TIMELINE 8th CENTURY


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TIMELINE 8th CENTURY

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We examine both works of fiction and important contemporaneous works on non-fiction which set the context for early Science Fiction and Fantasy.
There are nearly 10 hotlinks here to authors, magazines, films, or television items elsewhere in the Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide or beyond. Most recently updated: 11 May 2003 [from 77to 102 kilobytes].
This web page draws heavily on FACTS as listed in "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. It does not copy the TEXT of that fine and recommended reference, and has value added in correlating the scientific and literary production of the century, and in hotlinking to additional resources.
Facts were also checked against "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A. Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795; the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica, and the Wikipedia. It also utilizes facts from Volume I of D.E. Smith's "History of Mathematics" [(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958]. Additional facts are from: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle : Eighth Century, This is part of the wonderful translations in Avalon Project at Yale Law School, and facts from it are cited as "[ASC]". Executive Summary of the 8th Century alphabetical list of Mathematical/Scientific/Philosophical/Literary People of the Century Fiction About the 8th Century Non-Fiction About the 8th Century Major Books of the Decade 700-710 Major Books of the Decade 710-720 Major Books of the Decade 720-730 Major Books of the Decade 730-740 Major Books of the Decade 740-750 Major Books of the Decade 750-760 Major Books of the Decade 760-770 Major Books of the Decade 770-780 Major Books of the Decade 780-790 Major Books of the Decade 790-800 Other Key Dates and Stories of this 8th Century Major Writers Born this 8th Century Major Writers Died this 8th Century Decade by Decade 8th Century Science Background Decade by Decade 8th Century Mundane Background Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology Where to Go for More: 51 Useful Reference Books

Executive Summary of the 8th Century

The Eighth Century was a golden age of literature, a bloody age of armed world conquest, an inky near-renaissance age of scholarship, and a diamond-bright age of otherwordly religious fervor. For literature, see discussions below on Beowulf, 1001 Arabian Nights, the Song of Roland, Du Fu, Kakinomoto no Hitomaro, Li Po. For conquest, see discussions below on Charles Martel, Charlemagne, Pelayo, and Vikings. For scholarship, see discussions below on Alcuin, al-Khwarizmi, Autpert Ambrose, the Venerable Bede, Einhard, and Theophanes the Chronographer. For religious fervor, see discussions below on Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya, Beatus of Liebana, Buddha, and Shankara. In this Eighth Century (or maybe the Ninth), the great Old English Fantasy Poem Beowulf could have first been written (as oposed to orally transmitted) The great Fantasy epic 1001 Arabian Nights is written, in the reign of the great Caliph Harun al Rashid [786-809] {to be done} The heroic Death of Roland, Frankish commander, in the Battle of Roncevaux [778] is later romanticized in an entire sub-genre of poetry (the "chansons de geste"). The particular epic poem "The Song of Roland", probably written down in the currently surviving form in the late 11th Century [see 778], has been described as "the earliest of the truly national poems of the modern world." European affairs were influenced by politico-military leaders including: * Charles Martel [23 Aug 676-22 Oct 741], born in Alsace, France, Mayor of the Palace of the Kingdom of the Franks. Charles "the Hammer" Martel is best known for winning the [732] Battle of Poitiers (also known as the Battle of Tours) which stopped the advance of Islamic conquest in Europe at the Spanish and Southern France side of the Pyranees. Under Charles Martel's son Pepin the Short, and grandson Charlemagne, the Umayyad Kingdom was held in check, and Christianity kept control of crucial parts of Europe. Charles Martel also acquired Aquitaine, Provence, Bavaria, and Alemannia. Charlemagne would also complete Charles Martel's conquest of and absoption of the Saxons into the Frankish Empire. * Pepin the Short, also known as Pippin III [714-768], who was King of the Franks [751-768] * Charlemagne [see 768] * Pelayo, King of Asturias [???-737], semi-legendary instigator of the Reconquest of Spain from the Muslims In Asia, it is worth noting that the Eighth Century includes: * start of construction of the Indonesian Buddhist complex of Borobodur, most likely as a non-Buddhist shrine * speaking of Buddhism: * the Jataka stories (Buddhist myths and legends) were translated into Syriac (as "Kalilag") and into Arabic (as "Damnag") * a biography of Buddha was translated by St. John of Damascus [died 749] into Greek, and thus became known to the Christian world as the tale of Jalaam and Josaphat This Eighth Century marks the start of the Viking Age (circa 793-1066). and, in the Americas, the start of the decline of Classical Mayan civilization [see 738, 760]. This was a time of incremental advance of technology, including: * Utilization in the Rhine valley of the Heavy Plow * Utilization in Northern Europe of the Horsecollar (maybe via Asia) * Utilization common in Europe of Iron Horseshoes (circa 770) * Diffusion of Papermaking technology from China to the Arab world The 8th Century, according to D.E. Smith, {to be done} There was no great Mathematician of the Century, the way Omar Khayyam was to the late 10th/early 11th Centuries, or Fibonacci was to the 13th century.

Mathematical/Scientific/Philosophical/Literary People of the Century:

  1. Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya
  2. , woman Sufi (Islamic) saint from Iraq. See [717] Some information on this important woman as Sufi master may be found at: "www.mythinglinks.org/ NearEast~3monotheisms~Islam~Rabia.html"
  3. al-Khwarizmi
  4. , Islamic Mathematician [see 780], full name: Mohammed ibn Musa al-Khowarizmi
  5. Al-Tabari
  6. see: 800
  7. Alcuin, Missionary and Bishop
  8. [ca.735-19 May 804], The greatest English author/teacher of the generation after Bede; Teacher of Charlemagne. [see 735, 782, 790]. Six days after he was born, Bede died. You use his work every day: he developed the Carolingian minuscule, a clear script which has become the basis of the way the letters of the present Roman alphabet are written.
  9. Autpert Ambrose
  10. , Monk and Author [died 778]
  11. Beatus of Liebana
  12. , Spanish monk, see [786] for his essemtial book, and biography
  13. The Venerable Bede
  14. [672-25 May 735], the most important English writer of the Century; English Monk/Author/Scholar/Historian, see [731] for greatest book; [735] for Biography. Six days before he died, Alcuin was born. See: Bede.net academic resource with bibliography; or see: Lots of Hotlinks to Bede pages
  15. Du Fu
  16. [712-770], Chinese poet
  17. Einhard
  18. , biographer of Charlemagne [born ca.770]
  19. Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan [ca.721-ca.815], Arabian Alchemist better known as Geber
  20. Messahala also known as Abu Mas'har, Islamic Scholar
  21. [787-???] see: 800
  22. Jacob ben Nissim
  23. see: 800
  24. Japanese poet Kakinomoto no Hitomaro
  25. [???-710]
  26. Li Po
  27. [701-762], Chinese poet, see [742, 762]
  28. Shankara
  29. , Hindu teacher [788-???]
  30. Theophanes the Chronographer
  31. [died 817], Byzantine Historian.
  32. Chinese Author Huai Tsu
  33. [see 777]
  34. Wang Wei
  35. , Poet, Painter and Musician of China [died 759].
  36. Japanese poet and Anthologist Otomo no Yakamochi
  37. [see 759].
  38. Poet Bai Ju Yi
  39. [772-???]
  40. Many More to be done
  41. [from D.E. Smith, Hellemans]

Fiction About the 8th Century

Nicholas Moonlight, by Eileen Dunlop. This is an entertaining juvenile novel by a former (1988) nominee for the Edgar Award (from Mystery Writers of America). This is a tale of a boy magically drawn into the 8th Century by a bodiless shadow.

Non-Fiction About the 8th Century

* English Religious Life in the 8th Century, by Thomas Allison [June 1975] hardcover. * Early Irish Farming: a Study Based Mainly on the Law-Texts of the 7th and 8th Century A.D., by Fergus Kelly. * Jodai-Gire: 7th and 8th Century Textiles in Japan from the Shoso-In and Horyu-Ji, by Kaneo Matsumoto * The Byzantine State Finances in the 8th and 9th Centuries, by Warren T. Treadgold * Greeks and Their Eastern Neighbors: Studies in the Relations Between Greece and Other Countries of the Near East in the 8th and 7th Centuries, by Thomas J. Dunbabin * Lowland Maya Civilization in the Eighth Century A.D.: A Symposium at Dunbarton Oaks, editors Jeremy A. Sabloff and John S. Henderson, 7-8 October 1989
A Few Paid Links to decrease my losses on this Web Domain:

Major Books and Events of the Decade 700-710

698-705 Reign of Tiberios The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 700: Campaigns against the Berbers in North Africa. Islamic History of the 8th Century c.700 Primitive Norse (or Runic Norse) gives way to Old Norse. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 701: Pope John VI succeeds Pope Sergius I. 701: Birth of Emperor Shomu of Japan. 701: Birth of immortal Chinese poet Li Po. 702: Kenred assumed the government of the Southumbrians. [ASC] 702: Ashath's rebellion in Iraq, battle of Deir ul Jamira. Islamic History of the 8th Century 703: Bishop Hedda dies, held the see of Winchester 27 years. [ASC] 703: Death of Empress Jito of Japan. 704: throne of the Byzantine Empire re-taken by Justinian II, see 705-11. 704: Death of Adamnan, Abbott of Iona. 704: Ethelred, son of Penda, King of Mercia, entered into a monastic life, having reigned 29 years. Cenred succeeded him. [ASC] 705: Death of Ealdferth, king of the Northumbrians, at Driffield; he was succeeded by his son Osred. Bishop Saxulf also died the same year. [ASC] 11 Jan 705: Death of Pope John VI, succeeded by Pope John VII. 705: Death of Umayyid Caliph Abdul Malik [685-715]. Accession of Walid I, also known as al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik as Caliph [705-715]. Islamic History of the 8th Century 705: Start of lengthy battling between Trebizond and the Arabs. 705: the Zhou Dynasty [690-705] comes to a quick end in China. 705-11: Emperor Justinian II restored to power The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 705-15: Caliph Walid constructs the Great Mosque at Damascus The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 706: Arab invasions of Asia Minor recommence The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 707: Death of Emperor Mommu of Japan, succeeded by Empress Gemmei. 708: Death of Pope Sisinnius [4 February 708]; succeeded by Constantine [consecrated 25 March 708 as Pope] 708: Death of Duke Drogo, in Champagne. 708: Japanese Imperial Court moved to Nara from Heian. 709: Birth of Emperor Konin of Japan. 709: Death of Aldhelm, scholar, bishop by Westwood. [ASC] 709: Saelred ascends as King of Essex.

Major Books and Events of the Decade 710-720 AD

710: Acca, priest of Wilferth, succeeded to the bishopric formerly held by Wilferth. [ASC] 710: Alderman Bertfrith fought with the Picts between Heugh and Carau. Ina also, and his relative Nun, fought with Grant, King of the Welsh. Hibbald was slain. [ASC] 710: Start of the Nara period in Japan. 710: Death of Japanese poet Kakinomoto no Hitomaro. 710: Islamic conquest of Ceuta. 710: the first (wooden) Al-Aqsa Mosque completed. 711 Arabs invade and conquer [Visigothic] Spain The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 711: [Islamic] Conquest of Spain, Sind and Transoxiana. Islamic History of the 8th Century The Moors complete this conquest following the Battle of Guadalete. 711: Childebert II (570-595), King of Austrasia, son of Sigebert succeeded by Dagobert III. Wait a minute: am I centuries off here? 711-13 Justinian II assassinated; Emperor Philippikos The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 712: The Muslims advance in Spain, Sind and Transoxiana. . Islamic History of the 8th Century 712: Birth of Du Fu, Chinese poet. 712: Tang Rui Zong succeeded by Tang Xuan Zhong as Emperor of China. 713-15 Philippikos deposed; Emperor Anastasios II The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 713: Conquest of Multan. Islamic History of the 8th Century 714: Caliph Walid prepares major campaign against Byzantium The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 714: Death of Guthlac the holy. [ASC] 714: Death of King Pepin. [ASC] [Pippin of Herstal, was de facto ruler of the Franks, as he was Mayor of the Palace of the Franks] 714: Birth of Pepin the Short, King of the Franks. 715: Ina and Ceolred fought at Wanborough. [ASC] 715: Death of King Dagobert. [ASC] 715: Death of Empress Gemmei of Japan; succeeded by Empress Gensho. 9 April 715: Death of Pope Constantine. 715: Saint Boniface begins missionary expedition to the Frisians. 715-17 Emperor Theodosios III, proclaimed by naval troops The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 715-31 Pope Gregory II The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 715: Death of Umayyid Caliph Walid I. Accession of Sulaiman. Islamic History of the 8th Century 716: Invasion of Constantinople. Islamic History of the 8th Century 716: Conquest of Lisbon by Ummayad caliphate. 716: Death of Carloman, Mayor of the Palace of the Frankish Empire. 716 Sack of Pergamon, where pagan practices contribute to the city's demise The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 716: Monastery of Iona celebrates Easter on the Roman date. 716 Death of Osred, King of the Northumbrians, slain near the southern borders. He reigned 11 years after Ealdferth. Cenred then succeeded, and held the government two years; then Osric, who held it eleven years. Death of Ceolred, king of the Mercians. Ethelbald then succeeded to the kingdom of Mercia, for 41 years. Ethelbald was the son of Alwy, Alwy of Eawa, Eawa of Webba. The venerable Egbert about this time converted the monks of Iona to Christianity, regulation of Easter, and the ecclesiastical tonsure. [ASC] 717 Theodosios III abdicates; Leo, general of Anatolikon theme, acclaimed emperor, crowned by Patriarch Germanos The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 717: Death of Sulaiman. Accession of Umar b Abdul Aziz. Islamic History of the 8th Century 717: Birth of Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya, "Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya, an 8th Century Islamic Saint from Iraq by Kathleen Jenks, Ph.D." Citations and data are from Margaret Smith, The Way of the Mystics: The Early Christian Mystics and the Rise of the Sufis, [New York: Oxford University Press, 1978] One of the most famous Islamic mystics was a woman: Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya (c.717-801). This 8th century saint was an early Sufi who had a profound influence on later Sufis, who in turn deeply influenced the European mystical love and troubadour traditions. Rabi'a was a woman of Basra, a seaport in southern Iraq.  She was born around 717 and died in 801 (185-186). Her biographer, the great medieval poet Attar, tells us that she was "on fire with love and longing" and that men accepted her "as a second spotless Mary" (186). She was, he continues, "an unquestioned authority to her contemporaries" (218). As Cambridge professor Margaret Smith explains, Rabi'a began her ascetic life in a small desert cell near Basra, where she lost herself in prayer and went straight to God for teaching. As far as is known, she never studied under any master or spiritual director.  She was one of the first of the Sufis to teach that Love alone was the guide on the mystic path (222). A later Sufi taught that there were two classes of "true believers": one class sought a master as an intermediary between them and God -- unless they could see the footsteps of the Prophet on the path before them, they would not accept the path as valid. The second class "...did not look before them for the footprint of any of God's creatures, for they had removed all thought of what He had created from their hearts, and concerned themselves solely with God." (218) Rabi'a was of this second kind. She felt no reverence even for the House of God in Mecca: "It is the Lord of the house Whom I need; what have I to do with the house?" (219) One lovely spring morning a friend asked her to come outside to see the works of God. She replied, "Come you inside that you may behold their Maker. Contemplation of the Maker has turned me aside from what He has made" (219). During an illness, a friend asked this woman if she desired anything. "...[H]ow can you ask me such a question as 'What do I desire?'  I swear by the glory of God that for twelve years I have desired fresh dates, and you know that in Basra dates are plentiful, and I have not yet tasted them.  I am a servant (of God), and what has a servant to do with desire?" (162) When a male friend once suggested she should pray for relief from a debilitating illness, she said, "O Sufyan, do you not know Who it is that wills this suffering for me?  Is it not God Who wills it?  When you know this, why do you bid me ask for what is contrary to His will?  It is not  well to oppose one's Beloved." (221) She was an ascetic. It was her custom to pray all night, sleep briefly just before dawn, and then rise again just as dawn "tinged the sky with gold" (187). She lived in celibacy and poverty, having renounced the world.  A friend visited her in old age and found that all she owned were a reed mat, screen, a pottery jug, and a bed of felt which doubled as her prayer-rug (186), for where she prayed all night, she also slept briefly in the pre-dawn chill. Once her friends offered to get her a servant; she replied, "I should be ashamed to ask for the things of this world from Him to Whom the world belongs, and how should I ask for them from those to whom it does not belong?"  (186-7) A wealthy merchant once wanted to give her a purse of gold. She refused it, saying that God, who sustains even those who dishonor Him, would surely sustain her, "whose soul is overflowing with love" for Him. And she added an ethical concern as well: "...How should I take the wealth of someone of whom I do not know whether he acquired it lawfully or not?" (187) She taught that repentance was a gift from God because no one could repent unless God had already accepted him and given him this gift of repentance. She taught that sinners must fear the punishment they deserved for their sins, but she also offered such sinners far more hope of Paradise than most other ascetics did. For herself, she held to a higher ideal, worshipping God neither from fear of Hell nor from hope of Paradise, for she saw such self-interest as unworthy of God's servants; emotions like fear and hope were like veils -- i.e., hindrances to the vision of God Himself. The story is told that once a number of Sufis saw her hurrying on her way with water in one hand and a burning torch in the other.  When they asked her to explain, she said: "I am going to light a fire in Paradise and to pour water on to Hell, so that both veils may vanish altogether from before the pilgrims and their purpose may be sure..." (187-188) She was once asked where she came from. "From that other world," she said. "And where are you going?" she was asked. "To that other world," she replied (219).  She taught that the spirit originated with God in "that other world" and had to return to Him in the end. Yet if the soul were sufficiently purified, even on earth, it could look upon God unveiled in all His glory and unite with him in love. In this quest, logic and reason were powerless.  Instead, she speaks of the "eye" of her heart which alone could apprehend Him and His mysteries (220). Above all, she was a lover, a bhakti, like one of Krishna’s Goptis in the Hindu tradition. Her hours of prayer were not so much devoted to intercession as to communion with her Beloved. Through this communion, she could discover His will for her. Many of her prayers have come down to us: "I have made Thee the Companion of my heart, But my body is available for those who seek its company, And my body is friendly towards its guests, But the Beloved of my heart is the Guest of my soul." [224] Another: "O my Joy and my Desire, my Life and my Friend.  If Thou art satisfied with me, then, O Desire of my heart, my happiness is attained." (222) At night, as Smith, writes, "alone upon her roof under the eastern sky, she used to pray": "O my Lord, the stars are shining and the eyes of men are closed, and kings have shut their doors, and every lover is alone with his beloved, and here I am alone with Thee." (222) She was asked once if she hated Satan. "My love to God has so possessed me that no place remains for loving or hating any save Him." (222) To such lovers, she taught, God unveiled himself in all his beauty and re-vealed the Beatific Vision (223). For this vision, she willingly gave up all lesser joys. "O my Lord," she prayed, "if I worship Thee from fear of Hell, burn me in Hell, and if I worship Thee in hope of Paradise, exclude me thence, but if I worship Thee for Thine own sake, then withhold not from me Thine Eternal Beauty." (224) Rabi'a was in her early to mid eighties when she died, having followed the mystic Way to the end. By then, she was continually united with her Beloved.  As she told her Sufi friends, "My Beloved is always with me" (224). 717-41: Emperor Leo III The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 717-8: Arab siege of Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 718: Death of Ingild, the brother of Ina. Cwenburga and Cuthburga were their sisters. Cuthburga founded the monastery of Wimburn; and, though given in marriage to Ealdferth, King of Northumberland, they were separated. [ASC] 718: Visigothic Christian hero Pelayo [690-737] founds the Kingdom of Asturias in Spain. He reigns as the first King of Asturias (718-737), which marks the start of the Spanish Reconquista. 718: Saint Boniface's second missionary expedition to Frisia. 718: Monarch Tervel's reign over Bulgaria is over. 718: Birth of Empress Koken of Japan, also known as Empress Shotoku.

Major Books and Events of the Decade 720-730 AD

720 Leo III's son Constantine crowned co-emperor; double-headed coins issued The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 720: Death of Umar b Abdul Aziz. Accession of Yazid II. Islamic History of the 8th Century 720: Birth of Bertrada, later to be wife of Pippin III. ca.721: Birth of Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan, Arabian Alchemist. 721: Caliph Yazid issues iconoclastic edict The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 721: Bishop Daniel went to Rome. Ina slew Cynewulf, the etheling. Death of Bishop John; who served 33 years, 8 months, and 13 days. Buried at Beverley. [ASC] 721: Pelayo victorious in Battle of Covadonga, stopping his Christian Kingdom of Asturias from conquest by the Islamic Moors. 721: Theuderic IV succeeds Chilperic II as King of the Franks. "Chilperic II (d. 720), king of the Franks, was the son of Childeric II. He became king of Neustria in 715, on which occasion he changed his name from Daniel to Chilperic. At first he was a tool in the hands of Ragenfrid, the Mayor of the Palace. Charles Martel, however, overthrew Ragenfrid, accepted Chilperic as king of Neustria, and, on the death of Clotaire IV, set him over the whole kingdom. The young king died soon afterwards." [Wikipedia cites this from the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica]. 722: Death of Empress Gemmei of Japan. 722: Leo III's forced conversion of the Jews The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 722: Queen Ethelburga destroyed Taunton, founded by Ina. Ealdbert exiled in Surrey and Sussex. Ina fought with the South-Saxons. [ASC] 722: War waged between Sussex and Wessex. ca.722: First victory of a Christian army over an Islamic army in Spain: Battle of Covadonga. [see also 721]. 723: World's first mechanical clock purportedly constructed in Tang Dynasty China. The premise is that Buddhist monk Yi-xing and government official Liang Ling-zan merged Zhang Heng's water-powered Celestial Globe with escapement. I need to confirm this entry in the Wikipedia. 723-4: Fall of Iconion (modern Konya) to Arabs The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 724: Death of Yazid II. Accession of Hisham. Islamic History of the 8th Century ca.724: Death of Turkic grand vizier and commander-in-chief Tonyukuk. 724: Empress Gensho of Japan succeeded by Emperor Shomu. 724: Death of Chotrud (or Rotrude), wife of Charles Martel. 725: The Muslims occupy Nimes in France. Islamic History of the 8th Century 725: Death of Wihtred, King of Kent, who reigned 32 years. He was succeeded by Eadbert. Ina fought with the South-Saxons, and slew Ealdbert, the etheling, whom he had previously driven into exile. [ASC] 726: "Edict" of Leo III against icons, ultimatum sent to Rome The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 726: Major earthquake hits City of Jarash, according to Wikipedia. 726: Emperor Seibu of Japan convenes first ever annual Sumo tournament. 727: Death of Tobias, Bishop of Rochester; Archbishop Bertwald consecrated Aldulf bishop to succeed Tobias. [ASC] 727: First independent Doge of Venice is elected. 727: Arab siege of Nicaea (Iznik) The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 728 Ina went to Rome, and died there. He was succeeded in the kingdom of Wessex by Ethelhard, his relative, for 14 years; but he fought this same year with Oswald the etheling. [ASC] 729 The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says: "This year appeared the comet-star, and St. Egbert died in Iona. This year also died the etheling Oswald; and Osric was slain, who was eleven winters king of Northumberland; to which kingdom Ceolwulf succeeded, and held it eight years..." I need to check on which comet this was (Halley's?).

Major Books and Events of the Decade 730-740 AD

c.730 Publication of Ekloga The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 730 Deposition, or resignation of Patriarch Germanos, introduction of official iconoclasm in Byzantium The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 731-41 Pope Gregory III The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 731 Roman Council condemns iconoclasm The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 731: The Venerable Bede finishes writing his "Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum" (The Ecclesiastical History of England), arguably the first English History Book, which also mentions Caedmon, the alleged first English poet, who is only known by that reference, suggesting to some modern scholars that Bede invented that poet... 732: The Battle of Tours in France. Islamic History of the 8th Century Charles "the Hammer" Martel is best known for winning the Battle of Poitiers (also known as the Battle of Tours) which stopped the advance of Islamic conquest in Europe at the Spanish and Southern France side of the Pyranees. 732: Birth of Kul, brother of Bilge Khan, later co-administrator of the Gokturk empire, and who eventually dies in battle. 732-3 Diocese of East Illyricum transferred by Leo III from Rome to Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 733 Ethelbald conquered Somerton; the sun was eclipsed; and Acca was driven from his bishopric. [ASC] 733: Birth of Emperor Junnin of Japan. 734: Death of Gokturk Emperor Bilge Khan. 734: "the moon as if covered with blood; and Archbishop Tatwine and Bede departed this life; and Egbert was consecrated bishop." [ASC] 735: Bishop Egbert received the pall at Rome. [ASC] ca.735: Birth of Alcuin, Missionary and Bishop. [ca.735-19 May 804], The greatest English author/teacher of the generation after Bede; Teacher of Charlemagne. [see 25 May 735 below, 782, 790]. From "http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/References/Alcuin.html" Alcuin of York [article by J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson] Born: 735 in York, Yorkshire, England Died: 19 May 804 in Tours, France Alcuin of York was born into a high ranking family who lived near the East Coast of England. He was sent to York where he became a pupil at York cathedral school, Archbishop Ecgberht's School. After being a pupil at Archbishop Ecgberht's School, Alcuin remained there as a teacher, becoming headmaster of the school in 778. During his time as a teacher at this school in York Alcuin built up a fine library, one of the best in Europe, and made the school one of the most important centres of learning in Europe. He wrote a long poem describing the men associated with York's history before he left for the continent. In 781 Alcuin accepted an invitation from Charlemagne to go to Aachen to a meeting of the leading scholars of the time. Following this meeting, he was appointed head of Charlemagne's Palace School at Aachen and there he developed the Carolingian minuscule, a clear script which has become the basis of the way the letters of the present Roman alphabet are written. Before leaving Aachen, Alcuin was responsible for the most precious of Carolingian codices, now called the Golden Gospels. These were a series of illuminated masterpieces written largely in gold, often on purple coloured vellum. The development of Carolingian minuscule had, although somewhat indirectly, a large impact on the history of mathematics. It was a script which was much more readable than the old unspaced capital script which was in use before this and, as a consequence, most of the mathematical works were freshly copied into this new script in the 9th century. Most of the works of the ancient Greek mathematicians which have survived do so because of this copying process and it is the 'latest' version written in minuscule script which has survived. Not only was Alcuin headmaster of Charlemagne's Palace School at Aachen but he also was a personal friend to Charlemagne and became the teacher of his two sons. In fact Alcuin lived in Aachen for two periods, during the years 782 to 790 and then again from 793 to 796. In 796 Alcuin retired from Charlemagne's Palace School at Aachen and became abbot of the Abbey of St Martin at Tours, where he had his monks continue to work with the Carolingian minuscule script. While in Tours Alcuin arranged for some of his pupils to go to York to bring some of the rarer works that he had collected there back to Tours. He wrote:- I say this that you may agree to send some of our boys to get everything we need from there and bring the flowers of Britain back to France that as well as the walled garden in York there may be off-shoots of paradise bearing fruit in Tours. Alcuin wrote elementary texts on arithmetic, geometry and astronomy at a time when there was just beginning a renaissance in learning in Europe, a renaissance mainly led by Alcuin himself. His lesson books were written in a question - and - answer format. However his work in this area, unlike the inspired calligraphy he developed, shows little originality. Late in his life Alcuin summed up his own career with a rather beautiful description:- In the morning, at the height of my powers, I sowed the seed in Britain, now in the evening when my blood is growing cold I am still sowing in France, hoping both will grow, by the grace of God, giving some the honey of the holy scriptures, making others drunk on the old wine of ancient learning... The influence of Alcuin on later generations can be illustrated by a poem by Siegried Sassoon: Awareness of Alcuin At peace in my tall-windowed Wiltshire room, (Birds overheard from chill March twilight's close) I read, translated, Alcuin's verse, in whom A springtide of resurgent learning rose. Homely and human, numb in feet and fingers, Alcuin believed in angels; asked their aid; And still the essence of that asking lingers In the aureoled invocation which he made For Charlemagne, his scholar. Alcuin, old, Loved listening to the nest-near nightingale, Forgetful of renown that must enfold His world-known name; remembering pomps that fail. Alcuin, from temporalities at rest, Sought grace within him, given from afar; Noting how sunsets worked around to west; Watching, at spring's approach, that beckoning star; And hearing, while one thrush sang through the rain, Youth, which his soul in Paradise might regain. 25 May 735: Death of The Venerable Bede [672-735], Monk, Scholar, Author, Historian of England.

The Venerable Bede

Late in the 7th Century, roughly a century after Isidorus, one of the great Church scolars of the Middle Ages was born in Monkton, Northumberland: Baeda [c.673-735] usually known as Beda Venerabilis, or the Venerable Bede. [Hellemans, p.64, says that Bede was born in Jarrow, Durham, England] Burke called him "the father of English learning", and Hallam stated that Bede "surpasses every other name of our ancient literary annals; and, though little more than a diligent compiler from older writers, may perhaps be recokoned superior to any man in the world (so low had the East sunk like the West) then possessed." In 731 he made a list of the 37 works he had so far written, and added this epilogue: "I have spent my whole life in the same monastery, and while attentive to the rule of my order and the service of the Church, my constant pleasure lay in learning, or teaching, or writing." [in Latin: "Semper aut discere aut docere aut scribere dulce habui."] His teachers included: * Aldhelm of Canterbury * John of Beverley [at Canterbury] * Archbishop Theodore of Tarsus * Abbot Adrian His mathematical interests and writings included: * ancient number theory * the ecclesiastical calendar [the best on this in the Dark Ages] * finger symbolism of numbers ["digital notation", literally!] * mathematical recreations [doubtful attribution] 735: Independence of Abkhazia, from this year until the 15th Century. 736: Archbishop Nothelm received the pall from the bishop of the Romans. [ASC] 737: Bishop Forthere and Queen Frithogitha went to Rome. King Ceolwulf received the clerical tonsure, giving his kingdom to Edbert, his uncle's son: who reigned 21 years. Bishop Ethelwold and Acca died this year, and Cynewulf was consecrated bishop. Ethelbald ravaged the land of the Northumbrians. [ASC] 737: The Muslims meet reverse at Avignon in France. Islamic History of the 8th Century 737: Death of Pelayo, King of Asturias; succeeded by Favilac. 737: Birth of Emperor Kammu of Japan. c.737-1160: Building of the Danevirke. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 738: Eadbery, son of Eata the son of Leodwald, succeeded to the Northumbrian kingdom, and reigned 21 years. Archbishop Egbert, the son of Eata, was his brother. [ASC] 738: Saint Boniface visits Rome; soon founds bishoprics in Bavaria. 738: Xukpi (also known as the Pre-Columbian city of Copan in what is now extreme western Honduras, adjacent to the Guatemalan border, site of a major Mayan kingdom of the Classic era) suffers a major defeat against Quirigua (an ancient medium sized site Mayan site in the Izabal department of what is now Guatemala, along the lower Montagua river). 739: Death of King Favila of Asturias. Succeeded by Alfonso I. 739: Saint Boniface founds bishopric of Regensburg. 739: King Kormishosh takes power; under his the reign begins the House of Ukil in Bulgaria. 739-41: Lombards under King Liutprand besiege Rome The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century

Major Books and Events of the Decade 740-750 AD

740 Leo III and son Constantine defeat Arabs at Akroinon The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 740: Shia revolt under Zaid b Ali. Berber revolt in North Africa. Battle of the Nobles. Islamic History of the 8th Century 740: Death of King Ethelhard; his relative Cuthred succeeded to the West-Saxon kingdom, where he reigned 14 years, during which time he battled with Ethelbald, king of the Mercians. On the death of Archbishop Nothelm, Cuthbert was consecrated archbishop, and Dunn, Bishop of Rochester. There was a huge fire in the city of York. [ASC] 740: Bertrada of Laon marries Pippin III. 740: King Sevar's reign terminates, hence ending Bulgaria's rule by the House of Dulo. ca.740: Khazars convert to Judaism. 22 Oct 741: Death of Charles Martel, succeeded by his sons Carloman, Pippin the Short, and Grifo as Mayor of the Palace of the Kingdom of the Franks. 741 Death of Leo III, son Constantine V, challenged by Artabasdos, his brother-in-law The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 741-75 Emperor Constantine V The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 741-52 Pope Zacharias, has Pope Gregory the Great's Dialogues translated into Greek, negotiates a truce with Lombards The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 741: Battle of Bagdoura in North Africa. Islamic History of the 8th Century 742: The Muslim rule restored in Qiarowan. Islamic History of the 8th Century 2 April 742: Birth of Charlemagne, future King and Emperor of the Franks. ca.742: Poet Li Po presented to the Emperor and given an official position in the civil service of China. 742-3 Civil war ended by defeat of Artabasdos The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 743: Childeric III ascends throne as King of the Franks after an interregnum [period between reigns] of 7 years. 743: Death of Hisham. Accession of Walid II. Shia revolt in Khurasan under Yahya b Zaid. Islamic History of the 8th Century 744: Deposition of Walid II. Accession of Yazid II1 and his death. Accession of Ibrahim and his overthrow. Battle of Ain al Jurr. Accession of Marwan II. Islamic History of the 8th Century 745: Kufa and Mosul occupied by the Khawarjites. Islamic History of the 8th Century 746: Battle of Rupar Thutha, Kufa and Mosul occupied by Marwan II. Islamic History of the 8th Century 746: Saelred succeeded by Swithred as King of Essex. 747-8 Plague in Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 747: Revolt of Abu Muslim in Khurasan. Islamic History of the 8th Century 747: When Carloman withdraws to a monastery, Pippin the Short becomes the only Mayor of the Palace of the Kingdom of the Franks. 748: Battle of Rayy. Islamic History of the 8th Century 748: Sacking of the City of Baalbek. Baalbek was earlier known as Heliopolis, but not to be confused with Heliopolis in Egypt. It is a town in the Bekaa Valley of what is now Lebanon. 748: Death of Empress Gensho of Japan. 749: Battles of lsfahan and Nihawand. Capture of Kufa by the Abbasids. As Saffah becomes the Abbasid Caliph at Kufa. Islamic History of the 8th Century 749: Death of Saint John of Damascus (also known as Saint John Damascene), Theologian. A biography of Buddha was translated by St. John of Damascus into Greek, and thus became known to the Christian world as the tale of Jalaam and Josaphat. 749: Empress Koken succeeds Emperor Shomu of Japan.

Major Books and Events of the Decade 750-760 AD

750 Abbasid revolt opens first Arab civil war The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 750: Battle of Zab. Fall of Damascus. End of the Umayyads. Islamic History of the 8th Century 751 Lombards capture Ravenna, previously capital of Byzantine exarchate, end of imperial administration in northern Italy The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 751: Pippin the Short declared king of the Franks, ending the Merovingian and beginning the Carolingian Dynasty. 751: Arab forces beat Tang army in the Battle of Talas River. 751: Conquest of Wasit by the Abbasid. Murder of the Minister Abu Salama. Islamic History of the 8th Century 752: Birth of Irene, later Emperor of the Byzantine Empire. 752: Ex-emperor Shomu of Japan participates in dedication ceremony of the great statue of Vairocana Buddha at Todaji. He openly declares that he is now a Buddhist. 752-7 Pope Stephen II, first Roman elected to the papacy in the eighth century The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 753-4 Pope Stephen II travels to Francia, makes alliance between papacy and Pippin, king of the Franks The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 753: Pope Constantine V calls the Synod of Constantinople. 753: Arabs conquer Samarkand. 754: Council of Hiereia, near Constantinople, condemns icon veneration, pronounces the theory of iconoclasm The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 754: Death of Carloman, Mayor of the Palace of the Franks. 754: Death of King Cuthred of Wessex. ca. 754: Oldest known writing noting the city of Ferrara. 754: Canterbury fire. 754: Death of As Saffah. Accession of Mansur as the Caliph. Islamic History of the 8th Century 755: Revolt of Abdullah b Ali. Murder of Abu Muslim. Sunbadh revolt in Khurasan. Islamic History of the 8th Century 755: Death of Saint Boniface, martyred in Frisia, Bishop and monastic founder. 755: Death in battle of King Ethelbald of Mercia. 755-6: Lombards under King Aistulf besiege Rome The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 755 and 756: Pippin campaigns in Italy against Lombards The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 755: King Bernred of Mercia deposed by Offa, who seizes the kingdom. 755: King Sebright of Wessex deposed by Cynewulf, who claims the kingdom. 755: Abd-ar-rahman I lands in Spain. In 756 he establishes a new Umayyad dynasty. 756 Bulgars under Khan Tervel invade Thrace The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 756: Death of Emperor Shomu of Japan. 756: Death of King Aistulf of the Lombards. He is succeeded by Desiderius. 756: Abdul Rahman founds the Umayyad state in Spain. Islamic History of the 8th Century 756: King Kana Subigi Vinekh succeeds King Kormisosh in Bulgaria. 757: Death of Pope Stephen III. Succeeded by Pope Paul I 757: Death of King Alphonso I of Asturias. He is succeeded by King Fruela I. 757: Death of King Ethelbald of Mercia. Succeeded by King Offa. 757-67: Pope Paul I The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 757: Constantine V's embassy to Pippin, with gift of organ and marriage proposal The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 757: Battle of Suiyang [need to expand on this] ca.758: Birth of the Monk later known as Theodore the Studite. 758: Emperor Junnin succeeds Empress Koken in Japan. 758: Capture of Spoleto and Benevento by King Desiderius of the Lombards. 758: King Sigeric of Essex succeeds King Swithred. 759: Birth of King Alphonso II of Asturias. 759: Death of Wang Wei, Poet, Painter and Musician of China. 759: "Man'yoshu", the first Japanese poetry anthology, compiled by Japanese poet Otomo no Yakamochi. 759: Saracens driven altogether out of France, as Franks capture Narbonne.

Major Books and Events of the Decade 760-770 AD

760s Abbasids transfer Muslim capital from Damascus to Baghdad, end of first Arab civil war The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 760: Abandonment of the Mayan city of Dos Pilas. ca.760: Birth of Bishop Theodulf of Orleans. ca.760: Construction of the Church of Santa Sophia in Benevento. 761: Death of King Kana Subigi Vinekh of Bulgaria. He is succeeded by King Telets, ending the House of Uki and starting the House of Ugain. 761: King Onuist of the Picts succeeded by King Bridei V. 761: Saint Bregwin appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. 761: King Fruela I of Asturias founds the city of Oviedo. 762: Death of Chinese poet Li Po, reputedly drowned in the Yangtze River, having fallen drunkenly from his boat while trying to embrace the Moon. 762: Shia revolt under Muhammad (Nafs uz Zakia) and Ibrahim. Islamic History of the 8th Century 763 Bulgarian wars recommence; 200,000 Slavs migrate into Bithynia in Asia Minor The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 763: Foundation of Baghdad as the new capital, by Abbasid caliph al-Mansur. Defeat of the Abbasids in Spain. Islamic History of the 8th Century 763: King Bridei V succeeded by King Ciniod of the Picts. 764: Emperor Junnin succeeded by Empress Shotoku of Japan. 765: Death of Emperor Junnin of Japan. 765 Constantine V defeats Bulgars, imposes peace The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 766 Byzantine fleet wrecked near Mesembria The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 766 Constantine V begins persecution of iconophiles The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 767 Synod of Gentilly, Byzantine and Frankish theologians meet, Franks support Rome and condemn iconoclasm The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 767: Khariji state set up by Ibn Madrar at Sijilmasa. Ustad Sees revolt in Khurasan. Islamic History of the 8th Century 767: Interregnum of anarchy starts in Bulgaria. 28 June 767: Death of Pope Paul I. 767: Antipope Constantine II. 768-72 Pope Stephen III The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 768: Death of Pippin, also known as Pepin the Short, King of the Franks, father of Charlemagne. Accession of Charles, later Charles the Great (Charlemagne) The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 768: Death of King Fruela I of Asturias. He was succeeded by King Aurelio. 768: Wales started celebrating Easter on the Roman date. 768: Birth of Louis the Pious, King of the Franks, and Emperor. ca.768: Founding of Deventer, a city in the eastern Netherlands in Overijssel Province on the East bank of the River Ijssel. 769: Founing of Monastery of St. Maelruan. 769 Lateran Synod in Rome supports cult of images and again condemns iconoclasm The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century Under Pope Stephen IV, Papal election procedure is modified, and the devotion to icons is re-confirmed.

Major Books and Events of the Decade 770-780 AD

770: Death of Empress Koken of Japan (also known as Empress Shotoku). She is succeeded by Emperor Konin. 770: Death of Du Fu, Chinese poet. ca.770: Einhard, biographer of Charlemagne. 770: King Telerig takes control of Bulgaria, ending interregnum anarchy. 4 Dec 771: Death of King Carloman of the Franks. Charlemagne is now the sole King of the Franks. Gerberga, Carloman's widow, flees to King Desiderius of the Lombards. 772: Battle of Janbi in North Africa. Rustamid state set up in Morocco. Islamic History of the 8th Century 772: Charlemagne begins his war of extermination against the heathen Saxons, destroying the Irminsul. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 772: Birth of Poet Bai Ju Yi. ca.772: King Offa of Mercia conquers Sussex. 772: Pope Adrian I succeeds Pope Stephen IV and turns to Charlemagne for alliance against King Desiderius of the Lombards. 772-95 Pope Hadrian, first bishop of Rome to issue own silver coinage with no reference to eastern emperors The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 773: Charlemagne crosses the Alps to invade the Kingdom of the Lombards. 774: Charles' first Italian campaign The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century He decisively conquers the kingdom of the Lombards, and declares himself King of the Lombards. 774: Birth of Emperor Heizei of Japan. 774: King Aurelio succeeded by King Silo of Asturias. 775: Forces of Mercia fight Kent at the Battle of Otford. 775: King Ciniod succeeded by King Alpin II of the Picts. 775: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mansur, Accession of Mahdi. Islamic History of the 8th Century 775 Death of Constantine V, succeeded by his son, Leo The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 775-80 Emperor Leo IV The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 776 Leo IV associates his son Constantine in imperial authority and thus provokes rebellion of his own half-brothers The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 777: Battle of Saragossa in Spain. Islamic History of the 8th Century 777: Author Huai Tsu, drunk, created the Running Grass (also known as the Startled Snake Slithering Through Grass in Fury of Whirlwind and Driving Rain) style of Chinese Writing. [according to Wikipedia] 777: Charlemagne conquers the Saxons. Saxon leader Widukind flees to Denmark. 777: King Telerig succeeded by King Kardam of Bulgaria. 778: Death of Roland, Frankish commander, in the Battle of Roncevaux. This is later romanticized in an entire genre of poetry. The Song of Roland [The Harvard Classics,1909–1914]. Introductory Note: In the year 778 A.D., Charles the Great, King of the Franks, returned from a military expedition into Spain, whither he had been led by opportunities offered through dissensions among the Saracens who then dominated that country. On the15th of August, while his army was marching through the passes of the Pyrenees, his rear-guard was attacked and annihilated by the Basque inhabitants of the mountains, in the valley of Roncesvaux. About this disaster many popular songs, it is supposed, soon sprang up; and the chief hero whom they celebrated was Hrodland, Count of the Marches of Brittany. There are indications that the earliest of these songs arose among the Breton followers of Hrodland or Roland; but they spread to Maine, to Anjou, to Normandy, until the theme became national. By the latter part of the eleventh century, when the form of the "Song of Roland" which we possess was probably composed, the historical germ of the story had almost disappeared under the mass of legendary accretion. Charlemagne, who was a man of thirty-six at the time of the actual Roncesvaux incident, has become in the poem an old man with a flowing white beard, credited with endless conquests; the Basques have disappeared, and the Saracens have taken their place; the defeat is accounted for by the invention of the treachery of Ganelon; the expedition of 777–778 has become a campaign of seven years; Roland is made the nephew of Charlemagne, leader of the twelve peers, and is provided with a faithful friend Oliver, and a betrothed, Alda. The poem is the first of the great French heroic poems known as "chansons de geste." It is written in stanzas of various length, bound together by the vowel-rhyme known as assonance. It is not possible to reproduce effectively this device in English, and the author of the present translation has adopted what is perhaps the nearest equivalent—the romantic measure of Coleridge and Scott. Simple almost to bareness in style, without subtlety or high imagination, the Song of Roland is yet not without grandeur; and its patriotic ardor gives it a place as the earliest of the truly national poems of the modern world. See a fine electronic edition of this public domain epic at: Song of Roland 778: Death of Autpert Ambrose, Monk and Author. 778: Battle of Pampeluna: Charlemagne fights an army of the Moors in Spain. 778: Widukind, defeated Saxon leader, returns to Saxony from Denmark. 779: King Offa of Mercia defeats King Cynewulf of Wessex, capturing Bensington. 779: Death of Emperor Tang Dai Zong of China.

Major Books and Events of the Decade 780-790 AD

780: Emperor Tang De Zong takes throne of China. 780: King Alpin II succeeded by King Drest III of the Picts. ca.780: Birth of al-Khwarizmi, Islamic mathematician: Circa 830-839, Mohammed ibn Musa al-Khowarizmi publishes Al-jabr wa'l Muqabalah, from which we derive the word "Algebra", which gives algorithms for finding the positive solutions to all equations of the first and second degree (linear and quadratic) [Hellemans, p.69] 780-90: Death of Leo IV, accession of his young son Constantine VI, with his mother, Empress Irene, as regent The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 781: Constantine VI betrothed to Charlemagne's daughter Rotrud The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 781: King Drest III succeeded by King Talorcan of the Picts. 781: Charlemagne defines the Papal territory (boundary of the Papal States). 781: Arab invasion of Asia Minor to Chrysopolis, opposite Constantinople, Irene agrees to a humiliating peace The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 781: Emperor Konin succeeded by Emperor Kammu in Japan. 782: Death of Emperor Konin of Japan. 782: Alcuin becomes teacher to Charlemagne and his imperial Court. 12 July 783: Death of Bertrada, wife of Pippin III. 784: Capital moved away from Nara. End of the Nara period of Japan. 784: Patriarch Paul forced to resign; imperial secretary and layman Tarasios appointed in his place The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 785: Death of King Cynewulf of Essex. 785: Widukind and many other Saxons become Christians, are baptized. 785: The Frankish Empire conquers Girona from the Moors. 785: Cologne becomes an Archbishopry. 785: King Talorcan succeeded by King Talorgen of the Picts. 785: Death of the Caliph Mahdi. Accession of Hadi. Islamic History of the 8th Century 786: Death of Hadi. Accession of Harun ur Rashid. Islamic History of the 8th Century 786-809: Caliph Harun al Rashid The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century This was the great Caliph mentioned in "the 1001 Arabian Nights" 786: Irene summons a council to reverse iconoclasm; has to abandon attempt because of troops loyal to Constantine V The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 786: "Commentary on the Apocalypse" published by Beatus of Liebana, Spanish monk. This became arguably the most important religious book of the Middle Ages. Why? Saint Beatus of Liebana was a monk at San Martin de Turieno, in Liebana. His birth date and birthplace are unknown, but may be inferred to be while the memory of the Muslim invasion were fresh. He attracted uncomfortable attention due to his role in the Adoptionist controversy. To summarize a complex topic, Adoptionism was an old Christology that held that Jesus Christ was a perfect human being whom God adopted and promoted to Messiah. This was a tenet of Nestorianism, condemned in Asia Minor as Heresy, in 268 AD. Adpotionism rose again in 8th Century Spain, spearheaded by Archbishop Elipandus of Toledo. Beatus of Liebana, and his friend Etherius, successfully opposed Adpotionism. But when these friends went to Pravia in 786 (to be at the profession of Adosinda, widow of King Silo), they learned that Elipandus had denounced them as heretics to their abbot. Beatus defended himself with a two-volume book condemning the specifics of Adpotionism as preached by Elipandus. This work was well-received on the other side of the Pyranees, where Carolingian rulers were persuaded to join in the attack on Adpotionism. This strengthened the alliance of the Carolingian powers, the Papal States, and Asturias. Now that Beatus of Liebana was a name-brand best-selling expert, another thing he wrote in roughly the same time was primed to be a hit. That work was his complilation and commentary on the Apocalypse. Cut-and-pasted, or hotlinked (as it were) to texts of various Church Fathers and others, it was as structured as a top-down object-oriented web domain. It consisted of 12 books with 70 sections, or "storiae." Some storiae were merely short snippets of poetry. Others were long excerpts of other writings. Each was followed with long glosses, or "explanationes." The earliest surving edition is The Morgan Beatus. This edition has the very famous illustrations of the Apocalypse which, combined with the text, were reprinted, rebroadcast, ripped off, and disseminated in various ways. There was heavy "mindshare" for these illustrations and texts, which collectively became, as I said, arguably the most important religious book of the Middle Ages. The upshot of this work was that it spread the legend that Saint James had, as Apostle, travelled to an evangelized in Spain, and it hotlinked this legend with both the attack on Adpotionism, the hallucinatory images of the Apocalypse, and the powerful message of a victorious Christ. King Alfonso II (792-842) took advantage of this by building a shrine over the tomb of the saint, which resulted in numerous pilgrimmages, an aura of orthodox Christianity, and even more support from Carolingian and Western powers, for the Reconquest from Islam, which Pelayo supposedly started in 718, shortly after the Muslim conquest. His cousin Alfonso III (866-910) followed up on King Alfonso II's by pushing more Muslim forces out of Spain, so that at least 20% of Spain was reconquered by Christians as of 911. But the tide turned again with Muhammad ibn Abi Amir (al-Mansur), who rolled back into Spain and appeared impossible to defeat. By the time the terrifying al-Mansur died in 1002, the whole world seemed to be at the brink of the cataclysmic Apocalypse of Beatus of Liebana, whose work seemed to be some sort of divine prophecy. Bestsellers succeed for a multitude of reasons, then as now! for more details, see: Derek W. Lomax, "The Reconquest of Spain", [Longman: New York + London, 1978] Henry-Mayr-Harting, "Ottonian Book Illumination: an Historical Survey", [Oxford University Press, 1991] John Williams, "The Spanish Apocalypse: The Morgan Beatus Manuscript", [G. Brazilliar with Pierrepont Morgan Library, New York, 1991] 786: Birth of Emperor Saga of Japan. 786: Birth of Emperor Junna of Japan. 787: Birth of Abu Mas'har, Islamic Scholar. 787: King Talorgen succeeded by King Canual of the Picts. 787: Seventh universal church council successfully held at Nicaea, restores icon veneration with Pope Hadrian's approval The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century Or, as the Wikipedia puts it: "Second Council of Nicaea ends the first iconoclastic period in the Byzantine Empire." 787-8: Charles' second Italian campaign The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 788: Empress Irene breaks off the Frankish betrothal and marries Constantine to Maria of Albania The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 788: Idrisid state set up in the Maghrib. Death of Abdul Rahman of Spain, and accession of Hisham. Islamic History of the 8th Century Wikipedia puts it: "[Death of] Abd ar-rahman I, founder of the Spanish Umayyad dynasty." 788: Charlemagne conquers Bavaria. 788: King Bermudo I succeeds King Mauregato of Asturias. 788: Beginning of the time period covered in Adam of Bremen's "History of the Archbishopry of Hamburg." 788: Morocco becomes an independent state. 788: Birth of Shankara, Hindu teacher. 789: {to be done}

Major Books and Events of the Decade 790-800 AD

790: Wikipedia's 1-line summary: "A revolt against Empress Irene leads to Constantine VI being declared sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire." 790-97: Emperor Constantine VI rules alone The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 790: Alcuin, Charlemagne's teacher, returns to England. 790: Angilbert appointed Abbot of Saint-Riquier. 791: Avars invade Europe again (to be defeated by Charlemagne in 796). 791: King Alfonso II takes throne of Asturias. 792: Irene's title "Empress" is confirmed. 792: Constantine VI defeated by Bulgars The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 792: [Islamic] Invasion of South France. Islamic History of the 8th Century circa 793-1066: The Viking Age 793: Norse sea-raiders sack the Anglo-Celtic monastary at Lindisfarne. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 793: Abbey founded in St. Albans. 794: Synod of Frankfurt condemns as idolatry the Council of Nicaea's support for icon veneration The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century Note: this is the earliest known documented mention of Frankfurt. 794: Kyoto becomes the new Japanese capital; the signals the start of the Heian period. 795 and 796 Arabs invade Asia Minor The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 795 Constantine VI repudiates Maria (confined in a nunnery) and marries Theodotes; this adultery provokes monastic opposition led by St. Theodore of the Stoudion monastery The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century c.795 Norse raids on Ireland begin. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 795: Pope Leo III (795-816) succeeds Pope Adrian I (also known as Hadrian I, pope from 772 to 795, son of Theodore, a Roman nobleman). 795-816: Pope Leo III The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 796: Aachen founded as Charles' capital in the West The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 796: Death of King Offa of Mercia, also death of Bretwalda. 796: Death of King Ecgfrith of Mercia. 796: King Coenwulf takes the throne of Mercia. 796: Charlemagne defeats the Avars, who have again been invading Europe. 796: Death of Hisham in Spain; accession of al Hakam. Islamic History of the 8th Century 797: Constantine VI blinded, Empress Irene rules alone The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 798: Arabs invade Asia Minor and arrive at Bosphoros The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 798: Pope Leo III flees from Rome to Charles The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 798: King Coenwulf of Mercia invades Kent, overthrows and jails King Eadberht Praen, and puts his own brother Cuthbert on the throne. 798: King Sigeric succeeded by King Sigered of Essex. ca.798: Theodulf becomes Bishop of Orleans. 799: Suppression of the revolt of the Khazars. Islamic History of the 8th Century 13 Apr 799: Death of Paul the Deacon, historian. 25 December 800 Pope Leo III crowns Holy Roman Emperor Charles The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century c.800 The Elder Futhark is replaced by the Younger or Sixteen-Rune Futhark. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page ca.800-810 Reign of King Godfrid of Denmark. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 800 Coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in Rome The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 800: The Aghlabid rule is established in North Africa. Islamic History of the 9th Century c.800 The Elder Futhark is replaced by the Younger or Sixteen-Rune Futhark. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 800 Harun al-Rashid sends an embassy to China [D.E. Smith, p.555] 800 Jacob ben Nissim writes on the Theory of Numbers [D.E. Smith, p.555] 800 Messahala writes on the Astrolabe [D.E. Smith, p.555] 800 Al-Tabari writes on Astronomy [D.E. Smith, p.555] c.800-810 Reign of King Godfrid of Denmark. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 802 Charles sends marriage proposal to Irene The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century 802 Empress Irene overthrown in palace coup, finance minister becomes Emperor Nikephoros [802-11] The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century
On-Line References Used: The Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century Byzantine EIGHTH CENTURY CHRONOLOGY This chronology was compiled by Judith Herrin, and revised and mounted by Paul Stephenson 5 October 1998 ************ Islamic History of the 9th Century 8th Century (700-799) C.E. http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/history/chronology/century9.htm 8th Century Islamic History Courtesy of ISL Software, makers of the WinAlim Islamic database. ************ The Viking Answer Lady Web Page http://www.realtime.com/~gunnora/ The Viking Answer Lady Web Page ************ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle : Eighth Century This is part of the wonderful Avalon Project at Yale Law School. ************ Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology |Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Literary Precursors |Cosmic History: 13,000,000,000 - 3000 BC |6th Millennium BC: 6000-5000 B.C. |5th Millennium BC: 5000-4000 B.C. |4th Millennium BC: 4000-3000 B.C. |3rd Millennium BC: Gilgamesh and Cheops |2nd Millennium BC: Abraham to David |1st Millennium BC: 1000 BC-1 BC |1st Century: 1 AD-100 AD |2nd Century: 100 AD-200 AD |3rd Century: 200 AD-300 AD |4th Century: 300-400 |5th Century: 400-500 |6th Century: 500-600 |7th Century: 600-700 |8th Century: Beowulf, Charlemagne, 1001 Arabian Nights [you are here] |9th Century: Gunpowder and the first printed book |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China [you are here] |11th Century: Kyahham, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Fibonacci and final flowering of Chivalry |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: Future Prizewinners

Other Key Dates and Stories of this 8th Century

{to be done}

Major Writers Born this 8th Century

712: Du Fu [712-770], Chinese poet 7??: poet Abu Nuwas [died 813] 717: Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya (c.717-801) Sufi (Islamic) Saint of Iraq. ca.721: Geber (Arab alchemist Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan). He may have died at Al-Kufah, Iraq, ca.815. ca.735: Alcuin, Missionary and Bishop [ca.735-???], Teacher of Charlemagne. [see 782] ca.770: Einhard, biographer of Charlemagne. 772: Birth of Poet Bai Ju Yi. ca.780: Birth of al-Khwarizmi, Islamic Mathematician (after whom the word "algorithm" is formed). 850-859: Death of Mohammed ibn Musa al-Khowarizmi. [Hellemans, p.71] see: 820 787: Birth of Abu Mas'har, Islamic Scholar. 788: Birth of Shankara, Hindu teacher. 7??: Byzantine historian Theophanes the Chronographer [died 817] 13 Apr 799: Death of Paul the Deacon, historian. Major Writers Died this 8th Century {to be done} 759: Wang Wei, Poet, Painter and Musician of China. 770: Du Fu [712-770], Chinese poet 778: Autpert Ambrose, Monk and Author. Decade by Decade 8th Century Science Background The background of science and mathematics has been promiscuously intermingled with political/military history in the main body of text in this web page. Some later centuries chronologized in this web site break these apart (science/math versus political/military history). Similarly, "literature" as a genre based on the short story and the novel had not yet evolved, with the possible exception of Myths, stories about Christian saints, and poetry of equivalent function. Decade by Decade 8th Century Mundane Background See the political/military history in the main body of text, and the index of Politico-Military People of the Century, below. The biggest names in Mundane History of the Eighth century included: * Charlemagne

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