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We examine both works of fiction and important contemporaneous works on non-fiction which set the context for early Science Fiction and Fantasy.
There are 0 hotlinks here to authors, magazines, films, or television items elsewhere in the Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide or beyond. Most recently updated: 20 May 2003 [from 152 to 169 kilobytes].
This web page draws heavily on FACTS as listed in "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. It does not copy the TEXT of that fine and recommended reference, and has value added in correlating the scientific and literary production of the century, and in hotlinking to additional resources.
Facts were also checked against "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A. Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795. It also utilizes facts from Volume I of D.E. Smith's "History of Mathematics" [(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958]. Facts are also drawn from the 1911 Encyclopedia Brittanica, and the Wikipedia. Executive Summary of the Fifth Century Mathematical/Scientific/Philosophical/Literary People of the Fifth Century Fiction About the 5th Century Non-Fiction About the 5th Century Major Books and Events of the Decade 400-410 Major Books and Events of the Decade 410-420 Major Books and Events of the Decade 420-430 Major Books and Events of the Decade 430-440 Major Books and Events of the Decade 440-450 Major Books and Events of the Decade 450-460 Major Books and Events of the Decade 460-470 Major Books and Events of the Decade 470-480 Major Books and Events of the Decade 480-490 Major Books and Events of the Decade 490-500 Other Key Dates and Stories of this Fifth Century Major Writers Born this Fifth Century Major Writers Died this Fifth Century Decade by Decade Fifth Century Science Background Decade by Decade Fifth Century Mundane Background Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology 5th Century Historians, on the 5th Century

Executive Summary of the 5th Century

A century of crisis: The eternal city of Rome fell to barbarians, the Christian church split between Rome and Constantinople, and Europe slipped into the Dark Ages. Rome was sacked by Visigoths [410]; Attila the Hun conquered much of Europe, and nears Rome [452]; Vandals conquered Carthage [439], and sacked Rome [455]. Sometime after 440, Anglo-Saxons settled in Britain. According to legend, they were invited by Vortigern. Buddhism spread as far as Myanmar (Burma) and Indonesia. Buddhist texts begin being translated into Chinese. There were at the dawn of the dark Ages, a few inventions, and the spread of earlier technologies,including: * Steel is first made in China. [400-409] * the stirrup was invented in China * the Umbrella is invented in China [400-409] * the heavy plow came into in use in Slavic lands * metal horseshoes were commonly used in Gaul Hypatia (until she was murdered c.410-419) and Boethius were the great Mathematicians of the 5th Century, the way Fibonacci was to the 13th century.. Mathematical/Scientific/Philosophical/Literary People of the Fifth Century
  1. Aryabhata
  2. : see 410-419, 497, 499
  3. Boethius [Anicius Manlius Severinus]
  4. : see 410-419, 524
  5. Martianus Mineus Felix Capella
  6. : see 400, 460
  7. Tsu Ch'ung Chi
  8. : see 430
  9. Tun Ch'uan
  10. : see 425
  11. Ho Ch'eng-t'ien
  12. : see 450
  13. Zu Chongzhi
  14. : see 429
  15. Domninus
  16. : see 450
  17. Fa-hien
  18. : see 400
  19. Hypatia of Alexandria
  20. : see 400, 410-419
  21. Wang Jong
  22. : see 425
  23. Marinus of Flavia Neapolis
  24. : see 485
  25. Proclus
  26. : see 410, 460-469, 485
  27. Synesisus
  28. : see 400
  29. Wu
  30. : see 450
  31. Victorius
  32. : see 450
  33. P'i Yen-tsung
  34. : see 440

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Fiction About the Fifth Century As usual, all book reviews on this page are by Your Humble Webmaster, and included in my copyright notice. Novels listed below, in alphabetical order by author, include those by these 13 authors: * Claudia Dain * Hella S. Haasse * Charles Kingsley * Allan Massie * Albert Noyer * Justine Randers-Pehrson * Joseph Thomas Rossettie * C. B. Rykken * Bertrice Small Claudia Dain, "To Burn" [Apr 2002], ISBN 0-843-94985-6 A Saxon warrior has taken captive the gorgeous Roman aristocrat Melenia. She hates him, fights him, comes to respect him, and inevitably falls in love with him. This is a "Romantic Times Reviewers Choice Award Nominee." Hella S. Haasse, "Threshold of Fire", In Sixth Century Christian Rome, Claudian is "discovered" in Alexandria by Roman Prefect Hadrian, who makes him his secretary and brings him to Rome. Claudian, based on the hitoric figure, openly a poet and secretly a pagan, gets in legal trouble with the city Prefect, which messes up his personal and literary life. Can he win this battle? All the action (not counting flashbacks) is compressed into 1 1/2 days of July 417. Claudian's last will and testament is dedicated to his Egyptian Jewish grandfather Eliezar, so this novel has a sub-text of religious, national, and ethnic identity. Hella S. Haasse originally wrote and published this novel in Dutch. Charles Kingsley, "Hypatia: New Foes with an Old Face" [1895; 1935], partially available online. The brilliant pagan Philosopher/Mathematician Hypatia takes as a pupil the virile young monk Philammon. The disillusioned Philammon has left his monastery and become absorbed in the amazing sights and action in Alexandria. Albert Noyer, "The Saint's Day Deaths", This Historical Mystery is set in Mogontium, today the German city of Mainz. In this late-Roman Sixth Century, hordes of barbarians are preparing to conquer Rome, while in the city, there has been a puzzling series of murders of citizens named after Christian martyrs. Who can solve these crimes? Allan Massie, "The Evening of the World: A Romance of the Dark Ages" [March 2003], [London: Weidenfeld, 2001] ISBN 0-297-81697-7, 297 pages. After the eternal city of Rome is captured by Visigoths, a noble-born yet spiritually lost youth "Marcus" travels the dying empire in a quest for truth and adventure. He is under orders from Emperor Honorius. The novel is complicated (or enriched, depending on your comfort level) by the pretense that it is a translation from an obscure work by "Michael Scott, Wizard of the North, tutor to Frederick II." There was such a mathematician/magician in Scotland in the 13th century. There are further annotations from a fictional Knight Templar. So the apperently straightforward novel is interleaved with textual subtlety. Justine Randers-Pehrson, "Stones for a Crumbling Wall" [Writers Club Press, Jan 2003] trade paperback, IDBN 0-595-26582-0. The Visigoths have taken Rome, so a disgraced Roman army officer joins the conquerors for a while, but returns to his Roman heritage in the confrontation with Atilla the Hun. Joseph Thomas Rossettie, "The Lycurgis Cup", In this novel, which extends from 4th to 5th century, deals with the life-or-death religious struggle between two fanatical sects. This is seen through the eyes of a scholar visiting Ephesus, namely Veritus. The cup in question, according to recent scientific analysis, actually uses nanosized gold atom clusters to provide different colors depending on front or back lighting. C. B. Rykken, "High Road to Carthage", [1992; 2000] Vandals sail up the Tiber and sack Rome in 455. The Emperor Petronius Maximus, one of several rapidly replaced emperors in a period of chaos, is disembowled by a raging mob. Our protagonist, Lady Adriana, flees the collapsing city. But hot in pursuit are the deadly agents of Faustinus. Historical characters profiled here include Aetius the Patrician, Pope Leo the Great, Valentinian III, and others. This extraordinary first novel is also available on-line. Bertrice Small, "To Love Again", [Ballentine, May 1993] trade paperback, 416 pages, ISBN 0-345-37391-X. How terrible it is for Cailin Drusus to be a slave. He was the privileged child, pampered and high in self-esteem, of a Roman father and a Celtic mother. But now he's been captured and dragged to Byzantium. Is there any life for him here? Non-Fiction About the 5th Century * Ensslin, Wm. "Maximus (81)." RE supp. 5:673ff. * Kent, J.P.C., Roman Imperial Coinage volume 10 (London, 1994). * Matthews, J.F., Western Aristocracies and Imperial Court, A.D. 364-425 (Oxford, 1975), 311-313. * Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, vol. 2, ed. J.R. Martindale (Cambridge, 1980), 744-745 * Seeck, O. "Gerontius (6)." RE 7:1270.25ff. * Scharf, R., 'Der spanische Kaiser Maximus und die Ansiedlung der Westgoten in Aquitanie' Historia 41 (1992), 374-384. * The Age of Attila: Fifth-Century Byzantium and the Barbarians [Ann Arbor, 1960]) * R.C. Blockley (Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire [Liverpool, 1983], vol. 2). See also: 5th Century Historians, on the 5th Century {to be done}

Major Books and Events of the Decade 400-410 A.D.

395-408 Reign of Roman Emperor Arcadius "The ineffectual life and reign of Flavius Arcadius are of considerably less importance than the quite significant developments that occurred during his reign. Born either in 377 or 378 to then general Theodosius and Aelia Flavia Flacilla, he and his younger brother, Honorius, ruled the eastern and western halves of the Roman Empire respectively from 395...." Arcadius Geoffrey S. Nathan, UCLA 395-423 Reign of Western Emperor Honorius "Flavius Honorius was born in the east in 384, the younger son of the emperor Theodosius I (379-395) and Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. In his youth he was named Most Noble Child (nobilissimus puer), and in 386 he held the consulate. He was summoned by his father to Rome when he was five, but in 391 he returned with him to Constantinople, where in 393 he was proclaimed emperor. In 394, he was called to Milan, and in 395, when Theodosius died, Honorius and his brother Arcadius jointly succeeded to the throne, with Arcadius ruling the east and Honorius the west. This year marked the beginning of the true de facto division of the empire into eastern and western halves, each under the rule of its own emperor even though, in theory, the empire remained a single entity. Both boys spent their reigns under the influence of powerful advisers. The first such power behind the throne in the west was the Vandal general Stilicho, both of whose daughters Honorius married -- Maria circa 398 and Thermantia in 408...." Honorius Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina 384-399 The 38th pope, St.Siricius, reigned 15 years. Born in Rome. He was the first to assume the title of pope. Siricius prescribed celibacy for priests and deacons and decreed that only bishops could ordain priests. He was an energic man capable of commanding respect on all occasions. In those times to Rome arrived, from the East, the extremely ascetic form of monasticism. The monks of Rome began to conduct the disordered existance without precise rules. Sircius finished the last works over the construction of the churches of St.Clement and St.Pudenziana, moreover he reconstructed the basilica of St.Paul. He died in November of 399 and probably was buried in the cemetry of St.Priscilla, until Pasquale II transferred his remains to St.Prassede. 4th Century: 10 Popes 399-401 The 39th pope, St.Anastasius I, reigned 2 years. Born in Rome. His plain figure was consacrated pope in November of 399. He banned the works of Origen whose ideas were considered heretical. The Liber pontificalis attributes him a decree obliging priests to listen in feet the lecture of Gospel by deacons. The new problem for the Roman empire appeared in the time of Anastasius's pontificate: the barbarians. In November of 401, Alaric, the king of Goths, conquered the north of the Italian peninsula to Piacenza and threatened Milan, where the emperor of the West, Honorius, had a residence. The pope died in December of 401 and was buried over the catacombs of St.Ponzianus. 4th Century: 10 Popes 400 "During the year 400 A.D. there were three major mathematicians alive. Martianus Capella was around 35 years old and Synesius of Cyrene was about thirty years old. There is a dispute about when Hypatia of Alexandria was born, so she was between 30 and 45 years old at the turn of the century. Hypatia was the most prominent of these mathematicians and was the first woman to be involved in the academic part of society. Hypatia also had interests in astronomy and astrology. She was the daughter of the famous mathematician Theon who died in 395 A.D. None of Hypatia's writings have been found to this day. All that is known about her work are the titles of her works and references to them by other mathematicians such as her pupil Synesius of Cyrene. Synesisus claims that he invented the astrolabe with the help of Hypatia, but this fact is disputed among historians. It is known that Hypatia wrote commentaries on Apollonius' Conics and Diophantus' Arithmetica. It is possible that she also helped her father write his commentary on Ptolemy's Almagest. Her works also influenced the scientists Descartes, Newton, and Leibniz. Hypatia was murdered in 415 A.D. by a mob of supporters of Cyril, the archbishop of Alexandria, because they believed she was responsible for preventing a friendship between Cyril and her good friend Orestes, the Roman prefect of Alexandria." Math History: 400 A.D. Author: Tim Lucas References: Adair, Ginny. "Hypatia" Deakin, Michael A. B. "The Primary Sources for the Life and Work of Hypatia of Alexandria." History of Mathematics Mac Tutor Hisotry of Mathematics Archive "Biography of Hypatia" 400 Chinese Buddhist Fa-hien visits India, brings Hindu mathematics to India. [D.E. Smith, p.554] 400 The Polynesian people reached Easter Island off the coast of South America and surely landed and established colonies in the Americas. European History: 400-449 A.D. 400 Christianity came to Caledonia, the land of the Picts (Scotland). Vandal Stilicho under orders of Emperor Theodosius I led the troops that prevented the Visigoth (Western Goth) invasion of the Diocese of Italy but would not prevent the sacking of Rome ten years later. The Germanic tribes had adopted an Arian religion that the Romans considered as a heinous heresy. European History: 400-449 A.D. 400 "Rome accepts the redistribution of European nations at the hands of the Mongol Hun. Rome sues for peace with the Hun and must pay tribute to avoid being conquered. The Diocese of Gaul (France) is created this year by the Christian Romans. They established the Rhine River as their northern boundary beginning the political and cultural differentiation of the west Germanic Celt Franks from the Germanic Anglo and Saxon Franks. This differentiation is the result of the great migration caused by the Mongol Hun penetration to the Rhine River last century. The Diocese of Spain including Portugal and Morocco is also established this year by the Christian Romans. The Diocese of Britain excludes Scotia (Ireland) and Pict (Scotland). The Prefecture of Italy is divided into the northern Diocese of Italy (the Langobards), the southern Diocese of Rowe (Goth-Italy) including Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily and the Diocese of Africa. Greece, Albania, and Yugoslavia southwest of the Danube River is the Prefecture of Illyricum. Turkey to Egypt is the Prefecture of the East. Each Diocese is ruled by a Vicar and each Prefecture by a Praetorian Perfect. An example is that one Praetorian Perfect ruled the Prefecture of Gaul that included the Diocese of Spain, Gaul and Britain. Each Diocese is divided into Provinces that are ruled by a Governor. At the top of these structures are to be two senior emperors called Augusti and two junior emperors called Caesar who are to succeed the Augusti. This year Augusti Honorius ruled the West and Augusti Arcadius ruled the East." European History: 400-449 A.D. 400 The Sassanid peoples occupied Mesopotamia and Armenia and are not under Roman control. Evidence of Lapp culture extends across Arctic Sweden, Norway, Findland and Russia. European History: 400-449 A.D. 400-409 Alexandrian scholars are the first to use the word "Chemistry" for the processes of changing matter [Hellemans, p.55] 400-409 By forging together wrought iron and cast iron, Steel is first made in China. [Hellemans, p.55] 400-409 The Umbrella is invented in China. [Hellemans, p.55] November 401 Alaric, king of the Goths, conquered the north of the Italian peninsula up to Piacenza and threatened Milan, where the emperor of the West, Honorius, had a residence. 401 "Augustine [354-430], Bishop of Hippo, had a mistress for eleven years producing one child Adeodatus who died young. He is absorbed with guilt and misery of his illicit sex. He became the assistant to Bishop Valerius and considered women as a venerial disease. He couldn't understand why God created women. He said he prefered the company of men. His distorted evil philosophy would dominate the Roman Church into the twentieth century causing much suffering. He considered Astrologers as without scruples because they used no sacriface nor pray to spirits for their divination. Augustine popularized the concept of original sin, predestination, and salvation through divine grace." European History: 400-449 A.D. 401-417 The 40th pope, St.Innocent I, reigned 16 years. He experienced the full force of the invasion of the Goths led by Alaric in 410 and succeeded to convince him to spare many human lives and to respect the churches. The other battle Innocent had to face was against heresy, especially the one of Pelagius, which didn't recognize the original sin and had some other contradictions with the dogmas of Roman Church. Should be noticed the construction activity of this pope: built the basilica of Saints Jervasus and Protaus with the financial support of the noble woman Vestina, which later was dedicated to St.Vitale; he also conducted the works of the decoration of the basilica of St.Agnese. Innocent died in March of 417 and was buried in the cemetry ad Ursum pileatum in via di Porto. 5th Century: 11 Popes 401 "St. Innocent I (401-417) son of Anastasius I (399-401), Bishop of Rome, become Bishop of Rome. His primary objective is to make Roman Custom the norm for Christian Custom. Decretals, letters of Roman Law, became the means to the end. He claimed in effect that Rome had universal jurisdiction and theresfore the Roman Church had universal jurisdiction. This Decretal firmly established the great bishop of Rome heresy declaring that papal decisions have the force of Roman Law. It is noteworthy that the Papa of Constantinople at this time also claimed to be supreme in the Christian Churchs. The Catholic and Christian Churches are still considered a loosely organized Federation of Christian Churches. This Bishop is attributed with establishing the Roman Catholic doctrine of universal authority for the bishop of Rome." European History: 400-449 A.D. 401 birth of Theodosius II, later to be East Roman emperor 401 Vandals begin westward march from Dacia and Hungary (or maybe 400) 402 Stilicho orders home troops from the frontiers of the Roman Empire in order to defend Italy against Visigoths 6 April 402 Stilicho defeats Visigoths at the Battle of Pollentia 402 Kumarajiva arrives at Changan; starts translating Buddhist texts into Chinese. 403 Alaric the Visigoth departs Italy following his first (unsuccessful) invasion. "I'll be back," he says, in a Terminator voice. 404 John Chrysostom [347-407] Papa of Constantinople is exiled and Innocent I Bishop of Rome (401-417) refused to recognize his replacement. European History: 400-449 A.D. To put it another way, John Chrysostom is deposed and banished, but shortly after recalled, then re-banished. 1 January 404 The final gladiator competition in Rome 404 Death of the great poet Claudian ca. 405 Japanese court officially adopted the Chinese writing system 405 Emperor Honorius shuts fown the Colosseum (no more gladiator fights since 404) 405 Vulgate Bible published by Saint Jerome 405 Armenian alphabet is invented 405 Birth of Ricimer, late the de facto ruler of the West Roman Empire 406 Thousands of Germans cross the Rhine into the Roman Empire Medieval Eurtope: 300-1400 A.D. Specifically, on 31 December 406 Vandals, Alans and Suebians crossed the Rhine, beginning the invasion of Gallia 406 Mutinous Roman legions in Britain select Marcus as new emperor. He is shortly assassinated and is replaced by Gratianus of Britain. 406 Possible birth year of Attila the Hun 406 Death of Godigisel, King of the Vandals and the Alans 406 Gunderic becomes king of the Vandals (a Germanic tribe). The Vandals enters Gaul. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 406 The Celtic-Mongolian-Germanic peoples (Gauls) now called the Vandals, Alans, Alemanni, Burgundians, Suevians and other tribes invade Gaul. They settle there followed shortly by the Franks from the Rhine land. European History: 400-449 A.D. 354-430 St. Augustine of Hippo Medieval Europe: 300-1400 A.D. 407-411 Western Roman Emperor Constantine III "Constantine's origins are obscure and we know little about him as a man, though later Gallic writers described him as a glutton and as fickle. Orosius describes him as a soldier acclaimed only because of his name, Fl. Claudius Constantinus. His two sons were named Constans and Julian, though these may not have been their original names. Constantine was acclaimed in spring 407 in Britain to replace Gratian. After crossing to Gaul, his authority was swiftly accepted there and in Spain. The Rhine was rapidly secured. Nothing is known about the troops used by Constantine, or whether he permanently withdrew troops from Britain. Honorius sent a force under Sarus from Italy against Constantine, but, despite his initial successes in the Rhone valley, Sarus was soon forced to withdraw by Constantine's magister militum Gerontius. Constantine went on to occupy all of Gaul up to the Alps. By May 408, he was in control of Arles, site of the headquarters of the Gallic praetorian prefecture, which he made his base. Constantine appointed Constans as Caesar in 408 and sent him into Spain where some of Honorius' relatives had started a revolt. This revolt was suppressed, and the magister militum Gerontius was left in charge in Spain when Constans returned to Gaul. In 409, Constantine's difficulties began to increase. At about this time, Britain revolted against Constantine's rule...." Constantine III Hugh Elton, Florida International University 407 Death of bishop and preacher John Chrysostom 408 Alaric I, the Visigoth, demands a large amount of gold from the Roman Empire. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 1 May 408 Death of Arcadius, Roman Emperor of the East 408 Theodosius II succeeds his father, Arcadius, as Emperor of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire summer 408 Constantine III captures Spain, destroying the loyalist defensive armies 23 August 408 execution of Roman general Stilicho September 408 Alaric, king of the Visigoths, lays siege to Rome 408-450 Emperor Theodosius II "Theodosius II was born to the eastern emperor Arcadius and the empress Aelia Eudoxia in April of 401. As Eudoxia had produced three girls prior to this time, Theodosius' birth was received with considerable excitement, both by his family and by the broader population of Constantinople. He was baptized and crowned Augustus in January of the following year to enthusiastic crowds. Unlike his father, about whose early life we know practically nothing, Theodosius' youth is well-attested and it was spent preparing him for his future imperial duties. From what we can tell of his education, the young emperor was not trained to be the passive figurehead his father largely was...." Theodosius II, Geoffrey S. Nathan, UCLA 409 Germanic-Gauls (Scandia Vandal) begin a drive for independence and invaded the Diocese of Spain this year. Rome pulled its soldiers out of the Diocese of England. The Roman-Celts had to fight the Picts (Scot), Scotia (Irish) and invading Scandia Germanic-Saxon from Denmark. European History: 400-449 A.D. 409 The Vandals invade Spain. Roman rule in Britain officially ends. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. Wikipedia puts it this way: "Vandals and Suebi break through Constantine III's garrsions into Spain. The Suebi settle themselves in the northwestern corner." 409 Constantine III's general Gernontius revolts in Spain, elevating his own candidate for Roman Emperor. 409 Alaric besieges Rome a second time; with the forced concesson of of the Senate he sets up Attalus as western emperor 409 Wei Ming Yuan Di succeeds Wei Dao Wu Di as head of the Chinese Northern Wei Dynasty 409 Death of Saint Bassiano, first bishop of Lodi (Italy) 409-411 Constans II "Constans was the elder of the two sons of Constantine III who had rebelled against Honorius in 407 and controlled Gaul, Spain and Britain. His father appointed him as Caesar in Gaul in 408 and sent him into Spain where some of Honorius' relatives had started a revolt. This revolt was suppressed, some of Honorius' relatives were executed, and the magister militum Gerontius was left in charge in Spain. Constans left his wife and court at Saragossa in Spain and returned to Arles in Gaul. In September 409 several barbarian groups (Suevi, Alans, Vandals) broke into Spain through the Pyrenees. Constantine III raised Constans to the rank of Augustus in late 409 or early 410 before sending him back to Spain; lead elements of Constans' army were sent into the peninsula. The threat of being replaced prompted Gerontius to revolt, acclaiming Maximus as emperor, and to join forces with the barbarians who had recently entered Spain. When the news of Gerontius' revolt and Maximus' seizure of power was received at Arles, Constans abandoned the expedition and stayed in Gaul. In 411 Gerontius invaded Gaul where he besieged and captured Constans at Vienne. After his capture, Constans was executed by Gerontius." Constans II 409-422 Maximus Maximus was the son (or possibly a retainer) of Gerontius, a general of Constantine III in Spain in 409. His character was described as modest and humble. After Gerontius rebelled against Constantine III, he acclaimed Maximus as Augustus in Tarraco. Gerontius then marched into Gaul, leaving Maximus in Spain. When he learnt of the defeat of Gerontius by Constantius at Arles in 411, Maximus fled to the barbarian troops who had remained in Spain. After his flight, little is known of Maximus. He was apparently still alive in 417, and is probably the Maximus captured in Spain in 422 and executed at Ravenna. Bibliography: * Ensslin, Wm. "Maximus (81)." RE supp. 5:673ff. * Kent, J.P.C., Roman Imperial Coinage volume 10 (London, 1994). * Matthews, J.F., Western Aristocracies and Imperial Court, A.D. 364-425 (Oxford, 1975), 311-313. * Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, vol. 2, ed. J.R. Martindale (Cambridge, 1980), 744-745 * Seeck, O. "Gerontius (6)." RE 7:1270.25ff. * Scharf, R., 'Der spanische Kaiser Maximus und die Ansiedlung der Westgoten in Aquitanie' Historia 41 (1992), 374-384. * Translations of much of the source material can be found in C.D. Gordon (The Age of Attila: Fifth-Century Byzantium and the Barbarians [Ann Arbor, 1960]) and R.C. Blockley (Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire [Liverpool, 1983], vol. 2). 409-410 Attalus "Priscus Attalus was Augustus twice, 409-410 and 414-415. He was a Greek from Asia whose father had moved to Italy under Valentinian I. Attalus was prominent in the Senate in the early fifth century and remained a pagan. In 409 he was appointed as Urban Prefect of Rome by Honorius. After Alaric occupied Rome in late 409, he acclaimed Attalus emperor. Attalus represented the interests of many of the senatorial aristocrats, interests which differed from those of the emperor Honorius in Ravenna. This limited the appeal of Attalus' authority to Italy and even here he was not universally accepted. Attalus was baptized during his reign by an Arian Gothic bishop. An expedition was sent against the comes Africae Heraclianus, but was unsuccessful. In the summer, Attalus marched on Ravenna in the company of Alaric. During negotiations, Honorius offered to share power with Attalus, but Attalus rejected his offer and continued to besiege Ravenna. The failure of the African expedition allowed Heraclianus to control shipments of grain to Italy, causing shortages of food there. When Attalus returned to Rome, he refused to allow a Goth to command a second expedition against Africa. This act induced Alaric to depose Attalus in summer 410 and to attempt to negotiate again with Honorius. These negotiations failed, and soon afterwards, Alaric sacked Rome...." Attalus

Major Books and Events of the Decade 410-420 A.D.

410: Rome is sacked by the Visigoths 410 Roman Empire is invaded by Huns 410 Rome is pillaged by King Alaric I of the Visigoths - Pope Innocent I survives because he is out of Rome, trying to arrange a peace with the Roman Emperor Honorius. Alaric I of the Visigoths dies and is succeeded by his brother Ataulf. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 410 "Innocent I [401-417] Bishop of Rome is forced by the Mongol Hun to exchange a royal prince of Rome in exchange for Atila the Hun who is sent to Northern Italy to ensure peace. The Visigoth (Western Goth), originally from Scandia, led by King Alaric on August 14 and for six days they sacked Rome. They had been ordered not to disturb the Christian churches, which they heeded. Later they settled in the southern Diocese of Gaul in 412 and infiltrated Spain by 415. This action however motivated Augustine (354-430) a Roman North African to write dogma against heretics and about church organization of 'city of God' vs 'City-State'. The 'city State' (Rome) is worldly, corrupt and lost. The 'city of God' (the Church) is divine, pure and saved. This is likely provoked by the sacking of Rome by Alaric this year. The Roman Empire would begin its decline into the Roman Church City State. The Ostrogoth (Eastern Goth) settled in Hungary. Innocent Bishop of Rome after saving the church assets conveniently fled the city to escape the famine and despair of the people and did not return until 412." European History: 400-449 A.D. 410 Birth in Constantinople of Greek mathematician Proclus, later to discover what today is called "Playfair's Postulate" of Euclidean Geometry. [Hellemans, p.55] see: 460-469 410 Wales, Ireland, and Scotland retained their Celtic Laws and Traditions. The Celts believed in individual freedom and like the Americanm People believed that all-living things had a spirit self. England at this time had lost most of their Celtic tradition being replaced by a Roman Culture. European History: 400-449 A.D. 411-413 Jovinus "Jovinus was from a noble Gallic family, probably from the south of Gaul. After the defeat of Constantine III in 411 and the departure of Honorius' troops to Italy, Jovinus seized power at Mainz with the support of some Alans under Goar and Burgundians under Guntiarius. He was also strongly supported by the Gallic aristocracy and minted coins in Lyon, Trier and Arles. In early 412, Ataulf and his Goths entered Gaul and began to negotiate with Jovinus. Negotiations were broken off when Sarus, a blood-enemy of Ataulf, offered his services to Jovinus. Jovinus then acclaimed his brother Sebastianus as Augustus in 412. The acclamation of Sebastianus caused Ataulf to reopen negotiations with Honorius. When Honorius accepted the offer, Ataulf besieged Jovinus at Valentia in 413. After his capture, Jovinus was sent to Narbo where he was executed by Dardanus. His head arrived at Ravenna in late August...." Jovinus 411 Burgundians elevate Jovinus as Roman Emperor 411 Death by execution of Roman Emperor Constantine III 412 Pelagius settles in Palestine. St. Augustine starts writing works condemning Pelagius' doctrine. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 412 Visigoths advance into Gaul, led by Alaric's brother Ataulf 412 Death of Jovinus, usurper in the Western Roman Empire 413 I don't know a single historical thing from this year... 414 Ataulf, Visigoths' King, consolidates power by marrying Galla Placidia, sister of Roman Emperor Honorius 415 Death of Greek mathematician/philosopher Hypatia, murdered by monks enraged by her teaching what they regard as pagan ideology [Hellemans, p.55] see: 400 (for more on her work, father, and death) 415 Visigoths invade Spain 415 Ataulf, king of the Visigoths dies. Willia becomes king of the Visigoths. Hypatia, a pagan scholar, is killed at the hands of a Christian mob. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 415 Wallia succeeds Ataulf as King of the Visigoths. 415 The Slav-Russian Visigoth fleeing from the Mongol Huns invaded and settled in the Diocese of Spain having settled southern Gaul (France) two years earlier. European History: 400-449 A.D. 415 Innocent (401-417) Bishop of Rome issued a Decretal entrusting Bishop Rufus with control 'in our stead' of the church in the region of southeast Balkan peninsula so it doesn't fall under the ecclesiastical sway of Constantinople. European History: 400-449 A.D. 416 "Jerome's monasteries at Bethlehem (Ephrath) are destroyed and Innocent I (401-417) Bishop of Rome sharply rebuked John Papa of Jerusalem (d.417) for allowing such atrocities in his diocese. It is noteworthy that Jerome (340-420) is highly critical of Bishop John. Jerome had retired from Rome to Bethlehem to translate the Bible into Latin (the Vulgate)." European History: 400-449 A.D. 1 January 417 Constantius III marries Galla Placidia, sister of Emperor Honorius (and widow of Visigoth king Ataulf) 417-418 The 41st pope, St.Zosimus, reigned 1 year. He was Greek. His pontificate was brief and troubled due to the spreading Pelagian heresy. He died in December of 418 and buried in the basilica of St. Laurence. 5th Century: 11 Popes 418-422 the 42nd pope, St.Boniface I, reigned 4 years. His nomination was confirmed by a council because the populace and a part of the clergy elected a representative of their own. He was consacrated pope only in April 419. He continued to fight with the heresy. Died in Settember of 422 and buried in the oratory of S.Felicita in via Salaria. 5th Century: 11 Popes 418 "Eulalius, anti-Bishop of Rome (418-423), a Greek is elected and is consecrated by the Papa of Ostia who customarily ordained the Bishop of Rome. Emperor Honorius (393-423) at Ravenna accepted him as Bishop of Rome. Then St. Boniface I (418-422) a Roman and son of a priest is also elected Bishop of Rome. A synod at Ravenna in session at the time refused to make a choice between the two Bishops of Rome. The Emperor then ordered a larger synod in 419 to include Papas from Gaul and Africa to resolve the dilemma. The Emperor ordered both Bishops of Rome to withdraw from Rome and the Papa of Spoleto Achilleus to take charge until a decision is reached." European History: 400-449 A.D. 418 Council of Carthage discusses Biblical canon 418 Death of Jin An Di, ruler of the Chinese Jin Dynasty 419 "Eulalius determined to establish his position as Bishop of Rome returned to Rome and occupied the Lateran by force. This proved his undoing as it sparked off civil disorder and he is expelled and excluding him from the papacy making Boniface the Bishop of Rome by default. The proposed council is cancelled. At the request of Boniface I (418-422) Bishop of Rome, Emperor Honorius (393-423) issued a Decretal that banned election intrigues and decreed that, if two candidates should be elected, both should be disqualified and the government would only recognize a Bishop chosen unanimously." European History: 400-449 A.D. 2 July 419 Birth of Valentinian III, Roman Emperor in the West, son of Constantius III and Galla Placidia 419 Death of Wallia, King of the Visigoths

Major Books and Events of the Decade 420-430 A.D.

420 The earliest representation of Christ on the cross is a carving on a panel of a casket. The Christian symbol to this time is the fish. Early Christians would be loath to use the cross because Romans considered it an ignominious form of execution reserved for the lowest criminals. European History: 400-449 A.D. 420 End of the Jin Dynasty in China 420 Liu Yu (Song Wu Di) is the first ruler of the Song Dynasty ca.420 Birth of Glycerius, western Roman Emperor 30 September 420 Death of Saint Jerome, translator of the Vulgate Bible 421 Constantius III Co-Emperor of the Western Roman Empire [8 Feb to September] "Constantius was a soldier from Naissus in Dacia. Although he presented a fierce facade in public, he was far more relaxed in private and at banquets. Constantius was a Catholic. He had a successful career as one of the most important magistri militum of Honorius after the death of Stilicho in 408. He was able to defeat Gerontius and Constantine III in Gaul in 411 and expelled the Goths under Ataulf from Italy in 412. Constantius married Honorius' half-sister Galla Placidia in 417 at the urging of Honorius; and they produced a son, Valentinian (III) in 419. On February 8, 421 Constantius was acclaimed as Augustus in the West and Galla Placidia was raised to the dignity of Augusta. These statuses were not recognized in the East. Constantius was said at his death to have been planning a campaign against Theodosius II because of this slight. He died of illness September 2, 421. Although he was not emperor for long, he complained about the burden of office-holding, especially his loss of personal freedom." Constantius III 422-432 The 43rd pope, St.Celestine I, reigned 10 years. Born in Campania, he was a friend of St.Augustine. Celestine spurred the missions to Scotland and Ireland through the work of Palladius and St.Patrick. He reaffermed the autonomy of the African Church in its internal policy. But several years later took place the terrible invasion of the Vandals in Africa which reduced nearly to nothing the Church, so that it lost its importance. The pope founded the church of St.Sabina. He died in July of 432 and buried in the cemetry of Priscilla. 5th Century: 11 Popes 422 "Celestine I (422-432) from Campagna is elected Bishop of Rome without opposition. It is noteworthy in his quest for power he adopted the old Roman heathen title of 'Pontifex Maximus' that the Roman Emperors had abandoned. He effectively positioned himself as equal to or greater than the Emperor, in effect a monarchy. He could get away with this behavior because of the decline of the Roman Empire. He crushed the Novatianist sect, confiscating their churches, driving them into home worship. He abandoned a four hundred-year tradition of equal Papas claiming the Papa of Rome as having the power of the keys. This start of the great schism of the Roman Paulist Church would split the Eastern and Western Churches forever after. The Bishop of Rome is attempting to align the Federation of Christian Churches along a Pagan Roman tradition. Celestine I (422-432) bishop of Rome attempted to interfere in the Christian Churches of Africa and a Council of African Papas at Carthage vigorously rejected his authority." European History: 400-449 A.D. 422 The Visigoth and Vandals controlled Spain and Northern Africa and many of the Papas turned to Rome for support, thereby bowing to papal authority. European History: 400-449 A.D. 422 Death of Liu Yu (Song Wu Di), ruler of the Chinese Song Dynasty 423-425 Ioannes "After the death of Honorius on August 15, 423, his closest male relative was Valentinian, son of Galla Placidia. Valentinian was currently at Constantinople. This power vacuum allowed Ioannes, the primicerius notariorum (chief notary) to seize power in the west. Virtually nothing is known of Ioannes himself, though he was said to have had a mild character. He was supported by the magister militum Castinus and by Aetius, son of the magister militum Gaudentius. After his acclamation at Rome, Ioannes transferred his capital to Ravenna. Ioannes' rule was accepted in Gaul, Spain and Italy, but not in Africa. Ioannes' attempts to negotiate with the eastern emperor Theodosius II were unsuccessful. He seems not to have had a firm grasp of power and this encouraged eastern intervention. In 425, Theodosius II sent an expedition under the command of Ardabur the Elder to install Valentinian as emperor in the west. Ardabur was captured, but treated well, as Ioannes still hoped to be able to negotiate with Theodosius. Ardabur, however, persuaded some of Ioannes' officials to betray him. After his capture, Ioannes was taken to Aquileia where he was mutilated, then executed. Three days after Ioannes's execution, one of his generals, Aetius, arrived in Italy with a large force of Huns. Rather than continue the war, Valentinian bought off the Huns with gold and Aetius with the office of comes." Ioannes 423 Death of Flavius Augustus Honorius, west Roman Emperor. 423 Death of Northern Wei Ming Yuan Di, ruler of the Chinese Northern Wei Dynasty 424 Song Wen Di succeeds Song Shao Di as ruler of the Chinese Song Dynasty 424 "The Mongolian Hun being forced out of China due to climatic changes drive westward and this year an advance force sacked Rome. They consisted of free warriors with equal rights. Their universe rotated around the Polar Star, and their goal is subjugation then pacification of the peoples, of the four corners of the world. All conquered peoples became their friends once they identified with the interests of the Hun. The Mongol Hun had common ownership and interest rather than clans or blood-ties and that are similar to the north American Indian beliefs." European History: 400-449 A.D. 425 Barbarians settle in Roman provinces. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 425-455 Emperor Valentinian III "Placidus Valentinianus, later the emperor Valentinian III, was born in 419, the son of the emperor Honorius' sister Galla Placidia and the patrician, later emperor, Constantius. He was the brother of Justa Grata Honoria. In the early 420s he was proclaimed Most Noble (Nobilissimus) by his uncle Honorius, but neither this title nor his father's emperorship were initially recognized in the east. After his mother's falling out with Honorius, the young Valentinian accompanied her and his sister to exile at the court of his cousin Theodosius II (402-450) at Constantinople. The eastern attitude toward Valentinian changed in 423, when the usurper Johannes seized power in the west. Valentinian was first reaffirmed as Nobilissimus in 423/424, and then was named Caesar (junior emperor) in 424. In the same year he was betrothed to his cousin Licinia Eudoxia, the daughter of Theodosius II. In 425 he was proclaimed Augustus at Rome after the defeat of Johannes, and in 437 he returned to Constantinople for his marriage. A partially extant poem in honor of the nuptials was written by the poet Merobaudes. In the early years of his reign, Valentinian was overshadowed by his mother. After his marriage in 437, moreover, much of the real authority lay in the hands of the Patrician and Master of Soldiers Aetius. Nor does Valentinian seem to have had much of an aptitude for rule. He is described as spoiled, pleasure-loving, and influenced by sorcerers and astrologers....." Valentinian III, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina 425 "Until this time 'Pope' as in 'Bishop of Rome' head of the Church, in the modern sense, did not exist. All Bishops are equal and all are called Papa. The Modern definition did not fully evolve until the 7th century. The Church is a Federation of Christian Churches with no single church having more authority than another church." European History: 400-449 A.D. 425 Wang Jong writes a book on Arithmetic. [D.E. Smith, p.554] 425 Tun Ch'uan writes San-tong-shu. [D.E. Smith, p.554] 425 Last known use of Demotic, the ancient Egyptian script (coming after Hieratic. It had been in use since about 600 BC, and was the dominant script of Egypt. After the introduction of Demotic, hieratic remained in use for religious writing, while Demotic was used for economic or literary writing. Unlike hieratic, Demotic was often carved into wood and stone. In use by 600 BC. Demotic was now replaced by Greek. 426 "The Roman withdrawal from the Diocese of England because of the Hun threat in the East resulted in civil war between the Celts, Picts, Scots, Franks and the Saxon. Some say the Germanic-Saxon from the southeast had been invited to England to assist in the revolutionary war. Vortigern of Canti (Kent, England) the alleged defender of Eastern Britain being hard pressed by the Picts is claimed to have invited foreign mercenaries. The Angles and Jutes from Denmark and Germany also penetrated England at this time. It is further claimed he allowed them to settle in Britain. It is more likely these Germanic tribes are fleeing for their lives out of fear of the advancing Mongolian Huns." European History: 400-449 A.D. 427 "Being driven out of Spain, the Germanic Vandals migrated to Northern Africa." European History: 400-449 A.D. 428 Gunderic dies and his brother Gaiseric becomes king of the tribe of Vandals Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 429 The Vandals move to North Africa, and defeat the Roman general Bonifacius. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 429 Zu Chongzhi, a Chinese mathematician, astronomer and engineer was born this year. His main writings were lost so it is difficult to know exactly how great his mathematical achievements were. Most of the knowledge on him is from various fragments and of historical materials. He found pi to seven digits. He recommended the use of 355/113 for a close approximation, and 22/7 for a rough approximation of pi. Working with his father, he found the correct formula for the volume of a sphere. History of Math: 429 A.D. Author: Charles DeBoer References: http://www.interlochen.k12.mi.us/Math/AdvMath97.html, Author: Taoufik Nadji, Copyright: © 1997, Malek Physix Inc. All rights reserved. Revised: September 25, 1998. http://www.nitk.edu.tw/~jochi/e3.htm http://aleph0.clarku.edu/~djoyce/mathhist/china.html, Maintained by David E. Joyce (djoyce@clarku.edu) Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Clark University Initial work December, 1994. Latest update Sept 17, 1995.

Major Books and Events of the Decade 430-440 A.D.

430 Tsu Ch'ung Chi was born in Fan-yang, China in 430 AD. He was an astronomer, engineer and mathematician. In astronomy, he recommended a new calendar that he made in 463. He also found an accurate time of the solstice by measuring the length of the Sun's shadow at noon around the time of the solstice. In mathematics he found a rational approximation 355/113 = 3.14159265 to pi (3.1415927). This is correct for six decimal places. Not much is known about his approximation because his book, written by his son is now lost. Tsu Ch'ung Chi and his father found the formula for the volume of a sphere by carrying out Liu Hui's suggestion. Math History: 430 A.D. Author: Charles DeBoer References: Tsu JOC/EFR December 1996 http://www.bmwf.gv.at/1bm/texts/95-2/9math.htm http://aleph0.clarku.edu/~djoyce/mathhist/china.math Outline of the History of Chinese Mathematics Mathematics 105, History of Mathematics, Clark University, Worcester, MA 01610, Fall 1994, D Joyce Chinese mathematicians have contributed vastly to our current knowledge of Math. Perhaps one of the least mentioned for his work is Tsu Ch'ung Chi. A mathematician and astronomer between 430-501 AD, Chi calculated the rational approximation of 355/113 to Pi. His estimation is accurate to 6 decimal places. Furthermore, Chi also proved that 3.1415926 is less than Pi, which in turn is less than 3.1415927. However, details about how he actually came to that result are lost. He wrote his "lost book" with his son. In astronomy, Chi produced a new calendar which was never put to use. Finally, Tsu calculated the time of the solstice with great precision. This perhaps lead modern astronomers to name a crater on the moon after Chi. Author: Filiberto Barajas References: * Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990) Articles: * U Libbrecht, Chinese Mathematicians in the 13th Century (Cambridge, Mass, 1973), 275-276. * Y-L Zha, Research on Tsu Ch'ung-Chih's approximate method for Pi, in Science and Technology in Chinese Civilization. (Teaneck, NJ, 1987), 77-85. http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Mathematicians/Tsu.html 430 about this time the Japanese imperial court appointed their first historiographers. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 430 The three Germanic tribes, the Saxon, Angles and Jutes continue to settle in the Diocese of England. They are forces from their ancestral homes by their fear of the Hun. The region they settle in England is henceforth called England, meaning land of Angles. The four Kingdoms of Scotia (Ireland) are, in the north Ulster, Connaught to the west, Leinster to the east and Munster to the south. European History: 400-449 A.D. 430 Many of the Huns in Hungary are living in houses and depending on agriculture to support them. Prince Attila the Hun entered into an alliance with many of the peoples who occupy Germany. European History: 400-449 A.D. 431 The Ecumenical Council of Ephesus is conducted this year during the reign of Celestine I Bishop of Rome (422-432). Celestine hoped to impose himself as the Pope of Christianity but the Council refused to endorse his claim. The followers of a Persian prelate, the Nestorians split from the Byzantine church in a fight over dogma and became early proselytizers in east Asia. Many Mongols would follow the teachings of this sect. European History: 400-449 A.D. 431 the Council of Ephesus, (third ecumenical council) is convened on behalf of Theodosius II, emperor of the East, and Valentinian III, emperor of the West, to discuss Nestorianism. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 432 The Huns have power enough that they collect an annual tribute from Rome. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 432 St. Sixtus, alias Xystus III (432-440), a Roman, is elected Bishop of Rome. European History: 400-449 A.D. 432-440 The 44th pope, St.Sixtus III, reigned 8 years. Born in Rome. This pope is remembered for his work over the increasing of the number of churches in Rome. During his pontificate he completed the construction of St.Sabina; built S.Lorenzo in Lucina; reconstructed the Baptistery of St.John, built by Constantine in the form of circus, gave it the contemporary octagonal form. But the greatest his work was the restoration of the basilica of Liberius. Sixtus dedicated it to Madonna, which determined its name as S.Maria Maggiore, he had it adorned with mosaics which can still be admired. Sixtus died in August of 440 and was buried in S.Lorenzo fuori leMura. 5th Century: 11 Popes 432 Saint Patrick began his work in Ireland -- monastic schools. www.mnsinc.com/hoocher2/mr.j%27spage/themedievalworld.htm 433 The Huns, a Mongolian peoples from Slavs (Russia), began to sweep into the Roman Empire (Europe). Attila the Hun is educated in Italy in Roman Christian traditions and its not surprising the Huns should again subjugate Europe. European History: 400-449 A.D. 434 The Hunnish king Roas dies, and is succeeded by his nephews Attila and Bleda. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 435 "Carthage in Northern Africa fell to the Germanic Vandal and with their pirate ships forced Rome to acknowledge their independence. Prince Blada brother of Prince Atilla the Hun negotiates with Rome. The Romans are forced to align with the Hun against the Germanic Burgundi armies. A battle near the Rhine river sees the Burgundi King Gunther killed. King Ruha the Hun dies and Blada and Atilla are pitted against each other for the Hun Kingship." European History: 400-449 A.D. 435 by now the Vandals predominate in Algeria and Morocco. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 436 {to be done} 437 {to be done} 438 {to be done} 439 the Vandals capture Carthage. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D.

Major Books and Events of the Decade 440-450 A.D.

440-461 The 45th pope, St.Leo I (Leo the Great), reigned 21 years. Born in Volterra. He was considered the ideal figure of the Roman pope, example for the following centuries. Leo had to face two basic enemies of the Church: heresy and barbarians. He succeeded to stop Attila, the king of the Huns, but did not have the same success with the vandals of Gaiseric which invaded and sacked Rome in June sparing only the basilicas. There was nothing for Leo to do but to reconstruct his beloved city reduced to a rubble heap. The pope died in November of 461 and buried in the ancient basilica of St.Peter. In times of Clement XI, when the new basilica was erected, his remains were transfered under the altar dedicated to him. 5th Century: 11 Popes 440 P'i Yen-tsung writes on circle measurement. [D.E. Smith, p.554] 445 Hunnish king (or rather, co-king) Bleda dies Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 446 447 448 Merovech becomes chief of the Salian Franks. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 440 Leo the Great (440-461), a Roman of Tuscany, is elected Bishop of Rome when absent in Gaul on a diplomatic mission. European History: 400-449 A.D. 442 The Germanic-Saxon mercenaries rebelled and began seizing land in Kent, Sussex and southern Hampshire, spread into Essex, East Anglia, Lindsey and East Riding of Yorkshire. They penetrated inland along the upper Thames including the future sites of Oxford and Cambridge. European History: 400-449 A.D. 445 The Roman Emperor Valentinian III ordered the Roman Catholic doctrine that whatsoever the authority of the 'apostolic see' has sanctioned, or shall sanction, shall be law for all. This directly opposed the Christian Council of 440 that decreed that the Patriarch of Constantinople is supreme in Christ's Church. The Roman Emperor also suggested there should be judges who preside over the priesthood everywhere to enforce the law. European History: 400-449 A.D. 445 Atilla the Hun eventually kills his brother Blada. Atilla the Mongolian Hun, a Roman educated man, becomes King of the Mongolian Western Empire. The Roman Kingdoms of Rome and Constantinople must pay heavy tribute to the Hun Empire to secure peace. The Hun Empire effectively extends to the Rhine River with only Gaul (France) not paying tribute to King Atilla. European History: 400-449 A.D. 447 The Arian Visigoths dominated Spain. Attilla the Hun marched on Roman Constantinople. Emperor Theodosis of the East lost his army and begged for peace. All Roman captives are sold into slavery and the Roman Emperor is forced to pay 2,000 lbs. gold per year in tribute. European History: 400-449 A.D. 449 A British chief named Vortigern invited Hengest and Horsa, two chiefs of Jutes from Denmark and they landed in Kent and establish permanent settlements to fight the Picts. After driving the Picts north the turned their armies against the Britons. Eric the Jute son of Hengest established the kingdoms of East and West Kent. European History: 400-449 A.D. 449 "Leo the Great (440-461), a Roman of Tuscany, Bishop of Rome, is the first bishop of Rome to create the doctrine of the mystical unity of Peter and his successors, and to attribute all their doings and sayings to Peter. This represents a final shift from the Paulist tradition to a Peter Tradition but in name only. On orders of the Roman Emperor Valentian III the Bishop nullified the Christian Church decrees of the Robber Council of Ephesus (449) without any discussion using Imperial Roman support. The Christian Council had decreed that the Patriarch of Constantinople is supreme in Christ's Church. It is during the Council of Chalcedon that the church adopted the dogma that Jesus and God are one and the same. The Oriental Orthodox churches of Ethiopia, Egypt and Armenia walked out of the Council in protest and are subsequently branded as heretics. They believe that Jesus was never a man except in an abstract sense; he is only God." European History: 400-449 A.D. ca. 450: Germanic tribes invaded Britain - Angles, Saxons, and Jutes. a. Saxons became the dominant group. b. Angles gave their name to the land (England). c. Celts: retreated into Wales, Scotland, and Ireland.

Major Books and Events of the Decade 450-460 A.D.

c. 450: Anglo-Saxons invade England. 450 Ho Ch'eng-t'ien writes on Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.554] 450 Wu, Chinese geometer, calculates Pi as 3.1432+ [D.E. Smith, p.554] 450 Domninus writes on Number Theory. [D.E. Smith, p.554] 450 Victorius writes a Computus. [D.E. Smith, p.554] 450-457 Emperor Marcian "Relatively little is known about Marcian before his accession to the throne. He was most probably an Illyrian by birth, although one source claims that he was a Thracian. Born in 392, he, like many other public men from that region, made his career in the military. His father had been a soldier and Marcian first served in the city of Philippopolis in Thrace. From there, Marcian as a tribune went with his unit to fight the Persians in 421-2, but he apparently became ill in Lycia and never saw action in the campaign. From this relatively inauspicious beginning, he served as personal assistant (domesticus) to the emperor's commander-in-chief (magister utriusque militiae), Aspar. This placed Marcian in the highest military circles, but certainly did not provide him with any singular distinction. In the early 430's, he served with Aspar in Africa and was apparently captured by the Vandals. In one fanciful story, no doubt a creation of later writers, Marcian supposedly met the Vandal king, Gaiseric, who predicted that he would one day be emperor. After his capture, we know no more of his career before his accession to the throne in 450. With the death of Theodosius II under somewhat mysterious circumstances, the imperial succession was thrown open to question for the first time in over 60 years...." Emperor Marcian, Geoffrey S. Nathan, UCLA 451 the Council of Chalcedon (the fourth ecumenical council) is summoned by Eastern Emperor Marcian and Pope Leo I. This council wrote twenty seven canons governing the church and condemned Monophysitism. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 452 453 454 455 Roman Emperor Valentinian III dies. The Vandals invade Rome, pillage it for 14 days and leave, taking treasures and hostages (including Empress Eudoxia and her daughters). The Vandals then head east to Greece and Dalmatia. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 17 March 455 - 22 May 455 Emperor Petronius Maximus "As in the case of all the so-called "shadow" emperors of the western Roman Empire, there is no surviving connected account of the reign of the short-lived emperor Petronius Maximus. His career must be reconstructed primarily from what evidence survives in the detritus of Byzantine works that themselves do not survive in toto. Most of this evidence deals with his accession, which was intimately associated with the murder of Valentinian III (425-455), and his death, which occurred just as the Vandals were about to sack Rome in 455. Before becoming emperor, Petronius Maximus had a long and distinguished senatorial career. He was born ca. 397...." Petronius Maximus Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina 455 Rome is sacked by the Vandals. 9/10 July 455 - 17/18 October 456 Emperor Avitus "No connected account of the reign of Avitus survives. One might have expected some detail from his son-in-law, Sidonius Apollinaris, but Sidonius' panegyric only takes Avitus' history up to his acclamation, and Sidonius otherwise says virtually nothing about Avitus' activities as emperor. Given the circumstances of Avitus' fall, and Sidonius' need to make his peace with those who had been responsible for it, this silence is perhaps no surprise. Other sources, such as the Spanish chronicler Hydatius and the Byzantine chronicler John of Antioch, provide some precious insights into Avitus' reign, and these must be fleshed out wherever possible by bits and snippets found in other sources. Eparchius Avitus, who was born of a senatorial family circa 395, was a native of the Auvergne in Gaul. His father may have been the Agricola who was consul in 421...." Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina 456 457-461 Emperor Julius Valerius Maiorianus [18 February/28 December 457 - 2/7 August 461] "The emperor Julius Valerius Majorianus, or Majorian, is known primarily from fragments of evidence found either in jejune chronicles, such as those of the Spaniard Hydatius and Count Marcellinus (an easterner who wrote in Latin), or in extracts from writers whose complete works do not survive, such as the Byzantine writers Priscus, John of Antioch, and Malalas. The most insightful source is Sidonius Apollinaris, a Gallic aristocrat who was the son-in-law of emperor Eparchius Avitus. Sidonius met Majorian during the emperor's campaign in Gaul in 458-459, and had dinner with him at least once in early 461. Sidonius not only provides a revealing personal vignette of the emperor, but he also composed an extant verse panegyric that provides our only connected account of Majorian's personal history and is the best source for his activities before becoming emperor In addition, Majorian's domestic policies are much better known than those of the other 'shadow' emperors of the last years of the western Roman Empire because of the survival of several of his legislative enactments, known as 'Novels', which were preserved in the Breviarium, a compilation of Roman law published by Gallo-Roman jurists in 506 under the authority of the Visigothic king Alaric II (484-507)...." Majorian, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina 457 Western Roman Emperor Majorian attempts unsuccessfully to subdue the Vandals. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 457-474 Emperor Leo I "Leo was born in the Balkans, ca. 401, with different sources suggesting Thracia or Dacia. He married Verina before becoming emperor and they had three children. Ariadne was born before Leo became emperor; a second daughter Leontia was born in 457, and an anonymous son died at age five months in 463. Ariadne married Leo's eventual successor, Zeno while Leontia married the son of Anthemius, Marcian (named after Anthemius' father-in-law, the emperor Marcian). Leo's early career was military, and he had reached the rank of tribune in the regiment of the Mattiarii by 457. With the death of the emperor Marcian in 457, Leo was acclaimed emperor, probably with the support of the magister militum Aspar. This involved passing over Marcian's son-in-law, Anthemius. Leo's coronation on February 7, 457 is the first known involving the patriarch of Constantinople as well as the army and Senate. Leo died of dysentery aged 73, on 18 January, 474. He was succeeded by his son, Leo II...." Leo I, Hugh Elton, Florida International University 458 Merovech, king of the Salian Franks, is succeeded by his son Childeric I. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 459

Major Books and Events of the Decade 460-470 A.D.

460-469 Greek mathematician Proclus discovers what we today call Playfair's Postulate (as it was rediscovered in the 19th Century by British mathematician John Playfair). It turns out to be equivalent to Euclid's Fifth Postulate, and states that, through a given point, only one line can be drawn parallel to a given line that does not pass through the given point. [Hellemans, p.55] see: 410 for the birth of Proclus, 485 for death 460 Martianus Mineus Felix Capella writes an Encyclopedia: the Nuptials of Philology and Mercury [first edition in 1499, as "Opus Martiani Capelle de Nuptijs Philologie & Mercurij libri duo"]. This unusual work in a combination of poetry and scientific prose. One half is on Arithmetic; one half on Geometry. In the Arithmetic, he discusses various classes of numbers, the mysteries of smaller numbers, and the statement that Mercury and Venus both revolve around the Sun, rather than the Earth, thus anticipating Copernicus. Capella is "more closely related to Boethius and Cassiodorus than to the last of the Greeks." [D.E. Smith, p.182] 461 Approximate death of St. Patrick, the "Apostle of Ireland" Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 461-468 The 46th pope, St.Hilarus, reigned 7 years. Born at Cagliari in Sardinia. He was trained in Leo's school. At the Lateran he founded two libraries that provided the first nucleus of the Vatican one. He took great care of the adorment of oratories and monasteries. All the money given to the Church by the families of senators and by the imperial court were spent in construction, restoration and decoration of the basilicas and churches, while the city of Rome and his citizens were forgotten in misery and hunger. Hilarus died in February of 468 and buried in the basilica of St.Lourence fouri Mura. 5th Century: 11 Popes 462 463 464 465 466 12 April 467 - 11 July 472 Emperor Anthemius "The only approximation of a connected account of the life of the emperor Anthemius is found in a verse panegyric delivered to him in Rome on 1 January 468 by the Gaul Sidonius Apollinaris, whose letters also discuss several of the events of his reign. The Life of St. Epiphanius by Ennodius of Pavia also includes a revealing vignette of Anthemius. And several sources, such as Procopius, provide rather full accounts of the Vandal War of 468. Otherwise, Anthemius is known from terse references that survive either in chronicles, such as those of the Spaniard Hydatius and Count Marcellinus, or in extracts from writers whose complete works do not survive, such as the Byzantine writers Priscus, Candidus, and John of Antioch. In addition, three novellae ('new laws') issued by Anthemius are extant. Taken together, these sources make Anthemius, after Majorian, the best known of the "shadow emperors." Anthemius was born in Constantinople, perhaps ca.420. His maternal grandfather was a powerful senator, likewise named Anthemius, who was Praetorian Prefect of the East from 405 to 414, consul in 405, and patrician. His father, Procopius, was Master of Soldiers of the East (422-424) and likewise a patrician; he was said to have been descended from the usurper Procopius (365)...." Emperor Anthemius, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina 468 Eastern Roman Emperor Leo I attempts unsuccessfully to subdue the Vandals. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 468-483 The 47th pope, St.Simplicius, reigned 15 years. Born in Tivoli. During his pontificate three dramatic events took place : the 3rd sack of Rome, the plague of 472 and the end of Western Empire in 476. Simplicius dedicated himself to organizing the patrimony of the Holy See and he turned out to be an excellent administrator. He died in March of 483 and was buried in St.Peter's. 5th Century: 11 Popes 469

Major Books and Events of the Decade 470-480 A.D.

470 471 472 the plague of 472 474 Emperor Leo II "Son of Zeno and Ariadne, born c467. Leo was acclaimed as Caesar by his grandfather Leo I on 25 (?) October 473 and was promoted to Augustus on (or possibly before) Leo's death. After his grandfather's death (18 January 474), he ruled alone for three weeks, then on 9 February had his father Zeno acclaimed as co-Augustus. They ruled jointly until Leo's own death of natural causes on 17 (?) November 474. Coins were issued in Leo's name alone, then jointly with Zeno...." Leo II, Hugh Elton, Florida International University 474-475 Emperor Julius Nepos [19/24 June 474 - [28 August 475] - 25 April/9 May/22 June 480] "Julius Nepos was the son of Nepotianus, Master of Soldiers in the west ca.458-461, and the nephew of the patrician Marcellinus, Master of Soldiers in Dalmatia c.461-468. He married a neptis, probably a niece, of the emperor Leo (457-474). He would have inherited Marcellinus' support in Dalmatia, where, as Master of Soldiers himself, he received an extant law of Leo dated 1 June 473 (Codex Justinianus 6.61.5) dealing with marital property rights. By 474 he also had received the title of patrician. After the death of Anthemius (467-472), not to mention that of Olybrius (472), the aging eastern emperor Leo would have viewed himself once again as sole emperor, with the right to select a new emperor in the west...." Julius Nepos, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina 474-491 Emperor Zeno "Zeno was from Isauria where he bore the name Tarasicodissa. His mother's name was Lallis, and either his father or his home village was called Rusumblada. He had a military career under Leo and is first heard of in 466, bringing evidence to court which showed the treachery of Ardabur, the son of the magister militum Aspar. After this he married Ariadne, Leo's eldest daughter, and changed his name to Zeno. Their son, Leo II, reigned briefly with Leo I in 473-4 and then alone for three weeks before making Zeno co-Augustus from 9 February, 474. After Leo's death from illness on November 17 (?) 474, Zeno reigned alone. A second son, Zeno, died before the end of Zeno's reign. Zeno died on 9 April 491 and was succeeded by Anastasius. Zeno was frequently unpopular during his reign, in part because of his Isaurian origins, though financial difficulties did not help...." Zeno, Hugh Elton, Florida International University 475-476 Emperor Flavius Basiliscus "Flavius Basiliscus was the brother of Verina, Leo I's widow and probably came from the Balkans.[[1]] He was married to Zenonis and they had a son, Marcus. Basiliscus had a military career under Leo and reached the consulate in 465. Besides fighting in the Balkans, he was in command of the disastrous expedition against the Vandals in 468 and in the coup against Aspar in 471. After the accession of Zeno in 474, Verina began to plot against him, with the intention of replacing him with her brother. With the support of Theoderic Strabo, Illus and his nephew Armatus, Basiliscus was acclaimed as Augustus on 9 January 475. Zeno fled to Isauria, where he was pursued by troops loyal to Basiliscus. Despite a strong beginning, Basiliscus rapidly lost support in the capital. He was forced to make strong financial impositions to support the war against Zeno. Then he issued an anti-Chalcedonian Encyclical in 475. This lost him the support of the Constantinopolitan Church and population in 476. He executed Patricius, the magister officiorum, with whom his sister was having an affair, causing her to start motions to bring back Zeno. Basiliscus also failed to keep promises made to Illus and to Armatus. Lastly, there was a severe fire in the city 475/6. With such a lamentable situation in Constantinople, it is hardly surprising that, in the course of operations against Zeno, the exiled emperor was able to detach Armatus and Illus from their allegiance to Basiliscus. In August 476 Zeno marched on Constantinople...." Basiliscus, Hugh Elton, Florida International University 475-476 Emperor Romulus Augustulus "By the year 475, the western Roman empire was on its last legs. Its geographical holdings had shrunk to Italy and a toehold in southern Gaul. The reigning western emperor, Julius Nepos (474-475) had been appointed by the eastern emperors Leo (457-474) and Zeno (474-491), but had little tangible support either in the east or the west. In 475, Nepos replaced the Patrician and Master of Soldiers in the west, the Gaul Ecdicius, with Orestes, whose primary claim to fame had been service as the notarius (secretary) of Attila the Hun. Orestes responded by marching on Ravenna. The sixth-century Gothic historian Jordanes tells the tale: 'This Orestes, having taken charge of the army and having departed from Rome against the enemies, arrived at Ravenna, and remaining there he made his son Augustulus emperor. When he learned this, Nepos fled to Dalmatia.'...." Romulus Augustulus, Ralph W. Mathisen University of South Carolina 476 the end of the Western Empire 476 Romulus Augustulus, the last Roman emperor in the West is deposed. 476 Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno makes peace with Vandal leader Gaiseric. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 476 birth in India of Aryabhata; later recalculates solar system measurements, refining Greek results. He stays within the Ptolemaic paradigm, yet introduces the original idea that the Earth rotates. [Hellemans, p.56] see: 497 477 The Vandals plunder Rome. Vandal leader Gaiseric dies, his son Hunneric inherits the throne and the Vandals' power begins to decline. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 478 approximate time that the first Shinto religious shrines are built in Japan. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D.

Major Books and Events of the Decade 480-490 A.D.

480 Birth of Boethius [Anicius Manlius Severinus], Roman Philosopher. [Hellemans, p.56] see: 524 (his Death) , He was the leading European philosopher of the 6th Century, known best for On the Consolation of Philosophy and for his Latin translations of Aristotle, which made Aristotle the absolutely primary (and virtually only) basis for Greek intellectual culture in the Middle Ages of Christian Europe. [Hellemans, p.56] "Boethius furnished the scholastic basis for philosophy, translating Aristotle's and others' works on rhetoric and logic, but he was executed before he treated Poetics, if he ever intended to. Cassiodorus, his successor as Master of Offices under Theodoric, founded a monastic school in southern Italy and wrote a syllabus for it (Institutiones)." ["Medieval Poetics", in the Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, Enlarged Edition, ed. Alex Preminger et al., Princeton University Press, 1965.] 481 Clovis I (also known as Chlodwig) succeeds his father Childeric as king of the Salian Franks. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 481-511 Clovis, King of the Franks. 482 483-492 The 48th pope, St.Felix III, reigned 9 years. Born in Rome in a noble family. For many years already the election of the pope didn't create disorder in Rome, as it was executed through the choice made by the Romans, who formed the community of the Roman Church, and ratification from the part of the imperial officer, who controlled the validity of the elections. The prefect Cecina Basilio was sent to Rome as a plenipotentiary by the emperor Odoacrus with the purpose to control the elections of the new pope. He issued a decree according to which the nomination of a pope should be held in the council of the royal delegates. This new order was accepted and Felix III was elected. Under his pontificate began the first contrasts with the patriarchate of Constantinople and in 484 the schism between two Churches began. Felix died in March of 492 and was buried in the basilica of St.Paul, the only pope in the whole of history buried there. 5th Century: 11 Popes 483 484 the schism between the two Churches [Rome and Constantinople] began 484 The end of Vandal leader Hunneric's reign. Euric of the Visigoths dies and his son Alaric II becomes king of the Visigoths. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 484-488 Emperor Leontius "Leontius was probably an Isaurian, though origins in Syria and Thrace also appear in the sources. He had a military career. He is first heard of in 484, when Zeno sent him against the rebellious Illus. Illus persuaded Leontius to desert Zeno and then declared Leontius Augustus on 19 July, 484 at Tarsus. He had the support of Zeno's mother-in-law, Verina, who issued a Chalcedonian proclamation. Antioch was occupied for 12 days (27 July - 8 August), during which time a few coins were hurriedly minted. At this point a second imperial expedition arrived, under Ioannes the Scythian. These troops rapidly defeated Illus and Leontius at Antioch in Syria. The rebels were then besieged at Papirius in Isauria, a siege which lasted for four years. In 488 the fortress was betrayed. Leontius was executed at Seleucia-on-Calycadnus and his head was taken to Constantinople, where it was impaled on the walls." Leontius, Hugh Elton, Florida International University 485 Death in Athens of Greek mathematician Proclus, discovered what we today call Playfair's Postulate (as it was rediscovered in the 19th Century by British mathematician John Playfair). It turns out to be equivalent to Euclid's Fifth Postulate, and states that, through a given point, only one line can be drawn parallel to a given line that does not pass through the given point. [Hellemans, p.55, 57] see: 410 for the birth of Proclus, 460-469 for work 485 Marinus of Flavia Neapolis writes on Proclus. [D.E. Smith, p.554] 486 Syagrius, the last Roman governor in northern Gaul is defeated by Clovis I of the Salian Franks. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 487 488 Aesc becomes king of the Kentish people Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 489 484 Gundobad proclaims the Burgundian Code

Major Books and Events of the Decade 490-500 A.D.

491 Anastasius becomes the Byzantine emperor, and later the same year marries Zeno's widow. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 491-518 Emperor Anastasius "Anastasius was born in Dyrrachium (modern Durazzo, in Albania), on the Adriatic coast, ca. 430. He was not prominent at the court of Zeno, reaching the minor rank of silentiary in the palace. His religious knowledge, however, meant he was considered in 488 for promotion to bishop of Antioch. After Zeno's death, Anastasius was acclaimed as emperor 11 April, 491. Anastasius was the choice of Ariadne (Zeno's widow), and seems to have been a surprise to the aristocracy. A month after his accession, Anastasius married Ariadne, on 20 May 491, but the marriage produced no children. He was buried with Ariadne in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. Anastasius was nicknamed 'Dicorus' (Two-Pupils), because of his eyes (one black, one blue). He died 8/10 July, 518 and was succeeded by Justin...." Anastasius, Hugh Elton, Florida International University 492-496 The 49th pope, St.Gelasius I, reigned 4 years. Born in Africa. He was a secretary of Felix III. Gelasius showed himself as an extreme defendor of the orthodox faith and tried to reach a conciliation between the Eastern and the Western churches but he did not succeed because of the opposition of emperor Anastasius. He made use of the riches of the Church to help meet the needs of the people in times of famine and pestilence. The pope died in November of 496 and was buried in St.Peter's. 5th Century: 11 Popes 492 493 Founding of East-Gothic Empire [Hellemans, p.56] 493 Clovis I of the Salian Franks marries the Burgundian princess Clotilda. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. 493-526 King Theodoric the Great, later a prominent hero in Germanic tales, rules in Rome until his death. 494 495 Cerdic and his son Cynric come to Britain with five ships. 496-498 The 50th pope, St.Anastasius II, reigned 2 years. Born in Rome. He showed himself willing to make concessions to the Eastern Church. But in doing so he created much dislike towards himself from both the clergy and the populace. He died in November 498 and was buried in St.Peter's. 5th Century: 11 Popes 496 Clovis I of the Salian Franks wins his battles with the Alamanni, a confederacy of Germanic tribes. Clovis I of the Salian Franks is baptized. Christy's History Timeline: 400-699 A.D. He adopts Christianity with 3,000 of his followers. [Hellemans, p.56] 497 Aryabhata [born 476 in India] recalculates solar system measurements, refining Greek results. He stays within the Ptolemaic paradigm, yet introduces the original idea that the Earth rotates. [Hellemans, p.56] see: 499 (math) 498 499 Aryabhata writes Aryabhatiya, which uses decimal place-value numeration, algebra, geometry, and gives Pi the value 3.1416 [Hellemans, p.56], see 476 (birth), 497 (astronomy) 500 World population is 190 million. India population is 50 million: 26.3% of world. Major Writers Born this Fifth Century Major Writers Died this Fifth Century 404 Death of the great poet Claudian 30 September 420 Death of Saint Jerome, translator of the Vulgate Bible Decade by Decade Fifth Century Science Background The background of science and mathematics has been promiscuously intermingled with political/military history in the main body of text in this web page. Some later centuries chronologized in this web site break these apart (science/math versus political/military history). Similarly, "literature" as a genre based on the short story and the novel had not yet evolved, with the possible exception of Myths, stories about Christian saints, and poetry of equivalent function. Decade by Decade Fifth Century Mundane Background See the political/military history in the main body of text, and the index of Politico-Military People of the Century, below. The biggest names in Mundane History of the Fifth Century included: * Augustine of Hippo [354-430]: bishop, theologian see: [401] {to be done}

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Useful Reference Books Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources:

5th Century Historians, on the 5th Century

Claudian (fl. AD 395-410) Claudius Claudianus, a Greek born in Alexandria, is often considered the last great poet of the pagan world. He lived in Rome at the end of the 4th century AD, and is best known for verse written in praise of Honorius and his general Stilicho. One of his poems, On the Consulship of Stilicho, provides our only source for an expedition to Britain mounted by Stilicho in AD 396-8. Frere (1987) believes this is evidence of naval activity against the Irish, Picts, and Saxons. Claudian's colorful style in this poem and another, The Gothic War, also provides rare detail on the appearance of the Picts and Caledonians: "There also came the legion set to guard the furthest Britons, the legion that curbs the savage Scot and scans the lifeless patterns tatooed on the dying Picts." (Gothic War, 416-418) "Next spoke Britannia, dressed in the skin of some Caledonian beast, her cheeks tatooed, her sea-blue mantle sweeping over her footsteps like the surge of ocean." (On the Consulship of Stilicho, II) Late Roman and Dark Age Historians of Britain [Athena Review Vol.1, no.2] Olympiodorus (fl. AD 407-425) A Greek historian from Thebes, Olympiodorus had an interest in geography which led him to travel widely. One result is that his History of 22 books is frequently based on personal observations. Very careful about technical terms, he is noted for his "bare-bones" reports stressing facts and chronological accuracy. He was frequently referenced by Zosimus, especially for the period between AD 400-425. On Stilicho, he says: "There was no doubt discontent [in Britain], with the rule of the Vandal Stilicho, and with lack of attention his government paid to the defence of Britain against the Picts." (Fragment 12) From the same source, on the usurper Constantine III: "Constantine had been proclaimed in the provinces of Britain and brought to power by a revolt of the soldiers. Indeed, in the provinces of Britain before the seventh consulship of Honorius in 407, they had stirred the army there to revolt, and proclaimed a certain Marcus as supreme ruler. (Fragment 12) After the short-lived rule of Gratian, killed by his own troops in AD 407, Constantine assumed command: "Constantine was then raised to the position of supreme commander. He appointed Justinus and Neovigastes as generals, and leaving ...Britain, crossed with his forces to Bononia [Bologna]... He waited there and, having won over all Gaul and the Aquitanian soldiery, he became master of Gaul as far as the Alps..." (Fragment 12) Late Roman and Dark Age Historians of Britain [Athena Review Vol.1, no.2] The Notitia Dignitatum (ca. AD 395-430) This late Imperial administrative document, known only from an 11th century copy, the Codex Spirensis, is the unique historical source for the Saxon Shore Forts, a network of coastal defenses built around southeast Britain in the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. Late Roman and Dark Age Historians of Britain [Athena Review Vol.1, no.2] Paulus Orosius (fl. AD 414-417) Orosius, who worked closely with St. Augustine of Hippo at the beginning of the 5th century, is the author of the first world history by a Christian. He was a native of Spain, probably the town of Braga, from which he was forced to flee by the Vandal invasion of 414. Having gone to Africa he was befriended by Augustine, who prompted his major work, Histrorium adversus paganos libra VII (Seven Books of History Against the Pagans). This work was used extensively by Bede in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People (ca. 735 AD). In the late 9th century (ca. 890-891) Alfred the Great had both Orosius and Bede translated into Old English. Nearly 200 manuscripts of the Old English version are extant. Orosius wrote in the wake of the sack of Rome by Alaric the Goth in 410. He attempts to counter the view, adopted by many pagans, that Rome's troubles had multiplied since the Empire became Christian. Using material taken from Livy, Tacitus, Justin, and Eutropius (all of whom were pagan), Orosius' History gives examples of calamities and set-backs that befell the Empire before the rejection of paganism. That the work is polemical does not negate its value; it served as a prelude to Augustine's City of God, and is important as an independent historical source. Although the work contains many errors, it is a useful record of the years 378-417. In about AD 414, Augustine sent Orosius to Bethlehem. There Orosius argued against the theologian Pelagius, whose heretical doctrines had become popular in Britain Orosius tried to have the teaching condemned, but was unsuccessful. Returning to Africa, he began his Histories. Orosius' other works (both ca. AD 414) include Reminder to Augustine Concerning the Error of the Priscillianists and the Origenists, and Apology Against the Pelagians. Late Roman and Dark Age Historians of Britain [Athena Review Vol.1, no.2] Constantius (5th century AD) The life of this 5th century historian remains obscure, but his work De Vita Germani (The Life of Germanus) is an invaluable history of St. Germanus, the bishop of Auxerre who made two notable journeys into Britain (AD 429 and 446) to combat Pelagianism. During the Saint's first journey, Constantius describes the "Hallelujah Victory," an ambush led by St. Germanus against the Picts and Saxons, who threw down their weapons and fled when Germanus instructed the men to yell "Hallelujah!" three times. Constantius also records a public debate between Germanus and the supporters of Pelagius, describing the latter as "The authors of the evil doctrine. . . gleaming with their riches, brilliantly clothed, and surrounded by much flattery" (Life of Germanus, 12-27). The work also mentions that St. Patrick was a student of Germanus in Gaul ca. 418-428. **** The evidence supporting Scottish High Kings of Britain There is quite extensive evidence to support the belief that there was a unified structure in British society during the Arthurian period. In the fifth century AD, when the Southern Romano-British Celts brought in Cunedda, and the Manau Goddodin (The men of the North) to expel the Irish raiders, they may well have subscribed to the Pictish coalition. Traditionally it is often interpreted that Goddodin is another derivation of the Roman name of the Lothian tribe of Votadini. This is not possible as, by their own admission, Romans only interpreted existing internal tribal designations. The Goddodin would therefore relate to all of the men of North Britain (Scotland) - the name begins with a Q Celtic sound and could be related to the word Scot. The seventh century poem Y Goddodin, written in southern Scotland, describes an attack by the men of the North on Catterick. Because this poem was written in the seventh century, then the Goddodin were still living in North Britain long after Cunedda's supposed settlement of the Goddodin in Wales in 460 AD. The poem goes on to include possible references to Pictish/ Gaelic placenames and personal names:- "like Elffin [Alpin] he would attack laughing; praiseworthy Eithinyn, a wall in war a bull in battle" One of the major cities that the Goddodin inhabited was called Dinedin. This is very obviously a reference to the gaelic name for Edinburgh, Dun Edin. Since this poem was supposedly written in the seventh century, then the reference to Dinedin is further confirmation that gaelic was being spoken in Southern Scotland at this time. This makes it increasingly likely that the attack on Catterick was carried out by Scots, who must now be seen as occupying all of the area of Southern Scotland below the Forth-Clyde line by the sixth century. Co-incidentally this seems to confirm Bede's belief that the Forth-Clyde line seperated the Scots from the Picts. Amongst the names of warleaders of the Goddodin there is strong evidence of Scotic names. Alpin was the name of an eighth century Pictish king (726-728 AD) and the name of the father of Kenneth Mac Alpin (842-858 AD), while Elfin is a name which appears in the genealogy of the men of Strathclyde. Since Scots and Pictish kings appear to be one and the same since the fifth century then Cunedda could not have settled in Wales but was merely adopted as a reigning High King of Britain. It is also probable that the name Goddodin comes from the same origins as both the words Sgoth and Scot. This indicates that the Goddodin and the Scots are very closely related. The Manau Goddodin would by derivation be the men of the land of the Scots. This is confirmed both by the locations that are given for the names of the cities of the Goddodin and the Gaelic names of the Goddodin leaders. The presence of the genealogy of the men of Strathclyde in Welsh documents and stories of Scotic battles in welsh poetic verse indicates that there was a close relationship between Northern tribes and the Welsh of Southern Britain. Cunedda as leader of the Scots of Southern Scotland would probably have been the most powerful tribal king in Britain in the 5th Century, and the likeliest candidate to be elected High King. No doubt Cunedda was pagan, but although some elements of christianity had permeated Romano-British society, this would not have held an ambitious monarch back from extending his territories during the turbulent years of the mid 5th century. Under extreme pressure from "Saxon" and Irish tribes the Southern British tribes had gone "native" during the fifth century - after the Roman evacuation. There is ample evidence, from archeological findings of post Roman monuments, inscribed with the names of local deities, of the re-emergance of native British paganism. These pagan tribes would have brought in the High King from the Pictish alliance in Northern Britain, as their ally first and then their overlord to assist in the alleviation of their problems, perhaps because of earlier assistance. During the third and fourth centuries AD, no doubt, support from the Northern tribes would have occurred towards British tribes in Southern England and Wales who were opposing Roman conquest. The Picts would be able to assist in providing arms and shelter to Southern leaders willing to organise disruption in the South while they were involved in attacking the Northern Boundary. This would in effect leave the Roman army surrounded on all sides for extensive periods (Ammianus Marcellinus' "barbarian" conspiracy of the 4th century AD). Once the Roman army had been defeated it is quite possible that family ties, which had developed during this confused period of history, meant that Scotic kings inherited significant territories in the South. So important figures like Cunedda may well have been both leaders of Northern and Southern kingdoms at the same time. There is strong evidence to support the belief that a pagan Northern King would be welcomed as an over king by Southern tribes; ....During the fifth and later centuries Christianity began to regain its former importance amongst the native tribes. The Celtic Church of Ireland, came under the influence of St Patrick, while Rome began to send out envoys to the Southern Monarchs of England. The conversions carried out by important dark age saints such as Patrick, Ninnian, Mungo/Columba and Cuthbert meant an increasingly christian element amongst the leaders of native tribes. Any single monarch trying to achieve leadership over all the British tribes during the 6th century, is likely to have carried out the practices of the dominant pagan religion, but politically paying lip service to the christian religion practiced by a significant number of powerful southern Romanised tribes. This would explain Breidi Mac Maelcon's apparent ambivalence to "Columba", neither encouraging nor discouraging him in any way shape or form, and why Arthurian "High King" traditions contain both pagan and christian elements. The attacks on Southern Britain by the "Saxons" in the middle of the fifth century AD would have compounded the southern British tribes difficulties forcing them to ally themselves with one or more of the Pictish tribes of Northern Britain. Since we know Maelcon, the descendant of Cunedda, began his reign around 558 AD, then Cunedda must have been invited by the Southern British tribes around 412 AD - i.e. 146 years before the reign of Maelcon - according to the Historia Brittonum. However, as Maelcon is also known as the great grandson of Cunedda, born within 25 years of Cunedda's introduction to the Southern British, then this would make some time towards the end of the fifth century AD and the beginning of the 6th century AD more likely, corresponding to the beginning of the reigns of the sons of Erc. The Senchus fer' n Alban quotes the country as Alban, which has often been translated as Scotland (Dal Riada), it is far more likely that Alban should be translated literally as it stands i.e. Britain - the Senchus Fer n' Alban is the [abbreviated] history of the men of Britain. This means that The High King of the Picts - whose Southern British titular designation would be Cun edda (the High King) - was probably inaugurated as the leader of the Southern British tribes, during the end of the fifth century at Gwynedd (a name deriving from the same source as Cunedda). It is likely that Cunedda would then have to be Loarn, the first of the "sons of Erc" to reign. [Chapter 30 will identify Loarn as the great grandfather of Maelcon, and father of the son's of Erc]. According to Geoffrey of Monmouth's "Prophesies of Merlin" :- "The Daneian Forest shall be wakened from its sleep and, bursting into human speech, it shall shout 'Kambria come here ! Bring Cornwall at your side! Say to Winchester : The earth will swallow you up'." The wording in this phrophesy may confirm that there had been an alliance between the Southern Celtic kingdoms (Kambria and Cornwall) and the Northern Britons (The Daneian forest taking its name from the Tuatha de Danann, the "family" of the Gaelic speaking North Britons) against what the original annalist may have misinterpreted as the power centre of the "English" (represented by Winchester). As Winchester was the capital of one of the major Saxon settlements of Wessex then this is testimonial evidence from Geoffrey of Monmouth that confirms an early alliance between at least part of the North British (Picts) and South British tribes. But Wales (Kambria) and Cornwall were the Southern British races that caused the Romans, not necessarily the English, most difficulty, as evidenced by the building of significant Roman fortresses and encampments in west Wales and southern England during the latter days of the Roman Empire. If Winchester, formerly a major Roman Garrison, was not representative of "English" power, then it may well represent the last vestige of Roman influence in Britain, and the prophesy is describing the reconquest of Romano- British territories by native pagan tribes. ["Dark Age Britain prior to and after the Roman Conquest" copyright 1998 David F. Dale All rights reserved Google's cache of ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/DavidDale1/Part_3.htm] **** The fourth and fifth centuries are the flourishing, classical period of the patristic theology and of the Christian Graeco-Roman civilization. In the second half of the fifth century the West Roman empire, with these literary treasures, went down amidst the storms of the great migration, to take a new and higher sweep in the Germano-Roman form under Charlemagne. In the Eastern empire scholarship was better maintained, and a certain connection with antiquity was preserved through the medium of the Greek language. But as the Greek church had no middle age, so it has had no Protestant Reformation. The prevailing philosophy of the fathers was the Platonic, so far as it was compatible with the Christian spirit. The speculative theologians of the East, especially those of the school of Origen, and in the West, Ambrose and pre-eminently Augustine, were moulded by the Platonic idealism. A remarkable combination of Platonism with Christianity, to the injury of the latter, appears in the system of mystic symbolism in the pseudo-Dionysian books, which cannot have been composed before the fifth century, though they were falsely ascribed to the Areopagite of the book of Acts (xvii. 34), and proceeded from the later school of New-Platonism, as represented by Proclus of Athens (c. 485). The fundamental idea of these Dionysian writings (on the celestial hierarchy; on the ecclesiastical hierarchy; on the divine names; on mystic theology; together with ten letters) is a double hierarchy, one in heaven and one on earth, each consisting of three triads, which mediates between man and the ineffable, transcendent hyper-essential divinity. This idea is a remnant of the aristocratic spirit of ancient heathenism, and forms the connecting link with the hierarchical organization of the church, and explains the great importance and popularity which the pseudo- Dionysian system acquired, especially in the mystic theology of the middle ages.1286 In Synesius of Cyrene also the Platonism outweighs the Christianity. He was an enthusiastic pupil of Hypatia, the famous female philosopher at Alexandria, and in 410 was called to the bishopric of Ptolemais, the capital of Pentapolis. Before taking orders he frankly declared that he could not forsake his philosophical opinions, although he would in public accommodate himself to the popular belief. Theophilus of Alexandria, the same who was one of the chief persecutors of the admirers of Origen, the father of Christian Platonism, accepted this doubtful theory of accommodation. Synesius was made bishop, but often regretted that he exchanged his favorite studies for the responsible and onerous duties of the bishopric. In his hymns he fuses the Christian doctrine of the Trinity with the Platonic idea of God, and the Saviour with the divine Helios, whose daily setting and rising was to him a type of Christ's descent into Hades and ascension to heaven. The desire of the soul to be freed from the chains of matter, takes the place of the sorrow for sin and the longing after salvation. [HISTORY of the CHRISTIAN CHURCH, CHAPTER IX, THEOLOGICAL CONTROVERSIES, AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ECUMENICAL ORTHODOXY. www.ccel.org/s/schaff/history/3_ch09.htm BRITAIN: 1. Celts conquered by Rome during the A.D. 40's and remained under Roman Rule for nearly 400 years. 2. Roman Legions were recalled ca. A.D. 410. 3. ca. 450: Germanic tribes invaded Britain - Angles, Saxons, and Jutes. a. Saxons became the dominant group. b. Angles gave their name to the land (England). c. Celts: retreated into Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. 4. Saxon Kingdoms: a. Northumbria: Southern Scotland and Northern England. b. Mercia: Central England. c. Wessex: Southern England. 5. Government: a. Kingdom divided into districts called shires - governed by shire - reeves (sheriffs). b. King - advised by a council of nobles called the Witan. c. The King and Witan made all the laws and levied taxes. d. Society: King Nobility Freemen - nearly all warriors. Slaves - large percentage of society. CHRISTIANITY: IRELAND AND ENGLAND 1. Missionaries sent to Ireland in the 400's. 432 - Saint Patrick began his work in Ireland -- monastic schools. www.mnsinc.com/hoocher2/mr.j%27spage/themedievalworld.htm *****

Byzantine Historians of the 5th Century

Eunapios of Sardis [346-414] [fragments] in C. Müller, Fragmenta Historicorum Greacorum IV, pp. 7-56; also cf. Excerpt de legationibus, ed. C. de Boor, (1903), 591-92 ed. R.C.Blockley, The fragmentary classicising historians of the later Roman Empire : Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus, and Malchus, (Liverpool, Great Britain : F. Cairns, c1981-1983), 2 Vols.. ed. and English trans., W.C. Wright, Philostratus and Eunapius: The Lives of the Sophists, Loeb Classical Library (London: 1922) 270-404 Olympidoros of Thebes [fragments] in C. Müller, Fragmenta Historicorum Greacorum IV, pp. 57-68 ed. R.C.Blockley, The fragmentary classicising historians of the later Roman Empire : Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus, and Malchus, (Liverpool, Great Britain: F. Cairns, c1981-1983), 2 Vols.. for excerpts see C.D. Gordon, The Age of Attila: Fifth Century Byzantium and the Barbarians, (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1960) [Passages from Priskos, Malchos, Olympidoros and John of Antioch shaped into one narrative] 407-27 Zosimos Historia Nea /New History, ed. L. Mendelssohn, (Leipzig: 1887) critical ed. and French trans., Francois Paschoud, Histoire nouvelle [par] Zosime. Texte etabli et traduit, (Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 1971-1989), 3 vols. English trans as The History of Count Zosimus, Sometime Advocate and Chancellor of the Roman Empire, trans from Original Greek, (London: Printed for J. Davis, 1814) English trans. J. J. Buchanan and H. T. Davies (San Antonio TX: 1967). superseded by English translation by Ronald D. Ridley, Byzantina Australiensa 2, (Canberra: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies,1982) German trans. Neue Geschichte / Zosimos ; ubersetzt und eingeleitet von Otto Veh ; durchgesehen und erlautert by Stefan Rebenich, (Stuttgart : A. Hiersemann, 1990), Bibliothek der griechischen Literatur Bd. 31. Farrar and Evans 3838 -Augustus-410, full from Diocletian Sokrates Scholastikos [c.379-440] Ekklesiastike historia /Ecclesiastical History ed. Migne PG 67:28-842 The ecclesiastical history of Socrates, surnamed Scholasticus, or the Advocate : comprising a history of the church in seven books, from the accession of Constantine, A.D. 305, to the 38th year of Theodosius..., (London : Henry G. Bohn, 1853) reprinted several times 306-439 Sozomenos [c.400-450] Ekklesiastike historia / Ecclesiastical History ed. Migne PG 67:843-1630 ed. and French tr. Histoire ecclesiastique, Greek text of the edition by J. Bidez ; introduction by Bernard Grillet and Guy Sabbah ; translation by Andre-Jean Festugiere ; annotation by Guy Sabbah, (Paris : Editions du Cerf, 1983-) Sources chretiennes ; no 306- A history of the church in nine books, from A.D. 324 to A.D. 440, tran. Edward Walford, (London : Bagster, 1846) 324-440 ***** Ecclesiastic Councils 3. Ephesus 431AD (only accepted by the "monophysite" churches) 4. Chalcedon 451AD (only accepted by "monophysite" churches and Anglicans [?]) ***** Early Christian Writers Augustine of Hippo 354-430 Farrar and Evans 426-485 Ferguson 161-222 John Chrysostom, d. 407 Farrar and Evans 941-956 Ferguson 453-462 See also On Marriage and Family Life, trans Catharine P. Roth and David Anderson, (Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1986) {Homiles: 19, 20, 21, 12, and On Marriage] Kyril of Jerusalem, c. 315-c386 Farrar and Evans 1163-1166 Kyril of Alexandria, d. 444 Farrar and Evans 1159-1162 ***** Collected Papyri Greek Literary Papyri, ed. and trans., D.L. Pege, Loeb Classical Library, 2 Vols. (London: 1942) contains some 4-5th century poems ***** Timothy of Gaza [fl. 491-518] ..On animals.., Fragments of a Byzantine Paraphrase of an Animal Book of the Fifth Century A.D, trans F.S. Bodenheimer and A Rabinowitzm Collection de travaux de l'académie internationale 3, (ParisL Académie Interentionale d'Historie de Science; Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1949) -translates a prose version of original poem Nonnus of Panopolis ed. and English trans. Dionysiaca by W. H. D. Rouse, Loeb Classical Library, 3 Vols. (London: 1962-63) ed. and French trans, Les Dionysiaques, texte etabli et traduit par Francis Vian ... [et al.], (Paris : Belles Lettres, 1976-<1994 >) ***** Acacius [d. 489] Armenian F.C. Conybeare, "Anecdota monophysitarum: the Correspondence of Peter Mongus, Patriarch of Alexandria, and Acacius, Patriach of Constantinople, Together with the Henoticon of the Emperor Zeno and the Rescript of the Emperor Anastasius, Now First Translated from the Old Armenian Texts", American Journal of Theology 9 (1905), 719-40 Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople [fl. 428]. The bazaar of Heracleides, newly translated from the Syriac and edited with an introduction, notes & appendices by G. R. Driver & Leonard Hodgson, (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1925: reissued New York : AMS Press, 1978) Le livre d'Heraclide de Damas, traduit en francais par F. Nau, avec le concours du R. P. Bedjan et de M. Briere ; suivi du texte grec des trois Homelies de Nestorius sur les tentations de Notre-Seigneur, et..., (Paris : Letouzey et Ane, 1910; reissued Farnborough, England : Gregg International Publishers, 1969) ***** Education in Medieval Europe Christian schools of various kinds increased in number in the West during the centuries following the administrative disintegration of imperial Rome. The reigning barbarian conquerors had little interest in literature let alone philosophy, but educated Romans, including numbers of Christians, clung to the schools of classical culture into the sixth century. Municipal schools in Gaul lapsed earlier; there the record is silent after A.D. 474. Ironically, perhaps -- some would say inevitably -- the declining days of empire produced textbooks that were to serve a thousand years, e.g., Donatus' Grammar (5th c.), Priscian's Grammar (6th c.), Cato's Distichs (5th c.), Martianus Capella's Marriage of Philology and Mercury (5th c.). Fixated on practicalities, the barbarian attitude toward classical education was akin to the Roman's initial suspicion of Greek learning. Applied arts and sciences had been valued by Romans of Cato's day; so were they valued by the invading barbarians of the fifth century, likewise military prowess and athleticism, but liberal learning was lost on them. Patrician Romans of the second and third centuries had come to appreciate a more cosmopolitan education, but when in the course of the fifth and sixth centuries the barbarians came to control government and define the public milieu, even educated Romans eventually retreated from classical traditions. They also retreated from the distress of the cities, finding solace in their suburban or rural estates, and thereby hastening the decline of literary and oratorical culture. For those accommodating to the new rule, the time came when the education of their children had more of sports than letters. [Google's cache of edpa.coled.umn.edu/iconics/Reading%20Room/5.htm] ***** The Coptic Church was misunderstood at the council of Chaicedon which was held in the middle of the 5th century. Perhaps the bishops of the Council understood the Church correctly , but they wanted to exile the Church to isolate it and to abolish the Egyptian Patriarchate for political reasons. The Coptic Church was accused of following the teachings of Eutyches, who believed in monophysitism. This doctrine maintains that the Lord has only one nature, the divine, not two natures, the human as well as the divine. How do the Copts explain the two natures of our Lord? They believe that He is perfect in His divinity, and He is perfect in His humanity, but His divinity and His humanity are united in one nature, which they call "the nature of the incarnate word." They believe that His divinity never parted from His humanity not an instant nor a twinkle of an eye. The unity of His divinity and His humanity is perfect, yet without mingling confusion or alteration. This was reiterated by St. Cyril of Alexandria. To the Coptic Church, faith is more important than anything and that others must know semantics and terminology are of little importance. St. Dioscorus of Alexandria was sent into exile and the political motives of the Council of Chalcedon became apparent when the Emperor Marcianus interfered with matters of faith in the church. St. Dioscorus told the Emperor, "You have nothing to do with the Church," and in the year 45l, the Coptic Church established its independence, but has remained very strict and steadfast in its faith. [adapted from Identity of the Copts] ***** John Philoponus' Contribution to Science A Case Study of an Early Christian Contribution to the Science of Motion By Mike Keas, December 1984, Revised July 1998 Abstract John Philoponus' innovative scientific propositions and habits of mind were inspired by a Christian worldview and a Christian appropriation and critique of Greek philosophy. One of his most influential scientific theories was his interpretation of projectile motion (such as throwing a rock) as the internalization of an external cause that could have continuing effect after the elimination of the original external cause (e.g., the hand that threw the rock) from the explanatory picture. Galileo later adopted and modified this early "impetus" theory without identifying its long heritage in the Christian tradition that traces back to Philoponus and earlier (despite the fact the Galileo mentioned Philoponus on numerous occasions in other regards). "Impetus" is a late medieval term used to refer to the sort of natural cause thought to be behind the continued process of projectile motion after the moving object ceases direct contact with the original external cause of motion. Philoponus proposed this sort of account of projectile motion in rejection of the various Aristotelian explanations that required direct continuous contact between the external source of motion and the body in projectile motion. "Impetus" roughly corresponds to what now call "momentum". This idea came into the mainstream of physics primarily by the work of Isaac Newton, and it still serves as one of the fundamental laws of classical physics (the sort of physics that we consider approximately valid for everyday phenomena). Put in its classical Newtonian form, bodies naturally continue in their state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line, unless forced to do otherwise. This essay explains how John Philoponus' distinctively Christian perspective in science helped him to arrive at this early impetus theory. A Unified Study of Heaven and Earth Careful thinking about any subject, to the extent humanly possible, proceeds in a mode of reasoning that is appropriately matched to the objective reality of the subject of examination, whether one is examining a rock, flower, animal, human, or God. This sort of unified method of knowing anything in heaven and Earth (or beyond) was worked out with great skill by Christian theologians in the early Christian era, particularly in 2nd-5th century Alexandria, Egypt (I am grateful for Tom Torrance's work on this subject upon which I base many of my theses in this essay). This monumental Christian achievement took place in the presence of Neoplatonic, Aristotelian, and Skeptical philosophical reflection and represents a bold application of the whole gospel for the whole world (including especially the idea of the "creation of the world by God's Word" and idea "the incarnation of the Word of God in the person of Christ"). The next paragraph summarizes this unified epistemological achievement (which still carries significance for many Christian thinkers today, including the myself). Recall that "epistemology" refers to a theory of how we can know things. The modality of reason that one employs in carefully investigating an animal will need revision when studying a human because humans are rational agents over whom the investigator has no (or little) control. Thus, in the scientific study of a human being, the knower and the one known experience personal interaction--it is a two-way street (unlike scientific studies of dogs, daisies, and non-living materials). Notice that the essence of "careful thinking" is the same--knowing something adaptively in accordance with that something's true character (objective reality). The same essential approach to "careful thinking" is also valid when we want to think accurately about God, but in this special case the modality of reason undergoes a revolution that outshines any other. An inversion of our knowing relation occurs in accordance with the fact that it is God who takes the initiative to make himself known to us (otherwise we would have now way of knowing him at all). In other words, knowledge of God is utterly dependent upon the recognition that we cannot know God short of his initiative at self-revelation. Furthermore, we can never master God in our understanding. As we humbly bend the knee to him in worship, we meet the requirements for further revelation which God graciously provides. Thus, both the careful scientist and the careful theologian seek knowledge in the same general kind of way, namely in accordance with the objective reality (character) of what is being studied. Among the early Christian thinkers that helped to establish this unified approach to knowledge acquisition, John Philoponus stands out particularly in his contribution to the study of natural phenomena in light of his understanding of God as the creator of the universe (and creator of "time" itself). John Philoponus of Alexandria attempted to explain natural phenomena "in light of all that he knew" (borrowing a phrase from Alvin Plantinga) as a sixth-century scholar in the Christian tradition, including what he knew from the Bible. Although many modern scientists may find it difficult to appreciate that part of his work which fails to anticipate modern scientific ideas or modern methodological rules, Philoponus stands out as an early example of excellence when we view his work as a contribution to science and scholarship both within his own context of time and culture as well as a contributor to a unified approach to learning that is still very important today in Christian circles. Philoponus considered an understanding of God as creator to be very important as part of the research agenda brought out to make sense of the phenomena of the created world, including projectile motion. He drew his conclusions about God in a way that was appropriate for the object of study, namely he took into account the self-revelation of God in the Bible. He then turned to the phenomena of nature and interpreted them in a way that was consistent with this primary doctrine (the Christian doctrine of creation), just as the ancient Greeks had interpreted natural phenomena in light of their own primary doctrine of the self-sufficiency and deity of the beginningless world. Although the Greeks adopted the idea that present order of the world had a beginning, they considered it absurd to entertain the idea that the world in its entirety had an absolute beginning, which is precisely what the Christian worldview proclaimed after the decline of Greek science a few generations after Plato and Aristotle. Philoponus creatively extended the frontiers of physics and cosmology by bringing to bear a Christian perspective in his commentaries on ancient Greek works, particularly several works by Aristotle. Philoponus grounded his study of nature in the Christian affirmation of a contingent universe possessing a rational order as a freely-chosen product of God's creative command (as opposed to the Greek "necessary" and "eternal" universe). "Contingent" means "it all depends" and in this special theological context, it means "the character and structure of the universe all depends upon God's creative choice and command." In so doing, Philoponus of Alexandria demonstrates a positive role for Christian theology in developing both the cognitive content and regulative method of the scientific enterprise. The tradition of natural philosophy to which Philoponus contributed both assimilated and critiqued Aristotelian science in progressive ways. Philoponus' Christian worldview particularly affected his explanation of what Aristotle called "natural motion" (free fall) and "violent motion" (projectile motion, e.g., throwing an object horizontally)--topics that we shall take up in detail in this essay. Philoponus, Lover of Labor John of Alexandria, also known as John the Grammarian (Ionnes Grammaticus), was honored with the surname "Philoponus," meaning "lover of labor." That he loved to work is seen in his extant commentaries on Aristotle which consist of some 3000 large pages of closely printed Greek. Those 3000 pages represent only a portion of his complete scholarly work in areas that we might characterize as science, philosophy, theology, grammar, and rhetoric (sounds like much of OBU's Unified Studies program?). Philoponus was born in the late fifth century A.D., probably in Caesarea, and died in Alexandria during the second half of the sixth century. His productive life, mostly spent at Alexandria, coincided with the small "burst" of Greek science that took place in the sixth century, just before the Greek corpus of learning was translated into Syriac and Arabic. The sixth century AD is generally taken as the end of antiquity and the beginning of the middle ages. The year 529 AD is particularly symbolic of this transition (representing both the end of ancient learning and the beginning of medieval culture) in that during 529 AD Justinian closed the Academy at Athens, and Benedict founded his monastery at Monte Casino in Italy. Justinian's closure of the Neoplatonic school in Athens, although certainly constraining to the mathematical and scientific activity of the Neoplatonic movement, did not destroy it. This Neoplatonic upsurge of the sixth century is well represented by two contemporary, but competing figures: John Philoponus and Simplicius. Although Philoponus certainly had some degree of a Neoplatonistic inclination, his Christian faith seemed to have dominated his worldview including his philosophy of nature which is important to the discussion here. Philoponus' philosophy of nature was an early attempt at integrating a Judeo-Christian worldview with a scientific cosmology. The result was extraordinary for the development of science and Christian thought. The Aristotelian dichotomy of the universe into the heavenly (superlunar) and the earthly (sublunar) regions began to dissipate in an emerging Christian theistic cultural matrix within which creation ex nihilo (out of nothing) stood out in sharp relief against the ancient Greek idea of a necessary and eternal universe. Specifically, Philoponus' Christian understanding of the origin of the universe by the freely-chosen Word of God helped him to see no essential difference between the heavenly and earthly domains of nature. This eventually led to a unified understanding of physics--one set of natural laws that govern the entire cosmos. Philoponus' science flourished in the light of his theology of Christ as creator and the universe as a contingent rational order. The universe is "contingent" in that "it could have been otherwise." God chose to create it the way it is, but this is just one choice out of an indefinite number of choices. In other words, Philoponus understood that God is not constrained by natural laws when he creates (as humans are naturally constrained in their creative acts), but in fact authored the very natural regularities that we call "natural laws". Thus, to know the world, we must employ direct observations, not just logical arguments, since there it not just one way for God to have made the world. The universe is a "contingent rational order" in that it is the product of a rational designer, rather than a product of chance or necessity (the only possibilities seriously entertained by Greek thinkers). Thus, humans can have confidence in their attempts to known nature through scientific inquiry because nature, like the human mind itself, is made in just this sort of contingent and rational way (neither the result of chance nor necessity). The pagan natural philosopher, Simplicius, engaged in a life-long dispute against his Christian opponent, Philoponus. Although there is no extant record of Philoponus' response to Simplicius, his end of the dialogue can be inferred from the extant writings of Simplicius in conjunction with what little has survived of Philoponus' own writings. As a commentator on Aristotle, Simplicius represents a meticulous interpreter of the text, inserting clearly marked Neoplatonic views only after exhausting all reasonable representations of Aristotle's ideas. Philoponus, far from careful and reverential exegesis, severely criticizes the text of Aristotle. Dispersed throughout his writings, including his commentary on Aristotle's Physics, are a significant number of important scientific insights, several of which are the focus of this essay. His ideas on the dynamics of falling bodies and projectile motion are particularly important in the history of science because of their creative departure from (and improvement upon) Aristotelian physical principles. The Physics of Falling Bodies Philoponus took up the topic of falling bodies in his commentary on Aristotle's Physics. This text begins with Aristotelian physical principles, but ends up espousing some anti-Aristotelian conclusions with regard to falling bodies. First Philoponus states and accepts the Aristotelian postulate that the efficient cause of the downward motion of a falling body is its weight. Stop and review this if you forget what "efficient cause" means. According to Aristotle there were 4 kinds of causes, all of which needed to be addressed if an explanation of something were to be complete: 1.Material cause: that out of which on object is composed (e.g., which elements?) 2.Formal cause: the shape or form of something (e.g., the shape of a statue) 3.Efficient cause: the direct action that causes something (e.g., sculptor's chisel) 4.Final cause: the purpose for something's existence (e.g., a statue is for beauty) Then he supposes a hypothetical situation (thought experiment) in which two objects of different weight are dropped through a void (space evacuated of its matter). Philoponus reasoned that the resulting rates of motion in free fall must be different because their efficient causes (weights) are of differing magnitude [Note, this is not correct from a modern perspective, but try to place yourself in the shoes of Philoponus and recognize that his view was reasonable for its time]. That this is so is deduced from the fact that the differing efficient causes are two distinct quantities (weights) of an inherent tendency to move downward toward the center of the Earth. Because these tendencies are inherent to the material bodies themselves (yet even this arrangement is dependent upon God's sustaining power), they do not cease to exist as such even in a hypothetical void. Furthermore, the resulting speeds would be finite quantities, not infinite as Aristotle had claimed in his argument against the possibility of a void. Philoponus then continues to develop his line of reasoning from the motion of falling bodies in a void to a similar kind of motion--in a medium (not empty space), specifically, in the Earth's atmosphere. Natural motion in a plenum is presented as a special case of hypothetical natural motion in a void. The additional factor which renders natural motion in a plenum "special", is the interference of the medium. This medium-induced interference makes motion "more difficult" (resists acceleration). The increased difficulty is due to the "pressure of the medium and the necessity of cutting through it." Consequently, a "certain additional time" is required in free fall through a medium like air to travel the same distance that would be covered if the same body fell through a void. Philoponus then proceeds to develop a theoretical connection between natural motion in a plenum and natural motion in a void. Suppose that the air in a certain environment is successively thinned-out (partially evacuated). The resulting decrease in concentration of air medium would reduce the "additional time" necessary for natural motion in a plenum. If one continues to thin the air a void-condition will be approached, though never reached in the actual physical world. Likewise, the "additional time" of free fall through an increasingly thinned-out medium would approach zero. Thus the time required for free fall through a given distance in this virtual void approaches, but never reaches the time it would take in an absolute void. This limiting case of hypothetical free fall through a void was later called "original time" by Islamic natural philosophers who developed Philoponus' approach to the study of motion. Although he never used this term, Philoponus explicitly formulated the concept denoted by "original time." The "total time" required for the free fall of an object of certain weight is defined as the sum of "original time" and "additional time." The only mathematical expression that Philoponus explicitly associated with this definition is that "additional time" is proportional to the density of the medium (how closely packed together the particles of the medium are). This proportionality of Philoponus was meant to rival what Philoponus perceived as an erroneous proportionality in the text of Aristotle's Physics, namely that the total time of free fall is proportional to the density of the medium and inversely proportional to the weight of the falling body. That this quantitative interpretation of Aristotle violates what modern commentators understand to be the true spirit of Aristotle is beside the point in this context. What is important is that Philoponus understood Aristotle this way and sought to refute him with an alternative theory. Philoponus' rationale for the rejection of his understanding of Aristotle's proportionality appeals to "actual observation" rather than mere logical deliberation. Stating this in Philoponus' own words, "but this [i.e., Aristotle's view of natural motion] is completely erroneous and our view may be corroborated by actual observation more effectively than by any sort of verbal argument." The supposed observation which he reports involves a situation in which two objects are dropped from the same height, one twice the weight of the other. Both objects hit the ground at nearly the same instant proving that the times of descent are not proportional to the respective weights of the bodies. Although Philoponus could have performed this experiment, there is no conclusive evidence that he did, other than in the strict confines of his own mind. In any event, he demonstrates a positive affect of Christian theology on science in that his notion of God freely creating the universe one way out of an infinite number of possible ways. This idea lead one to engage in observations, rather than just logical dialogue, in order to find out how God actually chose to make the world. The Physics of Projectile Motion We will learn more about Philoponus' Christian worldview basis for science in his treatment of forced motion (projectile motion; such a throwing a rock horizontally) in his Physics commentary. Philoponus reviews two possible mechanisms of projectile motion discussed in Aristotle's Physics. Both mechanisms have in common the proposition that the medium through which a projectile travels is responsible for the sustenance of motion. Moreover the common proposition just identified assumed the more basic doctrine of the necessity of the continuous contact between the mover and the moved which is a fundamental postulate of Aristotelian dynamics (i.e., Aristotelian sublunar physics). The first suggested Aristotelian mechanism of medium-sustained projectile motion, often referred to as Antiperistasis, involves the operation of a continuous partial vacuum created at the tail end of the projectile. The air thrust forward at the front end of the projectile supposedly moves back into the partial vacuum at the rear of the projectile acting to thrust the projectile forward still further. Philoponus attacks this account of projectile motion by pointing to the lack of explanation for the two-fold change in direction taken by the air which travels from the leading to the trailing edge of the projectile. What causes the air to change directions twice (doubling back and then pushing forward again)? What keeps this air from scattering into the surrounding space in the process? Philoponus' response to Antiperistasis approaches outright ridicule: "Such a view is quite incredible and boarders rather on the fantastic." The second projectile motion mechanism discussed by Aristotle does not involve a change in the direction of air movement. In this scenario, the initial thrust produced by the mover propels a minute portion of air which in turn pushes forward the projectile directly in front of it. This propelling air, while staying in direct contact with the projectile, is joined by more air as the projectile is pushed onward. This theory proposes the existence of successive waves of moving air directly behind the projectile which sustain projectile motion until the air waves dissipate (think of a boat propelled over the water by waves generated on the water's surface). Philoponus criticizes this Aristotelian account for projectile motion by an argument that also applies to the first account. Philoponus notes that objects are not thrust forward (at least not significantly) by forcing large quantities of air directly on the surface of the given object. Even if the same objects were placed on the "top of a stick" (to reduce friction to a minimum), similar results would occur. These and similar arguments lead up to a conclusion that is radically un-Aristotelian in a most basic sense. "Rather," Philoponus retorts, "it is necessary to assume that some incorporeal motive force is imparted by the projector to the projectile." Indeed, Philoponus concludes that some immaterial motion-producing force is imparted to the projectile by the projector (e.g., person throwing the object) because he cannot find a continued cause of projectile motion external to the object once that object has left contact with the mover. Thus Philoponus manages to internalize the efficient cause of projectile motion in a way that is similar to his treatment of free fall. Free fall is said to be caused by the inherent tendency of all bodies to move toward the center of the world (that is, their "weight" which is internal to the object). Now the "forced motion" (contrary to the natural tendency to fall toward Earth's center) characteristic of a flying projectile obtains a similar "natural" status as the so-called "natural motion" of free fall. In the case of free fall, the efficient cause of motion ("weight") of a particular object is fixed (constant), while in the case of projectile motion, the value of the immaterial motion-producing force that is imparted to an object depends upon the quantity of force exerted by the initial external object that pushed the projectile into motion. Conclusion: Confessional Science John Philoponus' innovative interpretation of projectile motion as the internalization of an external efficient cause constituted an early form of "impetus" theory that has proved enormously fruitful in science. This idea became a permanent part of physics by the work of Isaac Newton (bodies naturally continue in their state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line, unless forced to do otherwise). John Philoponus' distinctively Christian perspective in science helped him to arrive at this early impetus theory because he had the mental resources to confidently critique Aristotle's "necessary" universe with the infinite possible universes that could have been created by God's absolute power and will. Which universe God chose to create is identified through hypothetical (other-worldly) reasoning and observation. In any case, it would make more sense for God to have created one set of natural laws for the entire universe, rather than the ancient Greek dichotomy between the super- and sub-lunar regions of the universe. Philoponus operated creatively in science from a distinctively Christian viewpoint, particularly to the extent that the above ideas rested upon the doctrine of creation out of nothing of one unified universe by God's free will. The hypothetical thinking used in Philoponus' account of motion amounted to the use of the void as a universal standard form motion, both in the heavens, and on Earth. This sort of "possible-world" thinking shows again the positive influence of Christianity in that one should consider more than one way that God could have made the world (there is more than one way he could have made the world and thought experiments help to bring this out for consideration). Considering the cause of projectile motion to be inherent to the body in motion was crucial in the long-term debate over the possibility of a void as well as the nature of projectile motion. This proposition allowed for the continuation of projectile motion in the absence of all contact forces (in contrast to Aristotle who required constant-contact movers to keep things moving in projectile motion). The consideration of free fall and projectile motion in a hypothetical void as the basis for the definition of those kinds of motion constituted an "other worldly" conceptual leap (yet with an emphasis on observations in the real world). Scientific conceptualization with reference to "other worldly" or possible world ideas became much more prevalent in the Latin West after the condemnation of 1277 in which the Aristotelian idea of the necessity of this world was denounced by the Church. The great historic significance of this possible-world way of thinking was realized to a great extent in the creative constructions of the fourteenth century Mertonian (Oxford) and Parisian (Paris) schools of natural science from which Galileo adapted many of his ideas. 1. These notes are disconnected from their proper insertion points in this paper on Philoponus. I will correct this later. Dictionary of Scientific Biography, s.v. "John Philoponus," by Samuel Sambursky, p. 134. 2. Marshall Clagett, Greek Science in Antiquity (New York: Abelard-Schuman, 1955), pp. 168, 169. 3. Sambursky, "John Philoponus," p. 134. 4. Samuel Sambursky, The Physical World of Late Antiquity (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1962), p. 156. 5. Cohen, Source Book, pp. 217-221. 6. John Philoponus, Commentary on Aristotle's Physics, trans. M. Cohen and I. E. Drabkin, A Source Book in Greek Science (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1948), p. 218. 7. Clagett, Greek Science, p. 172. 8. Philoponus, Commentary, p. 219. 9. Ibid. 10. Cohen, Source Book, pp. 221-223. www.okbu.edu/academics/natsci/us/311/pack-28.html *****
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