analysis, actually uses nanosized gold atom clusters to provide different colors depending on front or back lighting.

Non-Fiction About the Fourth Century

see:

4th Century Historians, on the 4th Century

See: "Ausonius, Volume I, Books 1-17", translated by H. G. Evelyn-White [Harvard University Press, Jan 1919] 448 pages, $21.50, ISBN 0-674-99107-9.

Major Books and Events of the Decade 300-310

300 "The Scandian-Frank confederation settled on the edge of the great forests of Northern Europe near the Rhine river. To the south are the Scandia Visigoth (Western Goth) or Burgundian peoples. The Celts and Picts from Scotia (Ireland) and Scotland are making regular trips to Iceland. Germanic-Saxon savages are plundering the Roman British shores. They are considered fierce and cruel; women and children are included in their plunder. Roman Christianity began to dominate as it offered more to the average person as a result of its absorption policy concerning other religious traditions. The Christian faith and dogma suppressed the useful image of the world so painfully drawn by ancient geographers. During the life time of Eusebius [260-339], the Christian Churches are divided concerning which books are canonical, non- canonical and outright fraud. The gospel according to John, who died about 98 A.D., is considered the first of the Gospels and the greatest of the four. Disputed books include Revelations of John, James, Jude, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, the Shephard by Paul, Revelations by Peter, Epistle by Barnabas, Teachings of the Apostles, Gospel of Hebrews, Gospels of Peter, Thomas, Matthias, Acts of Andrew, John and other Apostles. The second Epistle of Peter is still being used in many Churches. The Shephard by Hermas is also uncanonical, but some consider it indispensable." European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 300 Pappas of Alexandria writes a very important book on geometry. Suidas [10th century] claimed that Pappas was in the reign of Theodosius [379-395], yet others placed him as much as two centuries earlier. In any case, his great work, the Mathematical Collections consisted of 8 books, of which only the last 6 are extant. * the 3rd book was on Proportian, Inscribed Solids, and the Duplication of the Cube * the 4th book was on Spirals, and higher plane curves (i.e. Quadratrix) * the 5th book was on Maximum and Isoperimetric figures * the 6th book was on the Sphere * the 7th book was on Analysis and its history among the Greeks * the 8th book was on Mechanics. [D.E. Smith, p.136] Pappus, born roughly 260 in Egypt, not only summarized the goemetric knowledge of his day, but wrote numerous clever proofs believes to have been original to himself. His writing is our best source of information on various Hellenistic mathematicians, including Euclid and Apollonius. [Hellemans, p.53] 300-309 Astronomer Chen Zhuo of China makes a single star map by combining the 4th Century BC star maps of Shih Shen, Gan De, and Wu Xien. [Hellemans, p.52] 300-309 Chinese development of the Abacus may have been underway, although the first printed reference was not until 1593 AD. [Hellemans, p.52] 300-309 Chinese discover the use of coal instead of wood as fuel for making Cast Iron. [Hellemans, p.52] 300-309 Mayans create the day-count calendar, which combines the 52-year-cycle of the 365-day Olmec calendar with the 260-day "tzolkin" cycle (13 cycles of 20 days each). They date events back to 3000 BC. [Hellemans, p.52] 301 Armenia is the first nation to adopt Christianity as a state religion. European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 302 The earliest extant depiction of a stirrup, in China. [Hellemans, p.52] 303 Severe persecution of the Christians Chronology of Roman History: 301-325 AD 303 "Roman Emperor Diocletian [284-305] ordered the destruction of churches, the surrender of sacred books and the offering of sacrifice by those attending courts of law. It is believed that Marcellinus, Papa of Rome, and future Marcellus I Papa of Rome [306-308], Miltiades Papa of Rome [311-314] and Silvester [314-335] complied with the order and offered incense to the Roman Gods. In retaliation, Marcellinus Papa of Rome is removed from the official list of Papa of Rome. Surrender of sacred books disqualified anyone from the priesthood, a form of self- excommunication. It is noteworthy that the Papa of Rome is rich, and would eventually become the wealthiest of all the Churches." European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 304 Fabius Cunctator Pictor executed upon the temple of Salus Chronology of Roman History: 301-325 AD 304 The death of Marcellinus, Papa of Rome [296-304], saw the Papacy vacant until 308 due to internal bickering." European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 304 Hsi Han, in his Record of Plants and Trees of the Southern Regions, gives the first written account of the biological control of pests, describing how selected ants are used to attack other insects that might otherwise damage Mandarin Orange trees. [Hellemans, p.52] 305 Diocletian and Maximian retire and are succeded by Constantius Chlorus and Galerius Chronology of Roman History: 301-325 AD 305 Building of Diocletian's Palace near Salona on the coast of Dalmatia Chronology of Roman History: 301-325 AD 306 Constantius Chlorus dies at York and names his son, Constantine I, as emperor in the West Chronology of Roman History: 301-325 AD 306 Constantine [274/280-337] and a Tetrarchy co-rule [306-313] the Roman Empire. European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 308 For a period of time, there were no less than six emperors at once: Galerius, Licinius, and Maximin in the East; and Maximian, Maxentius his son, and Constantine in the West. Maxentius soon drives his father from Rome Chronology of Roman History: 301-325 AD 308-309 The 30th pope, St.Marcellus I, reigned 1 year. He was elected only 4 years after the death of Marcellinus due to the terrible conditions in which the Christian lived under the persecutions of emperor Maxentius. The new pope had to reorganize the Church of Rome, i.e. rebuilding the places of cult and establishing of 25 "titles" or districts with the precise limits of jurisdiction. He prohibited the convocation of a general council without the authorization of the Roman pope. Maxentius exciled Marcellus where he died in January of 309. His remainss were buried in Rome in the cemetry of Priscilla. 4th Century: 10 Popes 308 St. Marcellus [308-309] is elected Papa of Rome even though he is excommunicated for surrendering sacred books. He likely survived by passing the blame to Marcellinus, Papa of Rome, and having him removed from the official Papal list. His harsh hard-line judgements aroused majority church opinion against him. Emperor Maxentius [306-312] to prevent more public disorder and bloodshed, banished the Marcellus Papa of Rome from Rome. Some historians suggest he is not a Papa of Rome but some quasi-papal functionary." European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 309 Decius Magnus Ausonius born at Burdigala (Bordeaux) Chronology of Roman History: 301-325 AD 309 The 31st pope, St.Eusebius. He was probably born in Magna Grecia. His pontificate lasted for 4 months. By the order of emperor Maxentius he was exciled to Sicily where died. In the meantime Maxentius confiscated a part of the church property and didn't permit to elect the new pope. 4th Century: 10 Popes

Major Books and Events of the Decade 310-320

310 Maximian (M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus) commits suicide Chronology of Roman History: 301-325 AD 310 "St. Eusebius [310-310] (others suggest 308 or 309), a Greek is elected Papa of Rome. Bloody rioting continued and Emperor Maxentius [306-312] had no alternative but to deport the Papa of Rome to Sicily. Heraclius, a sort of anti-Papa of Rome, is also deported." European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 311 The final persecution of the Christians begins in Rome; Galerius dies Chronology of Roman History: 301-325 AD 311 The Celtic Seminary for Druids at Bordeaux, France is still functioning in the fourth century and is believed started by the Celts from Armdrica. European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 311-314 The 32nd pope, St.Miltiades, reigned 3 years. Born in Africa. Under his pontificate the Edict of Constantine was promulgated which established that Christian religion could be freely practised. Since this moment the figure of imperor became a symbol of protection of the religion in the eyes of Christians. The pope had the Basilica of San Giovanni built. Miltiades died in Jenuary, 314 and was the last bishop of Rome to be buried in the cemetry of St.Callistus. He was not martyred. 4th Century: 10 Popes 311 St. Miltiades, alias Melchiades [311-314], an African or Roman, is elected Papa of Rome even though he is also excommunicated for surrendering sacred books under the reign of Marcellinous Papa of Rome. Emperor Maxentius [306-312] likely approved, because he immediately restored all church properties including land and buildings confiscated in 303. During this reign many other Papas are accused of being Christian traitors, by having surrendered sacred books. Miltiades Papa of Rome appears to have escaped the wrath of such allegations. Synods excommunicated some and absolved others but the Roman Emperor Maxentius did not consider the Papa of Rome verdict final. European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 312 According to Eusebius of Caesarea, before the battle at Milvian Bridge (also called Rubra Saxa), Constantine sees a cross and hears the words 'in hoc signo vinces' ('In this sign, you will conquer') and defeats Maxentius at the battle. Constantine was called the 'Second founder of the empire'; Praetorian guard disbanded Chronology of Roman History: 301-325 AD 27 October 312 Constantine [312-337] (born a bastard in 274, died 337) entered Rome in triumph as the new Emperor. Sylvester I [314-335], the Papa of Rome had no conflict in a warrior coming to faith by slaughtering his enemies. So began the fatal alliance between Caesar and Papa of Rome. Throne and Altar became part of orthodoxy and the Roman Church. Emperor Constantine [312-337] retained his title Pontifex Maximus, head of the pagan state cult. Constantine establishes religious freedom for everyone without distinction, thereby allowing the Christian Church and the Jewish Church to come out of the catacombs in Rome. The tragedy is that this fundamental Christian principle is never accepted by the Roman Catholic Church until the late 20 century. It is noteworthy that Constantine is a pagan throughout his life and is alleged baptized by a heretical Arian Papas named Eusebius just before his death. Emperor Constantine the pagan established the idea of a council of all Christian communities as the only way to formulate the faith incontestably and forever. He saw the church as an instrument of political and cultural cohesion, a pillar of the Imperial structure he is building. He would call the first Ecumenical Council in 325. The Emperor Constantine ordered that the Roman Paul's letters and other manuscripts be placed into one book. The Emperor's actions represent the Roman obsession with order rather than any religious conviction. It is noteworthy that future Kings of Europe would also view the Church as one of their tools of Empire building. It is noteworthy that some considered him the thirtieth Apostle." European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 313 Constantine and Licinius co-rule [313-324] the Roman Empire. The Edict of Milan by Lucinus in 313 finally granted official sanction to Christianity within the Roman Empire, putting an end to the persecution. This milestone marks the beginning of the Roman Church that would be built upon many of the historic Roman Empire beliefs and values, including many that are in direct conflict with the Jesus teachings. The violent killing games of the Roman Christian Colosseum continued with a vengeance. More capital crimes are added to ensure a continuous supply of human victims. These early Roman Christians would support this barbaric practice for the next three hundred years. No less than 28 Papa of Rome would condone this practice with some maintaining their own gladiators. Traditional Roman Human executions included crucifixion, burning and exposure to wild beasts. The Roman Christians dropped crucifixion as unbecoming slaves and criminals. This is considered the final conversion of Christianity to the Roman Tradition. Emperor Constantine would solidify this conversion. Emperor Constantine (306-337) informed the Papa of Rome Miltiades alias Melchiades (311-314) that the Church is entrusted to the Emperor by divine providence and he intended to leave schism or division in any place. It is made very clear that the Papa's of the church will be forced into one doctrine." European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 313 Constantine and Licinius jointly pass the Edict of Milan which gives religious tolerance to Christians; Maximin dies and Licinius is sole emperor in the East; L. Caelius Firmanius Lactantius invited to Gaul by Constantine to act as tutor to his son Crispus. Chronology of Roman History: 301-325 AD 314 Constantine defeats Licinius in a war and gains Illyricum, Pannonia, and Greece. Chronology of Roman History: 301-325 AD 314-335 The 33rd pope, St.Silvester I, reigned 21 years. He was Roman. Some historians say that the political figure of pope is much weaker than that one of Constantine. The emperor realized the power that was already obtained by Christianity in comparison with the pagan culture, so he was trying to stabilize the position of the new religion. Constantine considered himself over the Church, "bishop of bishops", as well as he didn't comprehend the main spiritual signification of the the religion and used the idea of christianization for the political goals. It so happened that Silvester, the first pope recognized by the State, in the light of success of the Christian community seemed to have the same or even superior power as the emperor. This caused the appearance of the legend thanks to which Silvester was named "the great". According to this legend, Constantine should have been the persecutor of the Christianity, which forced Silvester to hide himself in the mountain Soratte; the emperor having gotten the illness of leprosy, received advice from the pagan priests to take a bath in the hot blood of the children, killed specially for this reason; but Constantine refused this idea, touched by the grief of mothers. One night he had seen in his dream the apostles Peter and Paul, who advised him to turn to Silvester; the pope came to emperor next morning and put the latter to the water 3 times baptizing him and curing his illness. The thankful emperor gave the liberty to the Christians and founded a lot of churches. To this legend were later added some other stories about miracles of Silvester, among them the one when the pope defended the city of Rome from a dragon, closing him in the cave with the iron doors, that would have been opened only on the Last Judgement day. Constantine promulgated a number of decrees in course of his work of christianization of the State. Among them, a decree proclaiming that only the ecclesiastic court could be competent for the questions of the faith, so that the sentances issued by bishops had to be executed as well as those issued by the state courts. The christian clergy was relieved of the civil services; Sunday became a holiday on the territory of the whole state since 321. Numerous were donations for the christian cult: first of all for Domus Faustae which later became palazzo del Laterano, the seat of the popes from Silvester I till Benedict XI; and next to this palace the construction of Lateran basilica erected by Constantine. According to Liber pontificalis, with the praying of Silvester, Constantine founded the ancient basilica of St Peter's, putting the body of apostle in the bronze sarcophagus. The same emperor had the basilica of St Paul constructed, while his mother, St Elena, founded the basilica of S.Croce in Gerusalemme, where she would have deposed the piece of the real cross of Christ, found by her during the travel to the Holy Land. Constantine opened the new seat of the Roman Empire, the "New Rome" in Constantinopolis in May of 330. Since then he was occupied with the East more than with the West, which made a legend about "donation" of West to the bishop of Rome appear. Silvester died on December 31, 335. He was buried in the cemetry of Priscilla in the church erected by him in honor of martyrs Philip and Felix. Later Paul I transfered his reliques to the church of St.Silvester in Capite. 4th Century: 10 Popes 314 "St. Silvester [314-335], a Roman, is elected Papa of Rome, even though he is also excommunicated for surrendering sacred books under the reign of Marcellinus, Papa of Rome. Most evidence suggests he is a puppet Papa of Rome under complete domination of the heathen Roman Emperor. Roman Emperor Constantine [306-337] called the first Ecumenical Council of Arles in August to resolve Church problems, naming Chrestus Papas of Syracuse as chairman excluding Silvester Papa of Rome. Silvester Papa of Rome is ordered to endorse and circulate the results of the First Council. The Papa of Rome is also excluded from the second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea (Turkey) in the summer of 325. Some suggest he is invited but declined and that he had called the Council, but this is an unproved legend. The Council of Aries (314) passed an edict condemning the veneration of trees, fountains and stones under threat of excommunication. The edict would be repeated until 658. This appears to be directed against the Celtic Church. In the end, the Roman Church aligned with the Celtic belief by proclaiming the Virgin Mary as Our Lady of the Pines, Our Lady of the Water, and Our Lady of the Mounds, most Druidic of all." European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 315 "Eusebius Pamphilus' catalogue of the books of the New Testament suggests that the Epistles of James and Jude, the 2nd of Peter, the 2nd and 3rd of John are generally accepted, yet there is still doubt as to their authenticity. Some still reject Revelations but some accept it. Eusebius himself accepts all of them. Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, accepts all the present books." European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 316 Death of Diocletian; Arch of Constantine built to commemorate his victory at Milvian Bridge Chronology of Roman History: 301-325 AD 317 Constantius, third son of Constantine and Fausta, born Chronology of Roman History: 301-325 AD

Major Books and Events of the Decade 320-330

320 "Egypt, Syria and Asia Minor are seized by a fierce theological belief that God the Father is inaccessible, unique and greater than the Son of God. This is understandable, given their strong Jewish traditions." European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 320 Flavius Julius Constans, Constantin's youngest son, born. Chronology of Roman History: 301-325 AD 323 Constantine becomes the sole emperor. Chronology of Roman History: 301-325 AD 324 Constantine is the sole ruler [324-337] of the Roman Empire. European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 324 Constantine defeats Licinius, the former Emperor of the East, at Adrianople and puts him to death Chronology of Roman History: 301-325 AD 325 Iamblichus, a pupil of Anatolius and Porphyrius, wrote several books. He wrote an Arithmetic; and a commentary on Nichomachus (which gives us much of what we know of him and of Pythagorus). Iamblichus discovered the theorem that if a number is made by adding together three consecutive integers (3n, 3n-1, 3n-2) and the separate digits (base 10) of this number are added, and the digits of that number, and so forth, the final sum is always 6. [D.E. Smith, p.135] Neoplatonist Philosopher, born in Chalcis, Coele-Syria. He tried to unify Plato, Pythagoras, Hermeticism, and the literature of Magic (in his book "De mysteriis"). 325 Metrodorus, who compiled the arithmetical epigrams in the Greek Anthology, may have flourished around 325, but may have been as much later as 500. These puzzle problems, such as one of a pipe filling a cistern, would today be solved by algebra. Sir Thomas Heath believes that such arithmetic/algebra problems date back to at least the 5th century BC. [D.E. Smith, p.133] Example [Greek Anthology 14.127] of mathematical epigram of his: How Long did Demochares Live? Demochares lived for a fourth of his entire life as a child; a fifth as an adolescent; and a third as an adult. When he reached grizzled old age, he lived his remaining thirteen years on the threshold of death. 325 Church Council of Nicaea held in which the court sided against the Arians Chronology of Roman History: 301-325 AD 325 "Emperor Constantine [312-337] called the second World Council of Christians May 20, 325, attended by the 300 Papas of the entire christianized world is held at Nicaea (Nicene), near Constantinople. Sylvester Papa of Rome did not attend. It is held under the presidency of the Emperor Constantine I [331-337, who at this time is not Christian. It is claimed he is baptized on his deathbed in 337. Constantine the pagan is horrified that after being freed from persecution there is bloody fighting between various Christian factions. Arianism, as an example, claimed that Jesus is subordinated to God the Father. A priest named Arius, from the Egyptian church, proposed that Jesus is adopted by God. Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, championed the view that Jesus is fully human and fully divine. The majority of Papas favored the Arian position, but Constantine the pagan, for no apparent reason other than to show his authority, proposed the doctrine that the Son of God is of one substance with the Father. The vote, by the slimmest of margins, supported bishop Athanasius' position. All dissident Papas caved in except two who are promptly deposed and sent packing. He later wrote to Axexandria the Arian foothold saying 'what has pleased three hundred Papas is nothing other than the will of God.' The Arian heresy, as it is later called continued for generations (more than 60 years) as did the immersion of the state in church affairs. The result, wrote Burckhardt, is a 'Church rapidly disintegrating in victory.' This position would not become official dogma until the Council of Chalcedon [450 A.D.]. Some historians believe the decision to remove all references to reincarnation in scriptures is made about this time. "Another major issue is when to celebrate Easter with a lunar calendar that ensures it falls on a Sunday. The Bishop of Alexandria is assigned the task to resolve the issue. He failed to find a compromise. The bitter quarrel that resulted split the Roman Church from the Eastern Orthodox Churches. "The major issue, however, is the question of who is Papa of Rome. The Papa of Rome and Papa of Alexandria both claimed the title. It is agreed that the puppet Sylvester I, Papa of Rome, the ancient Capital of the Empire and the fact that St. Peter, the Chief Apostle, is martyred in Rome made him the logical choice. In reality at this time, the Four major Patriarchs (Papas): Papa of Rome, Papa of Constantinople, Papa of Alexandria, and Papa of Antioch, at best are considered the first among equals. Later Roman Papas would claim St. Peter as the first Papa of the Roman Church, but this is historically incorrect. St. Peter is never listed as a Papa of Rome. Linus [66-78] is the first Papa of Rome, most likely appointed by the Roman Saul. St. Peter is more of a spiritual advisor, focusing on the Jewish element of the Church. St. Paul is more of a theologian focusing on the Roman (Gentile) element of the Church. They were following ChristÕs command to focus on the message, not worldly things, like running Caesar's domain. "Emperor Constantine [312-337] is determined to end 1,300 years of religious squabbling by demanded the completion of one Bible, and ordered 50 copies be completed. At this time each Christian Church had its own sacred books with significant differences leading to differing beliefs and values. If Rome is to use the Church to dominate the world, it must have one common law." European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 325 "The first Council of Nicaea (Nice) called to adjudicate the case of Caecilian of Carthage. Athanasius [296-373] is banished from Alexandria to Trier, Marcellus of Ancyra (d.374) and other leaders of the Christian Nicene orthodoxy are deposed. Arius is commanded by the bishop of Alexandria to quit his beliefs or be declared a heretic, and his writings are ordered destroyed. It is important to remember that throughout the writings and compiling of the Gospels and Epistles those not consistent with the ruling authority are rejected and destroyed." European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 326 Constantine's eldest son Crispus executed for treason; Helena visits Jerusalem and discovers the Holy Sepulchre and the cross. Chronology of Roman History: 326-350 AD 326 Emperor Constantine I [274-337] concubine Helena murdered his son by his first wife Crispus, drowned his second wife, killed his 11 year old nephew and his brother-in-law breaking his oath. Some consider Constantine a Great Christian? European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 326 "The infamous forgery of the Roman Catholic Church, dated to 326, called the 'Donation of Constantine' among many other dogmas, including the confirmation of the bishop of Rome over all the Christians. It is composed over the period of 754 to 796 but many suggest it is finalized in 774. The Roman Catholic Church would cling tenaciously to this deception until the twentieth century." European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 327 Helena, the mother of Emperor Constantine I [274-337], went to Jerusalem, and claimed to have found the Mount of Calvery, the Holy Sepulcher, and pieces of the True Cross. Her son built the first Church of the Holy Sepulcher. European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 327 Constantine has his wife Fausta steamed to death in a bath too hot because she plotted against him. Chronology of Roman History: 326-350 AD

Major Books and Events of the Decade 330-340

330 "Aksum, Ethiopia, became one of the first kingdoms to accept Christianity as its national religion. It is noteworthy that Ethiopia, the Land of Punt, has a long-standing Jewish tradition." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 330 Capitol moved to Byzantium and renamed Constantinople (now called Istanbul); Helena dies. Chronology of Roman History: 326-350 AD 331 Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus), the youngest son of Constantius (Constantine's half brother), born at Constantinople. Chronology of Roman History: 326-350 AD 332 "Constantine I decreed every man would henceforth be compelled to follow the profession of his parents and marry into the same family profession. Some zealots believe he saw himself as Christ's representative on earth and the head of the Church. For some five centuries after Constantine reign, the Emperor called and presided over all Ecumenical Councils, promulgated their decisions by Imperial decree and ratified elections to all the Patriarchies. All religious doctrines, documents and claims developed during this period should be rationalized. It is said that Emperor Constantine had a cold and terrible lust for power. Four early heresy issues arose within the Roman Church: 1. Good and Evil - Gnosticism from Persian sources, Marcion doctrine (100-165) 2. The Trinity - Arianism that is being spread by the Goth (Visigoth and Ostrogoth from Scandia), and Vandal, the Germanic-Mongolian peoples. 3. Nature of Christ - Christological Heresy that was settled 451. 4. Church and State - Spiritual vs. Secular (Authority vs. Responsibility) that is not resolved to this date." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 336 The 34th pope St.Mark. He was Roman and was pope for only 9 months. He was given even less importance from the side of Constantine than Silvester. The Liber pontificalis attributed to him emission of a decree which reserved to the bishop of Ostia the right of consacration of the bishop of Rome. He also built the basilica Juxta Pallacinis, identificated later as the actual church of St Mark. 4th Century: 10 Popes 336 "St. Mark [336-336], a Roman, is elected Papa of Rome and little is known about the man as he is likely another puppet of the Roman Emperor." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 22 May 337 Constantine I dies and becomes a Christian on his deathbed. He is baptized by Eusebius of Nicomedia. The empire is split among his three sons by Fausta: Constantius, Constantine II, and Constans. Constans received Illyricum, Africa, and Italy as his share of the empire. Chronology of Roman History: 326-350 AD 337-352 The 35th pope, St.Julius I, reigned 15 years. He was Roman and 4 month after his nomination as a pope emperor Constantine died. His three sons devided the empire which made more difficult to continue the ecclesiastic imperial politics and gave more freedom to bishops. In the councile of Serdica, today Sofia, it was established that any decisions made by councils or individual bishops had to be ratified by Rome. To Julius is owed the establishment of the Vatican archives. He died in April of 352 and his remains were buried in the cemetry of Calepodio, where he built a church. 4th Century: 10 Popes 337 "St. Julius [337-352], a Roman, is elected Papa of Rome. Constantine I [274-337] had murdered his second wife and some say he built a church to ease his conscience. On his deathbed it is alleged he converted to Christianity and promised to visit all the holy places if God will spare his life. Claims of this nature should be taken with a grain of salt. Upon the death of Constantine as the effective head of the Roman Church squabbling again broke out among the various Christian Churches." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD

Major Books and Events of the Decade 340-350

340 Constantine II dies and Constantius becomes emperor in the east and Constans is emperor in the west; Romans cease building new roads in Britain. Chronology of Roman History: 326-350 AD 340 "Julius, Papa of Rome [337-352], held a Roman Church synod at Rome but the Eastern Churches refused to attend. The Eastern synod extended no special status to the Papa of Rome. The Council of Antioch in 341 reaffirmed the condemnation of Athanasius of Alexandria [d.373] and attacked the theology of Marcellus, one in being with the Father. Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem, does not accept the book of Revelations as part of the New Testament." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 340 Julius Firmicus Maternus wrote on Astrology. His work Eight Books on Mathematics [first printed in Venice, 1497] was really on judicial astrology along Babylonian/Egyptian lines, revealing to us on how mathematics was used for such arcane purposes. [D.E. Smith, p.136] 341 "Despite the constant squabbling between the various Christian Churches, the Papas of the Church began acquiring monarchical qualities, like a Bishop of later times, without reducing the superiority of the patriarchs. The five patriarchies are: Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexander, Constantinople, and a poorly represented Rome. The Orthodox Christian Church power base resided in the Eastern Church and not in the Western Roman Church. It is noteworthy that the Eastern Churches also trace their Papal authority back to Peter. Peter is to the Eastern Church as Paul is to the Western Church." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 342 Eusebius of Nicomedia dies. Chronology of Roman History: 326-350 AD 342 "The two Roman Emperors, Constans (337-350) and Constantius II (337-361) called a General Council at Serdica (Sofia). The Roman Church held its opinion against the Federation of Eastern Churches. The Federation of Eastern Church issued an encyclical excommunicating leading Roman Papas including Julius Papa of Rome whom it branded as the cause of all the trouble. The Roman Papas continued to hold council but Julius Papa of Rome did not attend. Likely the Emperors saw him as a divisive factor." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD

Major Books and Events of the Decade 350-360

350 Constans dies and his brother Constantius becomes sole emperor; Romans cease building new roads in Gaul; The British general Magnentius revolts and becomes acknowledged emperor throughout most of the western Roman Empire. Emperor Constantius invites Germanic tribes to cross the Rhine River to attack Gaul and the Roman Rhineland; The Persians regain Armenia from Rome. Chronology of Roman History: 326-350 AD 350 "Some suggest that Christianity arrived in Ethiopia, Africa, about this time. Donatus of North Africa is the first prophet to stress that only 144,000 people would be chosen by God. He is branded a heretic." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 351 Gallus marries emperor Constantius II's sister Constantia and named Caesar in the West. Chronology of Roman History: 351-375 AD 351 "Emperor Constantius II crushes the usurper Magnentius at Mursa Maior (Dsijek, Yugoslavia) on September 28 to win one of the bloodiest battles in Roman history. Constantius II's cavalry destroys Magnentius' right flank after a day of slaughter, and each side loses almost 30,000 men each. Magnentius retreats to Aquileia." Chronology of Roman History: 351-375 AD 352-366 The 36th pope, St.Liberius, reigned 14 years. Born in Rome to the Savelli family. He had tough controversies with emperor Constantius regarding the Arian heresy. Exiled by him to France, the Roman populace demanded the return to the pope. In November of 361 Constantius dies and his successor Julianus revoked the sentances of excile. But in June of 36 Julianus dies and the following emperors didn't show the signs of any certain politics. The new political force was born in Rome the patriciate, which defended the pope. Liberius had the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore built. He died in September of 366 and was buried in the cemetry of Priscilla. 4th Century: 10 Popes 352 "Liberius [352-366], a Roman, is elected Papa of Rome. Liberius, Papa of Rome, is the first official listed Papa of Rome not recorded as a saint. The anti-Papa of Rome Saint Felix II [355-365] is elected by the same Papas who elected Liberius Papa of Rome. There is little doubt that Emperor Constantius II [337-361] is the official head of the Roman Church and is trying to force the Eastern and Western Churches to resolve their differences." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 353 The first record of Christians celebrating Christmas occurred in Rome this year. European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 353 Magnentius commits suicide in Lugdunum (Lyons) on August 10. Since Britain supported Magnentius, Constantius II, now the sole emperor, decimates the British ruling class. The result of inviting Germanic intervention to defeat Magnentius, however, is that armed bands of Germanic tribesmen maraud through the Western Empire. Chronology of Roman History: 351-375 AD 354 Gallus, the tyrannical ruler of Antioch, put to death. Chronology of Roman History: 351-375 AD 355 Julian studies Greek philosophy in Athens for a few months before he is summoned to Milan to assume the rank of Caesar and marry the emperor's sister Helena. Chronology of Roman History: 351-375 AD 355 "Liberius, Papa of Rome, requested a synod to resolve East/West differences, but when the Papa's own legates sided with the Eastern Church, he demanded a new general council at Milan. Emperor Constantius II (337-361) used bullying tactics to extract a condemnation of Athanasius from all the delegates except three Nicenes, who are promptly exiled. Liberius, Papa of Rome, however resisted bribery and threats to compromise and is brought by force to Milan and then proving unyielding are banished to Beroea in Thrace. "Saint Felix II, the anti-Papa of Rome [355-365] is elected by the same Papas who elected Liberius Papa of Rome. These Papas had solemnly sworn an oath they would not elect another Papa of Rome until Liberius died. The election of Saint Felix provoked a violent popular reaction but many considered Liberius Papa of Rome a traitor to orthodoxy and a persecutor of the faithful." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 357 "Liberius, [352-366], Papa of Rome exiled at Beroea under pressure from the local Papa capitulated to the Papas and submitted to the Emperor of Rome. His own letters suggest he is ready to pay almost any price to return to Rome." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 357 Julian defeats the Alemanni at Argentorate. Chronology of Roman History: 351-375 AD 358 "Emperor Constantius II (337-361) allowed Liberius, Papa of Rome, to be brought to Sirmium (Mitrovica in Yugoslavia) where he signed a proclamation rejecting the Nicene, one in being with the Father, declared the Son to be like the Father in being, and indeed in everything. The Roman Church is told that Liberius Papa of Rome could return to Rome only if he reigned jointly with Saint Felix II Papa of Rome. It is noteworthy to remember that the Roman Empire had been jointly ruled from time to time. The Roman Church is jointly ruled for the next seven years. The supporters of Liberius Papa of Rome acclaimed one God, one Christ, one Papa. The Roman government supported Felix Papa of Rome and Liberius Papa of Rome is not invited for example to the synod of Rimini in 359." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 359 Gratian born; Constantius II attacks Mesopotamia. Chronology of Roman History: 351-375 AD 359 The Eastern Papas' synod of Rimini adopted the Arianizing creed. Liberius Papa of Rome not being invited issued a decree after the death of Emperor Constantius in 361 setting aside the Arianizing decision. European History: 330 AD - 399 AD

Major Books and Events of the Decade 360-370

360 "The Roman Christian Church is considered a radical sect by the Romans and is meeting in private homes. This Roman Cult uses a symbol of a fish as their Icon." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 360 "The Picts and Scots cross Hadrian's Wall and attack Roman Britain; In April, the emperor, alarmed at Julian's popularity, demanded that he should send some of his best troops to serve against the Persians, but his soldiers rose in insurrection and proclaimed him Augustus; Julian sets out for Constantinople with his troops." Chronology of Roman History: 351-375 AD 361 Julian declares himself a pagan at Sirmium on the Danube and discovers that his cousin Constantius II was killed; Julian "the Apostate" becomes emperor and restores the empire to paganism. Chronology of Roman History: 351-375 AD 362 "Liberius, Papa of Rome, adopted a conciliatory posture at the synod of Alexandria and subsequently allowed communion to those who objected to his positions provided they adhered to the Nicene faith. This posture would continue until his death. His attempt at atonement suggested to the Roman Church that he is a weak Roman and this only tended to continue to divide their support. The Roman belief of absolutism does not sit well with any conciliatory posture. It is noteworthy that the Romans gave us the Modern Bible and the Rome principle of absolutism is incorporated. Any reference in the bible to re-incarnation is removed." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 362 "Julian goes to Antioch and makes himself unpopular by fixing an arbitrary price on corn in order to stave off a threatened famine." Chronology of Roman History: 351-375 AD 363 "Julian sets off against the Persians. He crosses the Tigris, advances to Ctesiphon, is enticed farther by a Persian traitor, is forced to retreat through barren country, and is harassed by swarms of Persian cavalry. Julian is mortally wounded by a spear on June 26, and Jovian becomes emperor, bringing back Christianity." Chronology of Roman History: 351-375 AD 364 End of Jovian's reign, and Valens becomes emperor with his brother Valentinian. Chronology of Roman History: 351-375 AD 364 "The bishops assembled in the Council of Laodicea, that is generally of more importance than the Council of Nice, reject the book of Revelations." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 365 "On July 21, much of the Roman Empire is shaken by a horrible phenomenon. Tremors are reported in Sicily, Greece, Egypt and Dalmatia (Yugoslavia). Alexandria awakened to furious thunder and lightning and the sea departed only to return to flood Alexandria for miles inland; some fifty thousand people died. Saint Felix II, Papa of Rome, died in November and is included in the list of Papas of Rome and martyrs whereas Liberius, Papa of Rome, is not sainted. European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 366-384 The 37th pope, St.Damasus I, reigned 18 years. Born in Spain in a noble family. He was forced to fight, even with arms, the anti-pope Ursinus. He succeeded in imposing the supremacy of the Church of Rome over all the other churches. He lavished attention on evangelizing the Roman society. Those times were documented by different observers and here is the one, fixed by St. Girolamus, speaking about degradation of the ecclesiastic customs: "There are some who make them consacrated only because of the opportunity to visit women freely. They think only about how to look better and how to smell better. They make their hair curly and hands decorated with the rings. Knowledge of many of them consists exclusively in knowing the names, the houses and the modes of life of noble women". Damasus died in December of 384. 4th Century: 10 Popes 366 "Liberius [352-366], Papa of Rome, died and a papal war erupted between Ursinus [366-367], Papa of Rome, and Damasus I [366-384] Papa of Rome a Roman, keeping in mind St. Felix II [355-366], Papa of Rome, is considered an anti-papa to Liberius. Damasus I Papa of Rome had followed Liberius, Papa of Rome, into exile in 355 then took service with Felix, Papa of Rome in Rome, then in 358 returned to Liberius, Papa of Rome. Damasus I, Papa of Rome also had requested and received the support of the Roman Government. The followers of Liberius, Papa of Rome, elected Ursinus [366-367], a deacon of Liberius, as the Papa of Rome. Ursinus [266-367] Papa of Rome lost, and became the anti-papa of Rome. Damasus I, Papa of Rome, immediately hired a gang of assassins to storm the Julian basilica to massacre the Ursinians. Fighting ensued for three days, and at the end, 137 bodies are removed from St. Mary Major all followers of Ursinus. The Emperor sent Ursinus Papa of Rome into exile and Damasus Papa of Rome claimed his authority as successor to St. Peter. To obtain the position he had to renounce his wife and family. This claim is not made by the Fathers of the Church, but began a precident hitherto unsupported by theology. Mob violence continued for another three weeks. The Papa of Rome required constant police protection against Ursinus Papa of Rome followers. The Papas of Italy are shocked by the events that weakened the moral authority of the Roman Church. Damasus I Papa of Rome (366-384) became known as 'the matrons' ear-tickler due to his attention to the wealthy ladies. He led a magnificent life style and is considered impossibly arrogant. "Damasus I, Papa of Rome, asked the prefect of Rome, a pagan with many priestly titles, to convert. He replied, 'willingly, if you make me Papa of Rome.' The Papacy had acquired much property, power and luxury that even surpassed that of the Emperor's table. St. Jerome [340-420], devoted to pagan learning and the secretary to Damasus Papa of Rome compiled the first Latin bible, called the Vulgate. Jerome loathed women and said St. Peter only washed away the dirt of marriage by the blood of martyrdom. Understandably, the Vulgate bible that is still authoritative in the Roman Church, contained many errors. Jerome [340-420] realized that the Semitic-Hebrew name Joshua had been incorrectly translated as Jesus. The correct translation of 'Jesus Christ (the anointed one)' is correctly 'Joshua, the Messiah.' Saint Jerome acknowledged the ancient copies of the Gospel of the Birth of Mary attributed to Saint Matthew and that it is considered genuine and authentic by several of the ancient Christian sects. Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis, and Austin, also mentioned a Gospel under this title. It is acknowledged that the Jerome version of the Mary Gospel according to Matthew differed in some specifics from other more ancient copies." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 367 By his father Valentinian, Gratian is made Augustus in Gaul. Chronology of Roman History: 351-375 AD 367 "The Celts of Caledonia continued to cross the Hadrian wall and attack the Roman army. The Scandinavian Germanic Saxon, Frank and Angle tribes began to raid the coast of Celtic Gaul. Ursinus [366-367], Papa of Rome, returned to Rome in triumph, being allowed by Emperor Valentinian [364-375]. His jubilation is short lived as Damasus I, Papa of Rome, bribed the court to again exile the anti-Papa of Rome and his clergy and many of his followers to Gaul. Many followers continued to meet in the cemeteries, but are soon brutally dislodged by the Papa's henchmen." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 368 "A Roman synod called by Damasus, Papa of Rome, to excommunicate Ursinus, Papa of Rome, resulted in the Italian Papas turning down his request." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 369 In China, reports are made of a "new star", probably a supernova, that was visible to naked-eye astronomers for about 150 days. [Hellemans, p.52]

Major Books and Events of the Decade 370-380

370 "Germanic Christianity embraced the Arian Doctrine that Jesus is the Son and creature of God the Father, neither eternal nor equal in substance with his creator. This Doctrine raised by the Libyan theologian Arius [256-336] raged until being condemned and put down. The importance of this incident is not the doctrine, but a shift in policy from freedom of debate and reason to one of monopolistic belief. The credo became 'I believe that I may understand.' This simple credo would led the church into the dark ages. Arianism also stressed local law, personal loyalty and war as the most highly prized occupation leading Europe into cultural decay. This 'contractual society' as compared to an 'agreement society' would dominate Europe into the 21st century." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 370 "Theodosius drives the Picts and Scots out of Britain; The Latin historian Eutropius dies. His Breviarium Historiae Romanae, a narrative of Roman history from the founding of the city to 364 A.D., is written in a simple style, and probably intended for the use of schools." Chronology of Roman History: 351-375 AD 370 "Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis in Cyprus, in his catalogue of New Testament includes the same books as modern times." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 370-379 Birth of Hypatia, in Alexandria, Egypt. She was the greatest woman scientist/mathematician of antiquity. [Hellemans, p.53] 374 "Ambrose [340-397] of Trier, a Roman Provincial Governor, is elected Archbishop of Milan although he is not baptized. He maintained that, in ecclesiastical matters, a bishop is superior to an emperor. Most of the Greek Fathers and many of the Latin Fathers to this point in time believed that the Gospel of Protevangelion attributed to James the lesser, cousin and brother of Jesus, the first bishop of the Christians in Jerusalem, is an authentic book of the bible. Some in the Eastern Christian Churches contended it is canonical." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 375 Valentinian dies; Gratian and Valentinian II become joint emperors. Gratian's share is Gaul, Spain, and Britain, but since his brother is only four years old, he practically rules the whole Western Empire. Chronology of Roman History: 351-375 AD 375 The Huns cross the Volga River, attack the Germanic Visigoths living in Ukraine. Romans permit fleeing Visigoths to enter the empire as Foederati, but so mistreats them that the Visigoths revolt. Chronology of Roman History: 351-375 AD 375 "The Scandia Ostrogoth (Eastern Goth) are living relatively peacefully north of the Black Sea for the past two hundred years, having migrated from Scandia (Sweden), and having subjugated the Mongol-Sarmatians. The Scandia Visigoth (Western Goth) also settled this area for the past one hundred seventy five years." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 375 "Tribal migration changed this year, from sporadic wanderings, to a more general panic type movement that would last for the next hundred years, changing cultural boundaries. The Mongol Huns from the East are driven deep into Europe, driving and splitting the Goth into three factions. Some are driven south into Romania, another faction into southern Italy, and a third group into southern France. The Langobards flee Germany and Poland south into northern Italy. The Germanic-Anglo flee Denmark and Germanic-Saxon flee the Netherlands for England. The Germanic- Franks flees the Rhine into France. The Vandals are driven from Hungary and Czechoslovakia to Spain and Northern Africa. The Mongol Huns make the Hungarian low lands their base of operation. European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 375 Gregory Nazianzen, bishop of Constantinople, excludes the book of Revelations from his list of New Testament books. European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 376 Theodosius the Elder, father of Thedosius I, is executed in Carthage. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 377 Arcadius born in Spain. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 378 Valens and two-thirds of his army defeated and killed by Visigoths at the battle of Adrianople. His nephew Gratian becomes Emperor of the Eastern Empire as well as what he rules in the West. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 378 "The Scandia Visigoth (Western Goth) crossed the Danube into Roman territory in flight from the Huns, a Mongol-Turkish tribe. The Ostrogoth (Eastern Goth) followed their kinsmen shortly thereafter. The successors to the Turkish Huns are the Mongol Avars and the Magyars. A Roman army, commanded by the Roman Emperor in person, is annihilated by the Visigoth (Western Goth) at Adrianople in Thrace. The Goths retreated and did not try to exploit their victory." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 378 "Damasus I, Papa of Rome, persuaded the Roman Government to recognize the Holy See as a court of first instance, and also of appeal for the Western episcopate. The Roman Emperor Gratian supported this request, as it supported the centralized Roman authority." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 378 "The Christians in Antioch first introduced Christ's Mass (Christmas) as a liturgical celebration on December 25. This date is used to align with Jewish and pagan festivals. The Jewish people celebrated Hanukkah and the Romans celebrated Saturnalia from December 17 to 24 when a slave and his master are regarded as equal. Sigillaria followed where parents gave dolls to children a tradition of gift giving. The Christians in Edessa accused the Roman Christians of idolatry and sun worship having aligned with the pagan sun worship festivals and rejected this tradition." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 378 Birth of Synesius of Cyrene [c.378-c.430], poet and orator, pupil of Hypatia, and eventually Bishop of Ptolemais in 410. He is said to have constructed an astrolabe. [D.E. Smith, p.136] 379 Theodosius I becomes Gratian's colleague. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD

Major Books and Events of the Decade 380-390

380 Theodosius I becomes seriously ill, which leads to his baptism as a Trinitarian and to edicts against Arianism. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 380 "Theodosius I (379-395) and his two co-emperors declared Christianity the state religion in that form that the Roman Empire had received from St. Paul (and/or St. Peter) and St. Damasus of Rome and Peter of Alexandria. They declared the Papa of Rome as the guardian of the true faith and those who espoused this doctrine are given the title Catholic Christians. This primacy is not based on decisions of synod, as are the claims of Constantinople but exclusively on his claim to being the direct successor of St. Peter, and so the rightful heir of the promise made to him by Christ. It is noteworthy that only the intervention of the Roman Emperor in 371 saved the Papa of Rome from claims of adultery, and that he secured his position through murder not a valid election. He advanced the cult of the martyrs to ensure a direct successor from St. Peter to the present reigning Papa of Rome is maintained at all costs. Forgery and falsification of records is consider acceptable. Papal reigns are expanded or contracted to conveniently record an unbroken Papal rule. The Roman Christian Church became the Roman Empire Church in action and words. In the beginning, the state trespassed on the Church's domain trying to mould the principles of faith to meet the law. Eventually the Roman Church would trespass on the State, demanding the right to appoint or remove Kings and Emperors. The Gospel message became a means to power and glory. The later Puritan Church revolution movement would consider that about this time the Roman Catholic Church began to formally deviate from Christian ideals. The Puritans especially resented the heathenistic Roman traditions that began to dominated this Roman Church. Some historians believe this is the beginning of the Roman Catholic doctrine of absolutism. The Roman Church no longer had to fear persecution. It is now the Jews and unbelievers who are under threat. They are the ones who would be tortured, burned and crucified in the name of Jesus the Crucified Jew. Philastrius, bishop of Brixis in Venice, in his index of the books in the New Testament, is the same as the modern version except he only includes thirteen of St. Paul's Epistles, omitting most likely the Epistle to the Hebrews and also excludes Revelations." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 381 Theodosius I summons the second general council at Constantinople Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 381 The Ecumenical Council of Constantinople (the first) is conducted this year. The intent is to place the Christian Churches of Antioch and Alexandria as subordinate to Constantinople. Damasus I (366-384) Papa of Rome refused to attend or contribute as he is only interested in securing Roman primacy. He frequently referred to Rome as the Apostolic See. The Papa of Constantinople is ranked second to the Papa of Rome or so Damasus said because it is considered the new Rome. To secure the position of Roman control, the theological 'thou art Peter' doctrine began to form, but would not be established until the 7th century. The belief at this time is that the Holy Ghost proceeded from God alone not from Christ. The Orthodox Church contends the Roman Church falsified the records to include Christ in the creed. European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 382 "Damasus I [366-384], Papa of Rome, pronounced that the Roman Catholic Church owed its primacy not to the decrees of a synod, but to the powers committed to Peter by Christ. Damasus is likely not aware that Roman Church authority originated with Paul not Peter. Damasus claims that Rome was the first see of the apostle Peter. Authority from Peter is a Roman retrofit tradition not supported by historical facts. Damasus would also change Christian tradition by addressing fellow Papas as 'sons' (of Rome) instead of 'brothers' in Christ. Neither St. Ambrose nor St. Augustine agreed with the conclusions of Damasus. Saint Ambrose wrote that Saint Peter had a primacy of confession not of office, a primacy of faith, not of rank. It is noteworthy that Saint Augustine followed the Manichaeism alias Kellis sect for nine years before becoming a Roman Catholic." European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 382 St. Jerome [340-420] is dubious of including the Epistle to the Hebrews although in other parts of his writings he considers then as Canonical. This appears to be the finalization of the New Testament as no new significant addition or deletion is recorded. It is noteworthy that at this point in time some 25 books of the Bible have been rejected as not Canonical to the New Testament. This naturally excludes the Dead Sea Scrolls, as they are still being evaluated. European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 383 Gratian is defeated by Maximus near Paris and flees to Lyons, where he is executed. Diocese in Britain declares Magnus Maximus as Roman Emperor. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 383 The Roman army begins the evacuation of Britain. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 383 Decius Magnus Ausonius returns to his estate at Burdigala. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 384 St. Siricius [384-399], a Roman and deacon of Damasus I and Liberius, with the support of Emperor Valentinian II [375-392] is unanimously elected Papa of Rome. He is the first Papa of Rome to issue Decretals, directives couched in the authoritative chancery style of Imperial edicts and, like them, carrying the force of Roman Law. February 11, 385 represents the earliest surviving Decretals. Siricus is the first Roman bishop to use the title 'pope'. This Papal reign represents the complete and final merging of Church and State. European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 384-399 The 38th pope, St.Siricius, reigned 15 years. Born in Rome. He was the first to assume the title of pope. Siricius prescribed celibacy for priests and deacons and decreed that only bishops could ordain priests. He was an energic man capable of commanding respect on all occasions. In those time to Rome arrived from the East the extremely ascetic form of monasticism. The monks of Rome began to conduct the disordered existance without precise rules. Sircius finished the last works over the construction of the churches of St Clement and St Pudenziana, moreover he reconstructed the basilica of St Paul. He died in November of 399 and probably was buried in the cemetry of St Priscilla, till Pasquale II didn't transfer his remains to St Prassede. 4th Century: 10 Popes 384 Flavius Honorius born. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 384 M. Aurelius Clemens Prudentius born in the north of Spain. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 384 Q. Aurelius Symmachus becomes prefect of Rome. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 386 A possible nova, visible for three months, is reported in China. [Hellemans, p.54] 386 Siricius [384-399]. Bishop of Rome. issued a Decretal to the Church in Africa and others that no Papa shall be consecrated without the cognizance of Rome. In 385 he allowed Papa Thessalonia the privilege of authorizing all Episcopal appointments in the region southeast Balkan peninsula. This Decretal is to ensure Roman influence in this region. The other Federation of Christian Church Papas largely ignored this Decretal as they considered themselves equal in authority. European History: 330 AD - 399 AD 387 Theodosius cancels the severe measures meted out to Antioch after a riot. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 388 Theodosius defeats Magnus Maximus at Aquileia, using large contingents of Germanic soldiers, whose loyalty did not lie with Rome. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 389 The burning of the Library of Alexandria during a riot betwen Christians and Pagans. What a poor way to honor God! [Hellemans, p.54]

Major Books and Events of the Decade 390-400

390 Theon of Alexandria, or Theon the Younger, father of the great Hypatia, edited the Elements of Euclid and the major works of Ptolemy, wrote miscellaneous treatises on science, and gave an algorithm for extracting square roots with sexigesimal fractions. Manuscripts of his Euclid edition are important for modern writers attempting to reconstruct an accurate text of the Elements. [D.E. Smith, p.136] 390 Ammianus Marcellinus, Roman historian who was born of Greek parents at Antioch and wrote a history of the Roman empire in 31 books, of which only 18 are extant, comprising the years 353/378, dies. 4th Century Historians, on the 4th Century 390 The governor of Thessalonica is lynched by a mob Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 391 Q. Aurelius Symmachus consul Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 392 Germanic leader of Rome's Rhineland forces revolts; the rebellion is suppressed by Theodosius I. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 392 Decius Magnus Ausonius, the foremost Latin poet of the 4th century and Gratian's tutor, dies. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD See: "Ausonius, Volume I, Books 1-17", translated by H. G. Evelyn-White [Harvard University Press, Jan 1919] 448 pages, $21.50, ISBN 0-674-99107-9. 392 Valentinian II murdered. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 392 The Christian Roman Emperor Theodosius closed the pagan temples, which had the effect of making Christianity the official state religion of the Roman Empire. [Hellemans, p.54] 393 The Christian Roman Emperor Theodosius abolished the Olympics. 393 Flavius Honorius becomes Emperor. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 393 A possible supernova in Scorpio, visible for 8 months, is reported in China as a "guest star." [Hellemans, p.54] 394 Alaric I becomes leader of the Gothic auxiliaries of Theodosius I. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 394 Theodosius I marches against the Franks and their puppet emperor Eugenius. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 395 Siricius [384-399], Bishop of Rome, incurred the wrath of St. Jerome [340-420], who once fancied himself as Papa of Rome, because of his favorable attitude to John, Papa of Jerusalem [d.417] and to Rufinus of Aquileia [d.410], both at the time in Jerome's blackest books. St. Paulinus of Nola also is critical of this Papa of Rome. 395 Theodosius I dies in Ambrose's arms, the last emperor of the entire empire. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 395 Rome split into two parts with the Latin Western and the Greek Eastern or Byzantine empire, with its capital at Constantinople. Theodosius' sons rule each half; Honorius in West and Arcadius in East. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 395 Alaric I invades and ravages Thrace, Macedon, Thessaly, and Illyria, but is driven out of the Peloponnesus by Stilicho and the troops of the Western empire. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 395 Claudius Claudianus, the last of the great Latin poets, comes to Rome from Alexandria and becomes a patrician by favor of Stilicho. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 4th Century Historians, on the 4th Century 396 Arcadius makes Alaric I governor of Illyria. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 398 Honorius marries the daughter of Flavius Stilicho. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 399 St. Anastasius [399-401], a Roman, is elected Bishop of Rome and his son Innocent would succeed him as Bishop of Rome. 400 Alaric I invades Upper Italy. Chronology of Roman History: 376-400 AD 399-401 The 39th pope, St.Anastasius I, reigned 2 years. Born in Rome. His plain figure was consacrated pope in November of 399. He banned the works of Origen whose ideas were considered heretical. The Liber pontificalis attributes him a decree obliging priests to listen in feet the lecture of Gospel by deacons. The new problem for the Roman empire appeared in the time of Anastasius's pontificate: the barbarians. In November of 401, Alaric, the king of Goths, conquered the north of peninsula to Piacenza and threatened Milan, where the emperor of the West, Honorius, had a residence. The pope died in December of 401 and was buried over the catacombs of St Ponzianus. 4th Century: 10 Popes 400 "During the year 400 A.D. there were three major mathematicians alive. Martianus Capella was around 35 years old and Synesius of Cyrene was about thirty years old. There is a dispute about when Hypatia of Alexandria was born, so she was between 30 and 45 years old at the turn of the century. Hypatia was the most prominent of these mathematicians and was the first woman to be involved in the academic part of society. Hypatia also had interests in astronomy and astrology. She was the daughter of the famous mathematician Theon who died in 395 A.D. None of Hypatia's writings have been found to this day. All that is known about her work are the titles of her works and references to them by other mathematicians such as her pupil Synesius of Cyrene. Synesisus claims that he invented the astrolabe with the help of Hypatia, but this fact is disputed among historians. It is known that Hypatia wrote commentaries on Apollonius' Conics and Diophantus' Arithmetica. It is possible that she also helped her father write his commentary on Ptolemy's Almagest. Her works also influenced the scientists Descartes, Newton, and Leibniz. Hypatia was murdered in 415 A.D. by a mob of supporters of Cyril, the archbishop of Alexandria, because they believed she was responsible for preventing a friendship between Cyril and her good friend Orestes, the Roman prefect of Alexandria." Math History: 400 A.D. Author: Tim Lucas References: Adair, Ginny. "Hypatia" Deakin, Michael A. B. "The Primary Sources for the Life and Work of Hypatia of Alexandria." History of Mathematics Mac Tutor Hisotry of Mathematics Archive "Biography of Hypatia" As to Capella: he was also a decadent writer of prose and verse. Roman writer living in Africa. Born in Madaura, birthplace of Apuelius (who was a better and more original poet). 400 Chinese Buddhist Fa-hien visits India, brings Hindu mathematics to India. [D.E. Smith, p.554] 400 The Polynesian people reached Easter Island off the coast of South America and surely landed and established colonies in the Americas. European History: 400-449 A.D. 400 Christianity came to Caledonia, the land of the Picts (Scotland). Vandal Stilicho under orders of Emperor Theodosius I led the troops that prevented the Visigoth (Western Goth) invasion of the Diocese of Italy but would not prevent the sacking of Rome ten years later. The Germanic tribes had adopted an Arian religion that the Romans considered as a heinous heresy. European History: 400-449 A.D. 400 "Rome accepts the redistribution of European nations at the hands of the Mongol Hun. Rome sues for peace with the Hun and must pay tribute to avoid being conquered. The Diocese of Gaul (France) is created this year by the Christian Romans. They established the Rhine River as their northern boundary beginning the political and cultural differentiation of the west Germanic Celt Franks from the Germanic Anglo and Saxon Franks. This differentiation is the result of the great migration caused by the Mongol Hun penetration to the Rhine River last century. The Diocese of Spain including Portugal and Morocco is also established this year by the Christian Romans. The Diocese of Britain excludes Scotia (Ireland) and Pict (Scotland). The Prefecture of Italy is divided into the northern Diocese of Italy (the Langobards), the southern Diocese of Rowe (Goth-Italy) including Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily and the Diocese of Africa. Greece, Albania, and Yugoslavia southwest of the Danube River is the Prefecture of Illyricum. Turkey to Egypt is the Prefecture of the East. Each Diocese is ruled by a Vicar and each Prefecture by a Praetorian Perfect. An example is that one Praetorian Perfect ruled the Prefecture of Gaul that included the Diocese of Spain, Gaul and Britain. Each Diocese is divided into Provinces that are ruled by a Governor. At the top of these structures are to be two senior emperors called Augusti and two junior emperors called Caesar who are to succeed the Augusti. This year Augusti Honorius ruled the West and Augusti Arcadius ruled the East." European History: 400-449 A.D. 400 The Sassanid peoples occupied Mesopotamia and Armenia and are not under Roman control. Evidence of Lapp culture extends across Arctic Sweden, Norway, Findland and Russia. European History: 400-449 A.D. 400-409 Alexandrian scholars are the first to use the word "Chemistry" for the processes of changing matter [Hellemans, p.55] 400-409 By forging together wrought iron and cast iron, Steel is first made in China. [Hellemans, p.55] 400-409 The Umbrella is invented in China. [Hellemans, p.55]

Other Key Dates and Stories of this 4th Century

{to be done}

Major Writers Born this Fourth Century

330 Ammianus Marcellinus (AD 330-395) see: 4th Century Historians, on the 4th Century c.335 Theon of Alexandria (c.335-c.405), or Theon the Younger, father of the great Hypatia, edited the Elements of Euclid and the major works of Ptolemy, wrote miscellaneous treatises on science, and gave an algorithm for extracting square roots with sexigesimal fractions. see [390] c365-4?? Martianus Capella, Mathematician, see: [400]. Also a decadent writer of prose and verse. Roman writer living in Africa. Born in Madaura, birthplace of Apuelius (who was a better and more original poet). 370-379 Hypatia (c.370-415) , in Alexandria, Egypt. She was the greatest woman scientist/mathematician of antiquity. She was murdered in the early 5th Century (415). see: [370-379], [390] 378 Birth of Synesius of Cyrene [c.378-c.430], poet and orator, pupil of Hypatia, and eventually Bishop of Ptolemais in 410. He is said to have constructed an astrolabe. [see: [378] ???-??? Claudius Claudianus (fl. AD 395-410) , a Greek born in Alexandria, is often considered the last great poet of the pagan world. See: [395]; See: 4th Century Historians, on the 4th Century ???-??? Metrodorus: see 325 (or maybe 500) ???-??? Julius Firmicus Maternus: see [340] wrote on Astrology. His work Eight Books on Mathematics.... Chen Zhuo: see 300-309 Hsi Han: see 304 3??-4?? Chinese Buddhist Fa-hien visits India, brings Hindu mathematics to India. See: [400] More: {to be done} Data is scattered through the main body of text, and more should be added.

Major Writers Died this Fourth Century

c.330 Iamblichus (c.250-c.330): Neoplatonist Philosopher, born in Chalcis, Coele-Syria; a pupil of Anatolius and Porphyrius, Mathematician, wrote several books. He wrote an Arithmetic..., see [325] He tried to unify Plato, Pythagoras, Hermeticism, and the literature of Magic (in his book "De mysteriis"). 392 Decius Magnus Ausonius, the foremost Latin poet of the 4th century and Gratian's tutor. See: "Ausonius, Volume I, Books 1-17", translated by H. G. Evelyn-White [Harvard University Press, Jan 1919] 448 pages, $21.50, ISBN 0-674-99107-9. 395 Ammianus Marcellinus (AD 330-395) see: 4th Century Historians, on the 4th Century 2??-3?? Astronomer Chen Zhuo of China makes a single star map by combining the 4th Century BC star maps of Shih Shen, Gan De, and Wu Xien. see: [300-309] 2??-3?? Hsi Han, in his Record of Plants and Trees of the Southern Regions, gives the first written account of the biological control of pests see: [304] ???-??? Metrodorus, who compiled the arithmetical epigrams in the Greek Anthology, may have flourished around 325, but may have been as much later as 500. see: [325] ???-??? Julius Firmicus Maternus: see [340] wrote on Astrology. His work Eight Books on Mathematics.... ??? Pappas of Alexandria (260-???), Mathematician: see [300] ???-??? Eutropius (fl. AD 350-370) see: 4th Century Historians, on the 4th Century {to be done} Data is scattered through the main body of text, and more should be added.

Decade by Decade 4th Century Science Background

The background of science and mathematics has been promiscuously intermingled with political/military history in the main body of text in this web page. Some later centuries chronologized in this web site break these apart (science/math versus political/military history). Similarly, "literature" as a genre based on the short story and the novel had not yet evolved, with the possible exception of Myths, stories about Christian saints, and poetry of equivalent function.

Decade by Decade Fourth Century Mundane Background

See the political/military history in the main body of text, and the index of Politico-Military People of the Century, below. The biggest names in Mundane History of the Fourth Century included: * Emperor [312-337] Constantine (born a bastard in 274, died 337) see: [27 October 312] * Emperor Diocletian (284-305), [see 303], [316] * Emperor Constantine II * Alaric I, barbarian leader who, in the 5th century, captures Rome, see: [394],[395],[396],[400] * St.Marcellus I, the 30th pope, see [308-309] * St.Eusebius, the 31st pope, see [309] * St.Miltiades, the 32nd pope, see [311-314] * St.Silvester I, the 33rd pope, see: [314-335] * St.Mark, the 34th pope, see: [336] * St.Julius I, the 35th pope, see: [337-352] * St.Liberius, the 36th pope, see: [352-366] * St.Damasus I, the 37th pope, see: [366-384] * St.Siricius, the 38th pope, see: [384-399] * St.Anastasius I, the 39th pope, see: [399-401] * Helena, the mother of Emperor Constantine I, see: [317] * Fausta, Constantine's wife, steamed to death, see: [327] * Constantius, third son of Constantine, see: [317] * Flavius Julius Constans, Constantin's youngest son, see: [320] * Constantine's eldest son Crispus, executed, see: [326] * Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus), the youngest son of Constantius (Constantine's half brother), see [331] * Galerius, one of 6 simultaneous emperors. See [308] * Licinius, one of 6 simultaneous emperors. co-ruled [313-324] with Constantine. See [308], [313] * Maximin in the East; * Maximian (M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus), one of 6 simultaneous emperors. See [308], [310] * Maxentius, one of 6 simultaneous emperors. See [308] * Emperor Flavius Honorius, see: [393] * Donatus of North Africa, prophet/heretic [see: [350] * Arius [256-336], Libyan theologian, founded the doctrine, later the heresy of Arianism, see: [370] * the usurper Magnentius, crushed by Emperor Constantius II at Mursa Maior (Dsijek, Yugoslavia) [see 28 Sep 351], [353] * Gallus, the tyrannical ruler of Antioch, see [354] * Gratian, son of Valentinian, Gratian, made Augustus in Gaul. see: [359], [367] * Emperor Jovian, see: [364] * Emperor Valens, see: [364] * Emperor Valentinian, see: [364] * Theodosius drove the Picts and Scots out of Britain, as Emperor Theodosius I (379-395), he had two co-emperors; see [370], [380] * Ambrose (340-397) of Trier, a Roman Provincial Governor, elected Archbishop of Milan, see: [374] * Gregory Nazianzen, bishop of Constantinople, see: [375] * St. Jerome [340-420], theologian, see: [382] * Q. Aurelius Symmachus, Prefect of Rome, Consul, see: [384],[391]

Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology

|Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Literary Precursors |Cosmic History: 13,000,000,000 - 3000 BC |6th Millennium BC: When the Goddess Ruled |5th Millennium BC: Mesopotamia, Egypt |4th Millennium BC: Iceman of the Alps, Old Kingdom Egypt |3rd Millennium BC: Gilgamesh and Cheops |2nd Millennium BC: Abraham to David |1st Millennium BC: Homer, Buddha, Confucius, Euclid |1st Century: Jesus, Cymbeline, Caligula, Pliny |2nd Century: Hero, Ptolemy, Nichomachus |3rd Century: 3 Kingdoms China, Legendary Japan |4th Century: Constantine, Hypatia, Ausonius [you are here] |5th Century: Rome in Crisis, Dark Ages start |6th Century: Boethius, Taliesin, Mohammed |7th Century: Bede, Brahmagupta, Isidorus |8th Century: Beowulf, Charlemagne, 1001 Arabian Nights [you are here] |9th Century: Gunpowder and the first printed book |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China |11th Century: Kyahham, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Fibonacci and final flowering of Chivalry |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: Future Prizewinners

Where to Go for More

Useful Reference Books Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources:

4th Century Historians, on the 4th Century

Ammianus Marcellinus (AD 330-395) Gibbon considered Ammianus to be the most notable Latin historian after Tacitus, and the best contemporary source on the late 4th century Empire. Though he was a Syrian Greek, Ammianus wrote in Latin. His major work, written in AD 390, is Commentaries on the Remaining Conducted Affairs (Rerum gestari libri qui supersunt), of which books 14-31 survive. Born into a wealthy family at Antioch in about AD 330, Ammianus became a Roman officer at an early age, and traveled through much of the Empire. Describing himself as miles quondam et Graecus ("a soldier and a Greek"), Ammianus brings to his writings both military experience and the comprehensive perspective of the Greek historical tradition which began with Herodotus. In the well-established canons of Roman historical writing, the historian epitomizes periods by selectively relating the major events. As Ammianus believed this method recorded only "incomplete knowledge," his writings stand out among the contemporary writers Eutropius, Festus, and Aurelius Victor. Telling his readers that his quest is to write the whole story, to record ad scientiam proficiet plenam ("with a view toward complete knowledge"), Ammianus describes wars, happenings at court, heroic acts, and the current state of the Roman empire, including growing turbulence along the frontiers. The principle focus of his main written work, the Rerum gestarium, is the Persian campaign led by Julian the Apostate in AD 363, of which Ammianus provides an eyewitness account. In his capacity as miles, Ammianus first served in Persia as an officer under Constantinus II's general Urinus, where he witnessed the brutal events of the Persian capture of Amida in 359. He later served under Julian in the campaign that saw the Emperor killed and the army defeated near Nisibis in the summer of 363. Ammianus provides a lengthy, often emotional account of the events in Persia. This includes in-depth sketches of Julian himself, who commanded Britain and Gaul after being named Caesar in AD 355. As attested by writings of both Ammianus and Julian (himself a prolific writer and competent historian), Britain was an important source of grain for Gaul. One large grain-producing area may have been Salisbury plain. Ammianus directly mentions ships arriving in war-weary Gaul: "He even constructed granaries in place of those burned, in which could be stored the supply of grain usually brought over from Britain" (Book 18, 2,3; AD 359). Julian, in his AD 361 Letter to the Athenians, also mentions the arrival of ships from Britain after his campaiging of AD 358-9 effectively reopened the supply routes between Britain and Gaul: "Then followed the second and third years of that campaign, and by that time all the barbarians had been driven out of Gaul, most of the towns had been recovered, and a whole fleet of many ships had arrived from Britain. " Ammianus spent the years 355-357 in Gaul. Between military accounts, he relates the history, geography, and culture of the Gallic provinces, based on his experiences and the writings of the Greek historian Timagenes. In retelling the story of Gaul, Ammianus includes mythological origins and the early history of the region. In his descriptions of Britain under the rule of Julian, Ammianus writes that unrest in Gaul distracted Julian from taking an active role as commander of Britain. During the winter of AD 360, he briefly sent the commander of the armed forces, Lupicinus, to the island: "In Britain during the tenth consulship of Constantius and the third of Julian, invasions by the fierce tribes of the Scots and the Picts, who had broken the peace they had agreed upon, were causing destruction in those areas along the frontiers, and the provinces, worn out by numerous disasters in the past, were caught in the grip of fear. The Caesar Julian, who was wintering at Paris and was preoccupied by various problems, was afraid to go to the assistance of those across the sea, as I have related Constans did, in case he left the Gallic provinces without a ruler at a time when the Alamanni were roused to savagery and war. "(Book XX, 1) In AD 367 barbarian tribes mounted a concerted invasion by land and sea, and breached Hadrian's Wall. As Ammianus states, "The Picts and Saxons and Scots [Irish] and Atecotti harassed the Britons with continual afflictions." Theodosius, sent to quell the revolt, rebuilt Hadrian's Wall, and restored peace to Britannia for the next 40 years. Late Roman and Dark Age Historians of Britain [Athena Review Vol.1, no.2] Eutropius (fl. AD 350-370) Flavius Eutropius, a contemporary of Ammianus Marcellinus, and fellow soldier under Julian in the Persian campaign, became the court historian for the emperor Valens (364-378). Little else is known about his life. He should not be confused with his more notorious contemporary, Eutropius the Eunuch, who was a powerful advisor to the Emperor Arcadius and Consul in 399 (prior to being beheaded for high treason). While working for Valens, Flavius Eutropius wrote a ten-book compendium of Roman history entitled Histori¾ roman¾ breviarium (A Concise History of Rome), which provides details of the British campaigns of Caesar, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian and Trajan, as well as later happenings in Gaul. His description of Claudius' conquest of Britain in AD 43 is based partly on Tacitus: "He made war upon Britain, which none of the Romans after Julius Caesar had meddled with; and conquering it by Cnaeus Centius and Aulus Plautius, illustrious and noble gentlemen, he had a famous triumph. He added likewise some islands, lying in the ocean beyond Britain, to the Roman Empire, which are called Orcades; and gave the name of Britannicus to his son." (VII, 13) In discussing Nero's reign, Eutropius refers to Boudicca's rebellion: "He [Nero] attempted no conquest in the military way, and very nearly lost Britain. Under him two very famous towns were there taken and destroyed" [ie., London and St. Albans, or Colchester] (VII, 14) Eutropius also provides details on the successful campaign of Vespasian in Britain: "[Vespasian] having been sent by Claudius into Germany, and from there into Britain, engaged thirty-two times with the enemy, and added two very potent nations [gentes], twenty towns, and the Isle of Wight [Insulam Vectam], near Britain, to the Roman Empire." (VII, 19) Eutropius somewhat mistakenly attributes the construction of the Antonine Wall to Septimius Severus (who did in fact repair the wall): "Septimius had his final campaign in Britain, and in order to secure the lines, he had built a palisade stretching 32 miles from sea to sea." (VIII, 18) This inaccuracy was picked up by Orosius in his History, from which it was later copied by Bede in his 8th century Ecclesiastical History (see below). Eutropius was translated into Greek in AD 380 by Paeanius as well as by a certain Capito (whose writings are now lost). Besides Orosius and Bede, Eutropius was used by both St. Jerome and Hincmar of Reims (ca. AD 806-882). More recently, he has been referenced by 18th and 19th century historians including Gibbon and Mommsen. Late Roman and Dark Age Historians of Britain [Athena Review Vol.1, no.2] Claudian (fl. AD 395-410) Claudius Claudianus, a Greek born in Alexandria, is often considered the last great poet of the pagan world. He lived in Rome at the end of the 4th century AD, and is best known for verse written in praise of Honorius and his general Stilicho. One of his poems, On the Consulship of Stilicho, provides our only source for an expedition to Britain mounted by Stilicho in AD 396-8. Frere (1987) believes this is evidence of naval activity against the Irish, Picts, and Saxons. Claudian's colorful style in this poem and another, The Gothic War, also provides rare detail on the appearance of the Picts and Caledonians: "There also came the legion set to guard the furthest Britons, the legion that curbs the savage Scot and scans the lifeless patterns tatooed on the dying Picts." (Gothic War, 416-418) "Next spoke Britannia, dressed in the skin of some Caledonian beast, her cheeks tatooed, her sea-blue mantle sweeping over her footsteps like the surge of ocean." (On the Consulship of Stilicho, II) Late Roman and Dark Age Historians of Britain [Athena Review Vol.1, no.2]
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