TIMELINE COSMIC FUTURE


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TIMELINE COSMIC FUTURE

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This web page draws heavily on FACTS as listed in cited and recommended references. This web page combines the latest scientific theories of geological and astronomical evolution of the Earth, Sun, and Milky Way Galaxy. Just for fun, it interleaves a few pieces of the chronology of the amazing novel by William Olaf Stapledon [Star Maker, 1937], which inspired young Arthur C. Clarke. The astronomical predictions cited here assume that human beings (or our descendants) do NOT move the Earth further from the Sun, or slow down the Sun's evolution by "lifting" hydrogen from the sun, and banking it in artificial Jupiters, or otherwise engaging in major Planetary Engineering. These are a kind of "default" predictions about the very distant future. For an analysis of the End of the World in fiction and film, see: WORLD COMES TO AN END: no more civilization, or people, or worse... Other sources (cited where used) include: Bibliography (books, articles, websites) 40,000,000 AD to 50,000,000 AD Australia rams Asia 50,000,000 AD to 60,000,000 AD Africa rams Europe 200,000,000 AD to 250,000,000 AD Supercontinent Pangea Ultima 400,000,000 AD Twice Around the Galaxy 500,000,000 AD 95% of Plants Start Dying 600,000,000 AD Thrice Around the Galaxy 750,000,000 AD Milky Way Galaxy Absorbs Sagittarius Dwarf 800,000,000 AD Four Times Around the Galaxy 900,000,000 AD All Plants Die 1,000,000,000 AD Five Times Around the Galaxy 1,200,000,000 AD Oceans Start Boiling Off 1,500,000,000 AD to 2,000,000,000 AD Earth Spins Chaotically 3,000,000,000 AD Collision/Merger with Andromeda Galaxy 3,500,000,000 AD to 6,000,000,000 AD Magma Oceans Form 7,000,000,000 AD Sun is a Red Giant Star 7,500,000,000 AD Magma Oceans Start to Boil Off 7,600,000,000 AD Sun is a White Dwarf Star 10,000,000,000 AD Milky/Andromeda Absorbs Magellanic Clouds 11,600,000,000 AD to 11,600,000,000 AD Mars has a Human-comfortable Temperature> 12,070,000,000 AD to 12,100,000,000 AD Europa has a Human-comfortable Temperature 20,000,000,000 AD "Star Maker" Fictional "War of Worlds" 30,000,000,000 AD "Star Maker" Fictional "Second Galactic Utopia" 40,000,000,000 AD "Star Maker" Fictional "First Colonization of Dead Stars" 50,000,000,000 AD "Star Maker" Fictional "Supreme Moment of the Cosmos" 60,000,000,000 AD Solid Crust Forms on the Sun 1,000,000,000,000 AD One Trillion Years From Now: Stars Die 1,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Quadrillion Years From Now 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Quintillion Years From Now 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Sextillion Years From Now 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Septillion Years From Now 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Octillion Years From Now: Galaxies "Dissolve" 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Nonillion Years From Now: Supermassive Black Holes Merge 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Decillion Years From Now 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Undecillion Years From Now 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Duodecillion Years From Now 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Tredecillion Years From Now 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Quattuordecillion Years From Now: Protons and neutrons decay 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Quindecillion Years From Now 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Sexdecillion Years From Now 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Septendecillion Years From Now 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Octodecillion Years From Now 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Novemdecillion Years From Now 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Vigintillion Years From Now (10 to the power of 66) AD 1 Solar Mass Black Hole Evaporates (10 to the power of 69) AD 10 Solar Mass Black Hole Evaporates (10 to the power of 72) AD 100 Solar Mass Black Hole Evaporates (10 to the power of 75) AD 1,000 Solar Mass Black Hole Evaporates (10 to the power of 78) AD 10,000 Solar Mass Black Hole Evaporates (10 to the power of 81) AD 100,000 Solar Mass Black Hole Evaporates (10 to the power of 84) AD Million Solar Mass Black Hole Evaporates (10 to the power of 87) AD 10 Million Solar Mass Black Hole Evaporates (10 to the power of 87) AD 10 Million Solar Mass Black Hole Evaporates (10 to the power of 90) AD 100 Million Solar Mass Black Hole Evaporates (10 to the power of 93) AD Billion Solar Mass Black Hole Evaporates (10 to the power of 96) AD 10 Billion Solar Mass Black Hole Evaporates (10 to the power of 99) AD 100 Billion Solar Mass Black Hole Evaporates 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Googol Years From Now 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD One Mega-Googol Years From Now: Supermassive Black Holes Evaporate (10 to the Power of 303) AD One Centillion Years From Now Link List for History of Science and Science Fiction William Olaf Stapledon William Olaf Stapledon [10 May 1886-6 Sep 1950] lectured in English Literature, Industrial History, Psychology, and Philosophy. During World War I he served (1915-1919) with the Friends' Ambulance Unit. He is best-known today for his science fiction: * Last and First Men [Cape & Smith, 1931; Dover, 1962] * Last Men in London [Penguin, 1974; Gregg, 1976] * Odd John [Dutton, 1936; Galaxy #8; Berkley; Dover; Garland, 1978] * Sirius [Dover; Penguin, 1974] * The Starmaker [1937; Berkley, 1962; Penguin] * Darkness & the Light [Hyperion, 1974] 2 novellas * Worlds of Wonder [Phantasy Publishing Co. Inc., 1949] 3 stories expanded as To The End of Time [Funk & Wagnalls, 1953; Gregg, 1975] 5 novels in 1 volume (Last and First Men, Starmaker, Odd John, The Flames, Sirius) Olaf Stapledon became a Cambridge Professor of Philosophy, and was extremely influential on Arthur C. Clarke and other HARD SCIENCE FICTION authors. Arthur C. Clarke said, of "Star Maker": "This book literally changed my life when I read it as a 14 year old. As I've acknowledged many times, my later writing was shaped by Olaf Stapledon's visions. Even though his history of the post-1930s world was swiftly outdated by events (or are they happening in another parallel universe?) his future scenarios remain awe-inspiring." Specifically, he also had direct influence on writers as diverse as H.G. Wells, J. B. Priestley, J. D. Bernal, Larry Niven, and John Lilly. H.G. Wells was the first person to write a novel whose plot spanned hundreds of millions of years (The Time Machine), Stapledon went to billions of years, tens of billions, and far beyond. Through his acknowledged inspiring of Arthur C. Clarke (who once said in interview that his only two "heroes" were Olaf Stapledon and J. B. S. Haldane], Stapledon indirectly inspired modern Hard Science Fiction authors such as Greg Bear, David Brin, Gregory Benford, Stephen Baxter (who calls Star Maker "science fiction's greatest ascent"), and Greg Egan. Stapledon inspired me, and Greg Benford, and there is another connection. I made an impact on the literature of the Far Future with my visionary article "Human Destiny and the End of Time", Quantum Science Fiction #39, Winter 1991/1992, ISSN 0198-6686]. This article, during my tenure as Science Editor, was richly used by Professor Gregory Benford in his superb novel series set near the core of our galaxy. Some of my most poetic paragraphs were used almost in their pristine form, set in italics, for Gregory Benford to give a Olaf Stapledon/Arthur C. Clarke sense-of-wonder to my prediction of the ambiplasma life forms of the remote future, after the age of planets and stars. I was also the first person to predict in print that our entire reality was merely a simulation of those future beings, trying to imaginatively recreate this mythical age of solid matter, with all the worlds a stage. This is statistically very likely, in my cosmology, at least. So, when do I get my royalties from The Matrix? [joke]
40,000,000 AD to 50,000,000 AD

Australia rams Asia

Even at the slow speed, an inch or two per year, continental drift is very likely to move Australia closer and closer to mainland Asia, until they will collide, creating a new mountain range as rock strata crumple upwards. [FAQ: Gondwana, Monash University Earth Sciences] 50,000,000 AD to 60,000,000 AD

Africa rams Europe

"In 50 million years [Christopher Scotese] predicts, the Atlantic will be much wider than it is now, while Africa will have rammed into Europe, closing up the Mediterranean Sea and driving up a mountain range as grand as the Himalayas." ["Hell on Earth", Hazel Muir, New Scientist, 6 Dec 2003, p.36] 200,000,000 AD to 250,000,000 AD

Supercontinent Pangea Ultima

In 226 million years, our Sun, and its solar system, will have orbited once around the entire Milky Way Galaxy. How will things have changed? "Christopher Scotese, a geologist at the University of Texas at Arlington... has simulated how the continents will look in the future, assuming that they continue their current drifting pattern... about as fast as your fingernails grow.... If past patterns are anything to go by, small subduction zones, where one plate dives beneath another, hold some clues." "Existing zones on the western edge of the Atlantic Ocean should seed a giant north-south rift that swallows heavy, old oceanic crust. The Atlantic will start to shrink, sending the Americas crashing back into the merged Euro-African continent. So roughly 250 million years from now, most of the world's land mass will once again be joined together in a new supercontinent that Scotese and his colleagues have dubbed Pangea Ultima. Here you would be able to walk from the Americas to Africa and Europe without getting your feet wet." ["Hell on Earth", Hazel Muir, New Scientist, 6 Dec 2003, p.36] Looking far into the cosmic past, we note that the first stars ignited roughly 200 million years after the Big Bang. 400,000,000 AD

Twice Round the Galaxy

In 452 million years, our Sun, and its solar system, will have orbited twice around the entire Milky Way Galaxy, since the dawn of humanity. 500,000,000 AD

95% of Plants Start Dying

"The trouble is that over the long term the sun is getting brighter -- by about 1 percent for every 100 million years. It might not sound like much, but as the heat is turned up, CO2 levels in the atmosphere will fall as a result of those heat dependent chemical reactions. The 'thermostat' will be overwhelmed." "In about 500 million years' time, according to a climate model by James Kastings of Pennsylvania State University in University Park and his colleague Ken Caldeira, CO2 levels will have fallen to just over 40 per cent of today's level." [Nature, Vol.360, p.721] "Most plants will struggle to get enough of the gas for photosynthesis. 'About 95 per cent of plant species will start to get into trouble,' says Kastings. Pine, fir and tropical forests will give way to grasslands, shrubs and cacti that thrive on relatively low levels of CO2." ["Hell on Earth", Hazel Muir, New Scientist, 6 Dec 2003, pp.37-38] 600,000,000 AD

Thrice Round the Galaxy

In 678 million years, our Sun, and its solar system, will have orbited three times around the entire Milky Way Galaxy, since the dawn of humanity. 750,000,000 AD

Milky Way Galaxy Absorbs Sagittarius Dwarf

Our Milky Way Galaxy, a vast whirlpool of 250,000,000,000 to 400,000,000,000 stars, and huge amounts of gas, dust, planets, advanced civilizations, and dark matter, will have collided with and begun to absorb the much smaller Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy. The long, drawn out impact will produce shock waves that appear as a continuation of the pinwheeling beautiful spiral arms. New stars will form, and some will quickly die in spectatcular supernovae. 800,000,000 AD

Four Times Round the Galaxy

In 904 million years, our Sun, and its solar system, will have orbited four times around the entire Milky Way Galaxy, since the dawn of humanity. 900,000,000 AD

All Plants Die

By about 900 million years from now [CO2] levels will be too low for even them [grass, shrubs, cacti]. The lush green Earth will have turned a muddy brown." ["Hell on Earth", Hazel Muir, New Scientist, 6 Dec 2003, p.38] 1,000,000,000 AD

Five Times Round the Galaxy

In 1.13 Billion years, our Sun, and its solar system, will have orbited five times around the entire Milky Way Galaxy, since the dawn of humanity. 1,200,000,000 AD

Oceans Start Boiling Off

In 1.2 Billion years, our Sun, and its solar system, will have orbited six times around the entire Milky Way Galaxy, since the dawn of humanity. "And it gets worse. In 1.2 billion years, the sun will be about 15 per cent brighter than it is today. The surface temperature on Earth will reach between 60 and 70 degrees Centigrade [140 Farenheit to 158 Farenheit] and the chemical reactions that soak up atmospheric CO2 will be so vigorous that almost all the CO2 will have disappeared from the astmosphere. 'There will be no more carbon dioxode to compensate for the brightening sun,' says [Jeffrey] Kargel." "The warming oceans will dramatically increase the humidity of the atmosphere, compounding the problem. Water is also a greenhouse gas, but it doesn't act as a thermostat like CO2. More water in the atmosphere means more heat, which evaporates more water. This vicious circle will trigger a runaway greenhouse effect. The oceans will all but disappear, leaving vast dry salt flats, and the cogs and gears of earth's shifting continents will grind to a halt. Complex animal life will almost certainly have died out." ["Hell on Earth", Hazel Muir, New Scientist, 6 Dec 2003, p.38] 1,500,000,000 AD to 2,000,000,000

Earth Spins Chaotically

"Earth's spin axis starts to swing chaotically because the Moon drifts too far away to stablize it." ["Hell on Earth", Hazel Muir, New Scientist, illustration caption, 6 Dec 2003, p.39] Our Milky Way Galaxy is beginning to be distorted by the gravitational effects of the larger Andromeda Galaxy, which is on a collision course with our own. ["End of the Galaxy (but Don't Hold Your Breath", Science Editor Michael Hanlon, Express Newspapers, 12 Jan 2000] 3,000,000,000 AD

Collision/Merger with Andromeda Galaxy

Our Milky Way Galaxy, at this time of 3 billion years from now, is gradually colliding with and merging with the larger giant spiral Andromeda Galaxy. Statistically speaking, almost no stars will actually smash into each other. However, as this vast collision occurs at roughly 300,000 miles per hour, three dramatic things happen. First, the diffuse galactic gas and dust heats up from compression. Second, the giant black holes in the center of each galaxy, each millions of times more massive than our Sun, whirl around each other, and then eventually merge. Third, enormous numbers of comets will shower through the merged galaxy, many smashing innocent planets into extinction events. There is a chance that in this merger, the Sun and Solar System might be flung completely out of the galaxy, and thus escape the tremendous violence of black hole merger. Or, it might be swept into almost anyplace within the galaxy, even into the accretion disk of the doubled black hole. For the sake of argument, let's predict on this web page that the solar sustem keeps roughly its current distance from the new galactic center. That way, we can continue the geological; and astronomical predictions as below. 3,500,000,000 AD to 6,000,000,000

Magma Oceans Form

"At some point, ultraviolet radiation from the brightening sun will break down the water in the Earth's steamy atmosphere into hydrogen and oxygen. Earth's gravity would not be strong enough to retain the hydrogen, which would fizzle off into space." "But the oxygen would remain, and at these temperatures could reach pressures of hundreds of atmospheres. 'The iron in rocks will absorb the oxygen, and Earth will become a rusty planet,' says [Jeffrey] Kargel. It might start to look a bit like Mars." "Kargel also draws parallels with Venus, which is wrapped in thick, poisonous clouds of sulphuric acid. Eventually the greenhouse effect on Earth will have pushed temperatures up to 1000 degrees centigrade [1800 degrees Farenheit] hot enough to melt rock. Seas of scorching magma will form, and sulphate minerals like gypsum will break down. If a thin steamy atmosphere remains, it will form a lethal Venusian-style cocktail of sulphuric acid." ["Hell on Earth", Hazel Muir, New Scientist, illustration caption, 6 Dec 2003, p.38] 7,000,000,000 AD

Sun is a Red Giant Star

"In September [2003], at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Monterey, California, [Jeffrey] Kargel described new simulations of how the Earth will look even further into its tortured future, after the sun has swollen into a red giant star in about 7 billion years' time." "No one can predict exactly how the Earth and moon will be orbiting the sun at that point, but one possibility is that the Earth will be 'tidally locked' to the sun. In other words, one side of the planet will be in permanent daylight while the other side will always be dark." "On the day side of that future Earth, says Kargel, the red sun will appear 250 times wider than it is today, its globe looming across most of the sky. It would light up the skies far around the planet, with only a section about as wide as North America in true darkness at the back. Surrounding it would be an area in perpetual twilight." ["Hell on Earth", Hazel Muir, New Scientist, 6 Dec 2003, p.38] 7,500,000,000 AD

Magma Oceans Start to Boil Off

"Working with Bruce Fegley and Laura Schaefer of Washington University in St.Louis, Missouri, [Jeffrey] Kargel used astronomical predictions of the sun's increasing brightness to calculate temperatures on the Earth's sirface. They found that 7.57 billion years from now, the magma ocean directly in the glare of the sun will reach almost 2200 degrees Centigrade. 'At that kind of temperature, the magma will start to evaporate," says Kargel." "The temperature on the night side is less easy to predict. 'If there was a thick atmosphere blowing around, it could carry enough heat to the night side that even this dark side would be toasty warm,' says Kargel." "'But if you don't have that atmosphere, then it could become extremely cold.' The situation would be similar to that on [planet] Mercury, which has only a thin atmosphere. Mercury's midday temperatures of 350 degrees Centigrade [662 degrees Farenheit] -- hot enough to melt lead -- fall to -170 degrees Centigrade [-274 degrees Farenheit] at night." "[Jeffrey] Kargel thinks the night side of the Earth could be even colder, at about -240 degrees Centigrade [-400 degrees Farenheit]. And this bizarre hot-and-cold Earth will set up some exotic weather patterns. On the hot side, metals like silicon, magnesium and iron, and their oxides, will evaporate out of the magma seas. In the warm twilight zones, they'll condense back down." "'You'll see iron rain, maybe silicon monoxide snow,' says Kargel. Meanwhile, potassium and sodium snow will fall from colder dusky skies." "On the dark side, it could be cold enough for CO2, sulphur dioxide and argon to freeze out into a giant ice cap, dusted with solid nitrogen icing. Underneath that will be plain old water ice -- if any water remains on the planet, that is. And there is a small chance that in the twilight zone, this wild planet might retain a little memento of its distant past: a cosy liquid water ocean." 7,600,000,000 AD

Sun is a White Dwarf Star

The sun stays as a slowly cooling White Dwarf star, with almost the full mass that it has today, but shrunk and compressed to the size of a planet. "White dwarf stars are extremely dense compact stars containing a stellar mass in a volume the size of a planet. They are the final stellar remnants that result from the nonexplosive evolution of virtually all stars having initial masses up to approximately 7-8 solar masses. Thus one expects that upwards of 97% of the stars in the Milky Way Galaxy should terminate their thermonuclear evolution as these burnt-out cinders, compressed to complete electron degeneracy by the earlier, successively alternating stages of thermonuclear fuel ignition, fuel exhaustion, and core contraction...." [Stars, White Dwarf, Observed Properties", Edward M. Sion, The Astronomy and Astrophysics Encyclopedia, Edited by Stephan P. Maran, Foreword by Carl Sagan, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992, p.802] 10,000,000,000 AD

Milky/Andromeda Absorbs Magellanic Clouds

Ten Billion Years from now, when the Earth (if its still exists) is twice as old as it is today, the merged Milky Way/Andromeda Galaxy will have collided with and absorbed both the Greater Magellanic Clouds and the Lesser Magellanic Clouds, an assortment of dwarf galaxies currently orbiting our galaxy. [completely rephrased from facts in "A Tourist's Guide to the Milky Way", Robert Roy Britt, explorezone.com, 5 Jan 2000] William Olaf Stapledon [Star Maker, 1937] considers this time to be an arbitrary moment roughly halfway between "First Interstellar Travel" (by our remote descendants, mutated to live on Neptune) and "First Artificial Planets (as permanent abodes). "Interstellar, as opposed to interplanetary travel, was quite impossible until the advent of sub-atomic power. Fortunately, this source of power was seldom gained until late in a world's development, when mentality was mature enough to wield this most dangerous of all physical instruments without inevitable disaster... Actual interstellar voyaging was first effected by detaching a planet from its natural orbit by a series of well-placed rocket implosions, thus projecting it into interstellar space.... For longer voyages... [they would] form a small artificial sun, and project it into space as a blazing satellite of the living world...." [Star Maker, 1937; Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc., 1987, pp.141-142] Stapledon also writes of this era as the end of the "Age of Isolated Worlds" and near the center of the "Age of Living Stars." 11,600,000,000 AD to 11,600,000,000 AD

Mars has a Human-comfortable Temperature

Between 11.6 and 11.7 Billion years, as the Sun expands, the ratio of the surface temperature of Mars then (compared to now) will increase by a factor of 1.29-1.43, making it completely user-friendly for humans as we are now. ["Solar Evolution and the Distant Future of Earth", Klaus-Peter Schroder, Robert Common Smith, and Kevin Apps, A&G, Dec 2001 12,070,000,000 AD to 12,100,000,000 AD

Europa has a Human-comfortable Temperature

Between 12.07 and 12.10 Billion years, as the Sun expands, the ratio of the surface temperature of Jupiter's moon Europa then (compared to now) will increase by a factor of 2.25-2.50, making it completely user-friendly for humans as we are now. Between 12.139 and 12.147 Billion years, as the Sun expands, the ratio of the surface temperature of Saturn's moon Titan then (compared to now) will increase by a factor of 3.18-3.53, making it completely user-friendly for humans as we are now. Between 12.162 and 12.164 Billion years, as the Sun expands, the ratio of the surface temperature of Uranus's moon Oberon then (compared to now) will increase by a factor of 5.09-5.66, making it completely user-friendly for humans as we are now. For Neptune's moon Triton to warm up by a factor of 8.44 to 9.38, from Solar expansion, to make it completely user-friendly for humans as we are now -- will never happen! ["Solar Evolution and the Distant Future of Earth", Klaus-Peter Schroder, Robert Common Smith, and Kevin Apps, A&G, Dec 2001] Looking equally far into the cosmic past, we note that the Big Bang was 13,700,000,000 years ago, plus or minus 1%. [WMAP data] 20,000,000,000 AD

"Star Maker" Fictional "War of Worlds"

William Olaf Stapledon [Star Maker, 1937] considers this time the start of the "Struggle for Galactic Mentality", initiated by the "War of Worlds." "... There followed civil wars, mass-martyrdoms of devoted pacificists, dissension among the imperialists, a steady increase in 'lunacy' in every world of the empire. The whole imperial organization fell to pieces; and since the aristocratic worlds that formed the backbone of empire were as impotent as soldier-ants to maintain themselves without the service and tribute of the subject worlds, the loss of empire doomed them to death.... [Star Maker, 1937; Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc., 1987, pp.162-163] About 2 billion years later, "Symbiotics Take Charge." At roughly 25,000,000,000 AD he writes of "First Galactic Utopia." "At first the task of establishing the galactic utopia occupied almost the whole energy of the the awakened worlds. More and more of the stars were encircled with concentric hoops of pearls, perfect though artificial. And each pearl was a unique world, occupied by a unique race. Henceforth the highest level of persistent individuality was not a world, but a system of scores or hundreds of worlds. And between these systems was as easy and delightful converse as between human individuals.... Telepathic intercourse united the whole galaxy.... So far as possible it was supplemented by physical travel. A constant stream of touring worldlets percolated through the whole galaxy in every direction...." [Star Maker, 1937; Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc., 1987, pp.167-168] "The Galactic Society of Worlds had sought to perfect its communication with other galaxies..." [op.cit., p.180] At roughly 28,000,000,000 AD he writes of "War of Stars and Worlds." 30,000,000,000 AD

"Star Maker" Fictional "Second Galactic Utopia"

William Olaf Stapledon [Star Maker, 1937] considers this time about two-thirds of the way through the "Struggle for Galactic Mentality." At roughly 32,000,000,000 AD he writes of "Second Galactic Utopia." Stapledon invented what we call Dyson Spheres, after Freeman Dyson. Indeed, Dyson credits the novel "Star Maker" for giving him the idea. "Not only was every solar system now surrounded by a gauze of light traps, which focused the escaping solar energy for intelligent use, so that the whole galaxy was dimmed, but many stars that were not suited to be suns were disintegrated, and rifled of their prodigious stores of subatomic energy." [William Olaf Stapledon, Star Maker, 1937] At roughly 36,000,000,000 AD he writes of "First Occurrence of Galactic Mind." That brings to a close the "Struggle for Galactic Mentality." 40,000,000,000 AD

"Star Maker" Fictional "First Colonization of Dead Stars"

William Olaf Stapledon [Star Maker, 1937] considers this time after the "Struggle for Galactic Mentality." At roughly 42,000,000,000 AD he writes of "First Colonization of Dead Stars." This also marks the start of the "Struggle for Cosmical Mentality." At roughly 45,000,000,000 AD he writes of "Partial Cosmic Utopia." At roughly 46,000,000,000 AD he writes of "First Occurrence of Cosmical Mind." "Of living stars, very few were left in any galaxy. Of the host of dead stars, some, subjected to atomic disintegration, were being used as artificial suns, and were surrounded by many thousands of artificial planets. But the great majority of the stars were now encrusted, and themselves peopled. After a while it became necessary to evacuate all planets, as artificial suns were too extravagant of energy. The planet-dwelling races therefore one by one destroyed themselves, beqeathing the material of their worlds and all their wisdom to the inhabitants of the extinguished stars. Henceforth the cosmos, once a swarm of blazing galaxies, each a swarm of stars, was composed wholly of star-corpses. These dark grains drifted through the dark void, like an infinitely tenuous smoke rising from an extinguished fire. Upon these motes, these gigantic worlds, the ultimate populations had created here and there with their artificial lighting a pale glow, invisible even from the innermost ring of lifeless planets." [Star Maker, 1937; Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc., 1987, pp.212-213] At roughly 48,000,000,000 AD he writes of "Death of Last Surviving Star." 50,000,000,000 AD

"Star Maker" Fictional "Supreme Moment of the Cosmos"

William Olaf Stapledon [Star Maker, 1937] considers this time the "Supreme Moment of the Cosmos" when the Cosmical Mind (composed of all interconnected intelligences in the universe) makes direct contact with the "Star Maker" -- the Creator of the universe. Life falls back, enlightened but stunned, as it seems that our is merely a prototype universe, neither the first nor the last Creation. Thus starts the long era of "Cosmical Decline." 60,000,000,000 AD

Solid Crust Forms on the Sun

Before the Sun became a White Dwarf, much of its Hydrogen had ben fused into Helium, and much of the Helium, to Carbon. Significant amounts of Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminum and other elements were created by nucleosythesis. Thus, when the Sun has cooled enough, in about 60 billion years (more than 10 times its current age) a solid crust will probably form. Life may exist on the crust of the cooling sun, as first written about by Olaf Stapledon, in his astonishing novel STAR MAKER [1937]. Perhaps even some of our remote descendants... But in his astonishing novel, he writes of this era as the "Dissolution of the Cosmical Mind." At roughly 68,000,000,000 AD he writes of "First Death of a Galaxy." 80,000,000,000 AD

"Star Maker" Fictional "Last Galaxy Dies"

Olaf Stapledon, in his astonishing novel STAR MAKER [1937] writes of this era "Last Galaxy Dies." 1,000,000,000,000 AD

One Trillion Years From Now: Stars Die

Years = 10 to the power of 12 The lowest-mass stars from the last generation of star formation age feebly into white dwarfs. No more brightly-shining stars powered by fusion. ["The Future of the Universe", Professor Barbara Ryden, Ohio State University; update of 10 Mar 2003] "Of course, stars will eventually run out of fuel and die, and the gas clouds that give birth to new generations of stars will likewise exhaust their resources. But the smallest stars, a little less than one-tenth the mass of the Sun, stay much cooler than the Sun and forge helium from hydrogen at a much slower pace. Astronomers expect these stars to keep shining for about 100 trillion years, against which our 15-billion-year-old universe is just a blink of an eye." [http://www.pbs.org/wnet/hawking/programs/html/prog-content_4-4.html] What is the connection between a Light Year and a Trillion? A Light Year is the speed of light (186,232 miles per second) divided by 31,536,000 seconds in a year. So we get that a Light Year is 5.874 Trillion miles. Since the closest star other than our Sun is Proxima Centauri, at 4.3 Light Years away, that next star is about 25.260 Trillion miles away. A slightly longer unit of Astronomical distance is the Parsec. One Parsec = 19.1735281 Trillion miles. 1,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Quadrillion Years From Now: Degenerate Era

Years = 10 to the power of 15 This age, one quadrillion years from now, marks the begnning of the "Degenerate Era" of the universe. The stellar landscape (in virtually every galaxy) is dominated by white dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Much of the remaining mass of the universe is comprised of neutron stars and black holes of various sizes. Most other stars in the galaxies have long since collided explosively or gradually burnt out. Frozen corpses of planets scatter across the galaxies, and the halos around galaxies, and the deep night of intergalactic space. More and more of these white dwarfs, brown dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, and forgotten planets find their way eventually into the accretion disks of, and then into the centers of growing black holes. Fewer and fewer new stars form, because the galaxies are "running on empty" -- increasingly devoid of hydrogen gas fuel. Less and less new fuel drifts into the ancient galaxies from intergalactic space. The stars of this era are more and more thoroughly fueled by dark matter, whose properties we don't know well enough now to describe. New life may still form inside cooling brown dwarfs and on the crusts of cold white dwarfs. On a very few such places, the beings develop intelligence, technology, and dimly intuit that things were once very different. They write science fiction about a virile and fertile young universe. Then they start to simulate us. [Significantly rewritten and expanded from excerpt of "The Five Ages of the Universe", Peter N. Spotts, The Christian Science Monitor, 15 July 1999] To put a quadrillion in Astronomical context: One Light Year is 31.038479 quadrillion feet. One Light Year is 372.461748 quadrillion inches. A slightly longer unit of Astronomical distance is the Parsec. One Parsec = 101.236229 quadrillion feet. To put a quadrillion in World Wide Web context: Using 37 characters (26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits plus an underscore _ ), there are 4,808,584,372,418,000 possible website names 10 characters in length. 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Quintillion Years From Now

Years = 10 to the power of 18 Just to put "quintillion" in Astronomical context: One Light Year is 9.4605284 quintillion millimeters. A slightly longer unit of Astronomical distance than the Light Year is the Parsec. One Parsec = 1.21483474 quintillion inches. Just to put "quintillion" in Earthly context, it is estimated that approximately a quintillion individual insects populate the Earth. One quintillion American pennies, if laid out flat, like a carpet, would cover the surface of the Earth twice. That would weigh 3 trillion tons, and be worth over 10 quadrillion dollars. Those pennies could be packed into a cube 27,300 feet X 27,300 feet X 27,300 feet. Such a cube would be 1,700 feet shorter than Mt.Everest. There are 13.01 quintillion Planck masses in the mass of one proton. Hence, a proton Compton wavelength is 13.01 quintillion Planck lengths. The number of possible combinations on a standard Rubik's Cube is roughly 43 quintillion, as printed on the box, and justified mathematically elsewhere. We can easily reach a quintillion using the Factorial function. 20! = 2.43290201 quintillion = 20x19x18x17x16...x3x2x1 To put a quintillion in World Wide Web context: Using 37 characters (26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits plus an underscore _ ), there are roughly 177 quintillion possible website names 11 characters in length. Using the 26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits for a 36-character expanded alphabet, there are roughly 131 quintillion sequences (permutations) of 11 characters. 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Sextillion Years From Now

Years = 10 to the power of 21 Just to put "sextillion" in Terrestrial context: The Earth weighs 5.972 sextillion metric tons. Dr. Simon Driver (Australian National University) estimated that there are approximately 70 sextillion visible stars in the universe. [General Assembly, International Astronomical Union, Sydney Australia, 22 July 2003] Just to put "sextillion" in additional Astronomical context: One Light Year is 9.4605284 sextillion microns. A slightly longer unit of Astronomical distance than the Light Year is the Parsec. One Parsec = 30.856805 sextillion microns. Since we know (as of late 2003) that the universe is 13.7 Billion years old, let us pretend for this web page that the farthest we can see (to the "edge of the universe") is exactly 13.7 Billion Light Years. If so, then the apparent radius of the universe is 8.05354475 sextillion miles. One sextillion American pennies could be packed into a cube roughly 50 miles X 50 miles X 50 miles. We can easily reach a sextillion using the Factorial function. 22! = 2.43290201 quintillion = 22x21x20x19x18x17x16...x3x2x1 To put a sextillion in World Wide Web context: Using 37 characters (26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits plus an underscore _ ), there are roughly 6.58 sextillion possible website names 12 characters in length. There are roughly 243 sextillion possible website names 13 characters in length. Using the 26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits for a 36-character expanded alphabet, there are roughly 4.74 sextillion sequences (permutations) of 12 characters. Using the 26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits for a 36-character expanded alphabet, there are roughly 171 sextillion sequences (permutations) of 13 characters. 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Septillion Years From Now

Years = 10 to the power of 24 Note: at 60.2% of this age, the universe is "one mole of years old", i.e. Avogadro's Constant number of years. This fact, so far as I know, has never before been pointed out on the World Wide Web. Yet I have been saying this to fellow scientists and science fiction authors for some 20 years. Thus, Your Humble Webmaster, on 10 December 2003, would like to suggest that this age be called "The Stapledon" after Cambridge Philosophy Don and Science Fiction author William Olaf Stapledon. The Earth weighs 5.972 septillion kilograms. That leads us to Isaac Asimov's recipe for Earth, or an Earth-like planet: "Weigh out roughly two septillion kilograms of iron, adding 10 percent of nickel as stiffening. Mix well with four septillion kilograms of magnesium silicate, adding 5 per cent of sulfur... and small quantities of other elements. Heat in a radioactive furnace and two mutually insoluble layers separate. Cool slowly till the crust hardens and a thin film of adhering gas and moisture appears. Place in an orbit at a comfortable distance from a star and set to spinning. Then wait. In several billion years it will ferment at the surface. The fermented portion [is] called life." Well, I'd properly call the fermented portion "the biosphere" but Isaac Asimov was my friend, and I never argued with him in life. Just to put "septillion" in Astronomical context: One Light Year is 94.605284 septillion angstroms. A slightly longer unit of Astronomical distance than the Light Year is the Parsec. One Parsec = 308.568025 septillion angstroms. Since we know (as of late 2003) that the universe is 13.7 Billion years old, let us pretend for this web page that the farthest we can see (to the "edge of the universe") is exactly 13.7 Billion Light Years. If so, then the apparent radius of the universe is 44.5227163 septillion feet. We can easily reach a septillion using the Factorial function. 25! = 15.51121 septillion = 25x24x23x22x21x20x19x18x17x16...x3x2x1 To put a septillion in World Wide Web context: Using 37 characters (26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits plus an underscore _ ), there are roughly 9.01 septillion possible website names 14 characters in length. There are roughly 333 septillion possible website names 15 characters in length. Using a normal alphabet of 26 letters, there are roughly 400 septillion sequences of 26 letters (i.e. permutations of the complete alphabet). Using the 26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits for a 36-character expanded alphabet, there are roughly 6.174 septillion sequences (permutations) of 14 characters. Using the 26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits for a 36-character expanded alphabet, there are roughly 221 septillion sequences (permutations) of 15 characters. 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Octillion Years From Now: Galaxies "Dissolve"

Years = 10 to the power of 27 "Close encounters between stellar remnants within galaxies fling half of them out of the galaxy into interstellar space. The remaining stars are swallowed by the galaxy's central supermassive black hole, swelling it to gargantuan size (about 100 billion solar masses for a fair-sized galaxy like our own). Galaxies no longer exist -- stellar remnants have been strewn throughout space." ["The Future of the Universe", Professor Barbara Ryden, Ohio State University; update of 10 Mar 2003] Just to put "octillion" in context, the Earth weighs roughly 5.972 octillion grams, the Sun weighs roughly 2 octillion metric tons, and there are approximately 56 octillion possible hands of 13 cards per player in Bridge. A slightly longer unit of Astronomical distance than the Light Year is the Parsec. Distances between galaxies are often measured in Megaparsecs (1,000,000 Parsecs). One Megaparsec = 30.8568025 octillion microns. Since we know (as of late 2003) that the universe is 13.7 Billion years old, let us pretend for this web page that the farthest we can see (to the "edge of the universe") is exactly 13.7 Billion Light Years. If so, then the apparent radius of the universe is 0.510272495 octillion inches. Using the 26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits for a 36-character expanded alphabet, there are roughly 7.96 octillion sequences (permutations) of 16 characters. Using the 26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits for a 36-character expanded alphabet, there are roughly 287 octillion sequences (permutations) of 17 characters. 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Nonillion Years From Now

Years = 10 to the power of 30 10 Nonillion years from now (10 to the power of 31): "Supermassive black holes merge. After galaxies become unbound, flinging their stellar remnants into space, clusters of gargantuan black holes exist where clusters of galaxies used to be. The black holes, as they orbit through space, radiate gravitational waves. These gravitational waves are ripples in space-time itself; just as ripples in water carry energy, so ripples in space-time carry away energy from the moving black holes, allowing them to spiral in towards the center of the cluster in which they live. Eventually, all the gargantuan black holes mrge together to form a hyper-gargantuan black hole [about 1 quadrillion solar masses for a cluster such as our Virgo Cluster]. ["The Future of the Universe", Professor Barbara Ryden, Ohio State University; update of 10 Mar 2003] A slightly longer unit of Astronomical distance than the Light Year is the Parsec. Distances between galaxies are often measured in Megaparsecs (1,000,000 Parsecs). One Megaparsec = 308.568025 nonillion angstroms. Since we know (as of late 2003) that the universe is 13.7 Billion years old, let us pretend for this web page that the farthest we can see (to the "edge of the universe") is exactly 13.7 Billion Light Years. If so, then the apparent radius of the universe is 12.9609239 nonillion microns. Since we know (as of late 2003) that the universe is 13.7 Billion years old, let us pretend for this web page that the farthest we can see (to the "edge of the universe") is exactly 13.7 Billion Light Years. In that case, the total volume of the universe is 2.571353 nonillion cubic Light Years. A unisexual organism reproducing nonstop and without hinderance every 30 hours for 4 months would have one nonillion descendants. If you had 2 children, and each of them had 2 children, and so forth, then in 100 generations you would have 1.267 nonillion descendants (in that 100th generation). Dr. Samuel Lomonaco (Professor of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland) wrote in 1997 that a quantum computer could have a nonillion times a PC's processing power. We can easily reach a nonillion using the Factorial function. 29! = 8.84176199 nonillion = 29x28x27x26x25x24x23x22x21x20x19x18x17x16...x3x2x1 "Nonillion" is one of a very few 9-letter English words that can be typed entirely with the right hand in standard position on a qwerty keyboard. Using the 26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits for a 36-character expanded alphabet, there are roughly 10.3 nonillion sequences (permutations) of 18 characters. Using the 26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits for a 36-character expanded alphabet, there are roughly 371 nonillion sequences (permutations) of 19 characters. 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Decillion Years From Now

Years = 10 to the power of 33 Since we know (as of late 2003) that the universe is 13.7 Billion years old, let us pretend for this web page that the farthest we can see (to the "edge of the universe") is exactly 13.7 Billion Light Years. If so, then the apparent radius of the universe is 129.609239 decillion angstroms. We can easily reach a decillion using the Factorial function. 31! = 8.22283865 decillion = 31x30x29x28x27x26x25x24x23x22x21x20x19x18x17x16...x3x2x1 Using the 26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits for a 36-character expanded alphabet, there are roughly 13.4 decillion sequences (permutations) of 20 characters. Using the 26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits for a 36-character expanded alphabet, there are roughly 481 decillion sequences (permutations) of 21 characters. 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Undecillion Years From Now

Years = 10 to the power of 36 What happens in the universe over One Undecillion Years? {to be done} It has been estmated that one undecillion snowflakes have fallen on Earth from when it first became cold enough, to the present age of humans. Raising 26 to the 26th power, we calculate that there are approximately 6.15611958 Undecillion arrangements of 26 letters (the same letter can occur more than once). Using the 26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits for a 36-character expanded alphabet, there are roughly 17.3 undecillion sequences (permutations) of 22 characters. Using the 26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits for a 36-character expanded alphabet, there are roughly 624 undecillion sequences (permutations) of 23 characters. In the gambling game Keno, at some casinos, you can choose between 2 and 20 numbers to bet on, giving roughly 117 undecillion possible combinations on which to place a bet. In IP v.6 (the next version of Internet standards) there are roughly 340 undecillion possible internet addresses. We can easily reach a undecillion using the Factorial function. 33! = 8.68331762 undecillion = 33x32x31x30x29x28x27x26x25x24x23x22x21x20x19x18x17x16...x3x2x1 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Duodecillion Years From Now

Years = 10 to the power of 39 What happens in the universe over One Duodecillion Years? {to be done} We can easily reach a duodecillion using the Factorial function. 35! = 10.333148 duodecillion = 35x34x33x32x31x30x29x28x27x26x25x24x23x22x21x20x19x18x17x16...x3x2x1 Using the 26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits for a 36-character expanded alphabet, there are roughly 22.5 duodecillion sequences (permutations) of 24 characters. Using the 26 lowercase letters plus 10 digits for a 36-character expanded alphabet, there are roughly 808 duodecillion sequences (permutations) of 25 characters. 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Tredecillion Years From Now

Years = 10 to the power of 42 What happens in the universe over One Tredecillion Years? {to be done} We can easily reach a tredecillion using the Factorial function. 37! = 13.7637531 tredecillion = 37x36x35x34x33x32x31x30x29x28x27x26x25x24x23x22x21x20x19x18x17x16...x3x2x1 Raising 26 to the 30th power, we calculate that there are approximately 2.8131989 Tredecillion arrangements of 30 letters (the same letter can occur more than once). 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Quattuordecillion Years From Now: Protons and neutrons decay

Years = 10 to the power of 45 "Protons and neutrons decay. Although we think of protons as being stable particles (unless they happen to meet up with an antiproton) they are actually subject to decay on extremely long time scales. The half-life of a proton is uncertain (because it's so long) but it's in the neighborhood of [10 to the power of 45] years. After this time, protons (and their close relations, neutrons) decay into positrons, electrons, and photons. As a consequence, white dwarfs and neutron stars (and any planets, asteroids, and comets that are still around) will disintegrate into expanding clouds of electrons, positrons, and photons." "For a long time after protons and neutrons decay, the universe will be fairly stable -- electrons, positrons, black holes, neutrinos and photons will be spread throughout an ever-expanding universe." ["The Future of the Universe", Professor Barbara Ryden, Ohio State University; update of 10 Mar 2003] Other estimates put the lifetime of a proton at anywhere over 10 to the power of 31 years. We can easily reach a quattuordecillion using the Factorial function. 39! = 20.3978821 quattuordecillion = 39x38x37x36x35x34x33x32x31x30x29x28x27x26x25x24x23x22x21x20x19x18x17x16...x3x2x1 Raising 26 to the 32nd power, we calculate that there are approximately 1.90172246 Quattuordecillion arrangements of 32 letters (the same letter can occur more than once). 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Quindecillion Years From Now

Years = 10 to the power of 48 We can easily reach a quindecillion using the Factorial function. 41! = 33.4525266 quindecillion = 41x40x39x38x37x36x35x34x33x32x31x30x29x28x27x26x25x24x23x22x21x20x19x18x17x16...x3x2x1 Raising 26 to the 34th power, we calculate that there are approximately 1.28556438 Quindecillion arrangements of 34 letters (the same letter can occur more than once). 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Sexdecillion Years From Now

Years = 10 to the power of 51 The total mass of the universe is somewhere between 200 and 500 sexdecillion kilograms. One clever way to calculate that is to consider the Schwartzchild radius of a black hole. By Schwartzchild's formula, if you could crush the Earth to a radius of about a third of an inch, it would become a black hole. If you compressed the Sun to about 1.1 kilometers, it would become a black hole. So what mass for the entire universe results from assuming that the radius of the universe (13.7 Light Years) is a Schwartzchild radius? The answer is in the range listed above, which also agrees with WMAP and other obervational data. Note that at most 4% of that total mass is "ordinary matter", greatly outmassed by cold Dark Matter (23%)and even more so by Dark Energy (73%). We can easily reach a sexdecillion using the Factorial function. 43! = 60.4152631 sexdecillion = 43x42x41x40x39x38x37x36x35x34x33x32x31x30x29x28x27x26x25x24x23x22x21x20x19x18x17x16...x3x2x1 Raising 26 to the 37th power, we calculate that there are approximately 22.5950796 Sexdecillion arrangements of 37 letters (the same letter can occur more than once). 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Septendecillion Years From Now

Years = 10 to the power of 54 The total mass of the universe is somewhere between 200 and 500 septendecillion grams. One clever way to calculate that is to consider the Schwartzchild radius of a black hole. By Schwartzchild's formula, if you could crush the Earth to a radius of about a third of an inch, it would become a black hole. If you compressed the Sun to about 1.1 kilometers, it would become a black hole. So what mass for the entire universe results from assuming that the radius of the universe (13.7 Light Years) is a Schwartzchild radius? The answer is in the range listed above, which also agrees with WMAP and other obervational data. Note that at most 4% of that total mass is "ordinary matter", greatly outmassed by cold Dark Matter (23%)and even more so by Dark Energy (73%). We can easily reach a septendecillion using the Factorial function. 45! = 119.622221 septendecillion = 45x44x43x42x41x40x39x38x37x36x35x34x33x32x31x30x29x28x27x26x25x24x23x22x21x20x19x18x17x16...x3x2x1 Raising 26 to the 39th power, we calculate that there are approximately 15.2742738 Septendecillion arrangements of 39 letters (the same letter can occur more than once). 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Octodecillion Years From Now

Years = 10 to the power of 57 We can easily reach a octodecillion using the Factorial function. 46! = 5.50262216 octodecillion = 46x45x44x43x42x41x40x39x38x37x36x35x34x33x32x31x30x29x28x27x26x25x24x23x22x21x20x19x18x17x16...x3x2x1 Raising 26 to the 41st power, we calculate that there are approximately 10.3254091 Octodecillion arrangements of 41 letters (the same letter can occur more than once). 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Novemdecillion Years From Now

Years = 10 to the power of 60 We can easily reach a novemdecillion using the Factorial function. 48! = 12.4139156 novemdecillion = 48x47x46x45x44x43x42x41x40x39x38x37x36x35x34x33x32x31x30x29x28x27x26x25x24x23x22x21x20x19x18x17x16...x3x2x1 Raising 26 to the 43rd power, we calculate that there are approximately 6.97997654 Novemdecillion arrangements of 43 letters (the same letter can occur more than once). 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Vigintillion Years From Now

Years = 10 to the power of 63 In One Hundred Vigintillion Years [10 to the power of 65] a black hole the mass of our Sun will have completely evaporated away into Hawking Radiation. reference: xxx] Since we know (as of late 2003) that the universe is 13.7 Billion years old, let us pretend for this web page that the farthest we can see (to the "edge of the universe") is exactly 13.7 Billion Light Years. In that case, the total volume of the universe is 2.571353 nonillion cubic Light Years. That equals 5.22349554 times (10 to the power of 68) cubic miles, which is also 522,349.554 vigintillion cubic miles. We can easily reach a vigintillion using the Factorial function. 50! = 30.4140932 vigintillion = 50x49x48x47x46x45x44x43x42x41x40x39x38x37x36x35x34x33x32x31x30x29x28x27x26x25x24x23x22x21x20x19x18x17x16...x3x2x1 Raising 26 to the 45th power, we calculate that there are approximately 4.71846414 Vigintillion arrangements of 45 letters (the same letter can occur more than once). (10 to the power of 66) AD

1 Solar Mass Black Hole Evaporates

By my calculations, at 1.5 times (10 to the power of 66 years), a black hole of exactly the mass of our sun would evaporate and disappear by Hawking radiation. That's 1,500 Vigintillion Years. [based on Don Page's equation in: "Black Holes & Time Warps", Kip Thorne, NY: W.W. Norton, 1994] "How long does it take for a black hole to evaporate and disappear? The answer depends on the hole's mass. The larger the hole, the lower its temperature, and thus the more weakly it emits particles and the more slowly it evaporates. The total lifetime, as worked out by Don Page in 1975 when he was jointly my student and Hawking's is [1.2 times 10 to the power of 67] years if the black hole's mass is twice that of the Sun. The lifetime is proportional to the cube of the hole's mass, so a 20-solar mass hole has a lifetime of [1.2 times 10 to the power of 70] years ["Black Holes & Time Warps",Kip Thorne, NY: W.W. Norton, 1994] Since we know (as of late 2003) that the universe is 13.7 Billion years old, let us pretend for this web page that the farthest we can see (to the "edge of the universe") is exactly 13.7 Billion Light Years. In that case, the total volume of the universe is 2.571353 nonillion cubic Light Years. That equals 5.22349554 times (10 to the power of 68) cublic miles. (10 to the power of 69) AD

10 Solar Mass Black Holes Evaporate

By my calculations, at 1.5 times (10 to the power of 69 years), a black hole of 10 times the mass of our sun would evaporate and disappear by Hawking radiation. That's 1.5 Million Vigintillion Years. [based on Don Page's equation in: "Black Holes & Time Warps", Kip Thorne, NY: W.W. Norton, 1994] (10 to the power of 72) AD

100 Solar Mass Black Holes Evaporate

By my calculations, at 1.5 times (10 to the power of 72 years), a black hole of 100 times the mass of our sun would evaporate and disappear by Hawking radiation. That's 1.5 Billion Vigintillion Years. [based on Don Page's equation in: "Black Holes & Time Warps", Kip Thorne, NY: W.W. Norton, 1994] (10 to the power of 75) AD

1,000 Solar Mass Black Holes Evaporate

By my calculations, at 1.5 times (10 to the power of 75 years), a black hole of 1,000 times the mass of our sun would evaporate and disappear by Hawking radiation. That's 1.5 Trillion Vigintillion Years. [based on Don Page's equation in: "Black Holes & Time Warps", Kip Thorne, NY: W.W. Norton, 1994] (10 to the power of 78) AD

10,000 Solar Mass Black Holes Evaporate

By my calculations, at 1.5 times (10 to the power of 78 years), a black hole of 10,000 times the mass of our sun would evaporate and disappear by Hawking radiation. That's 1.5 Quadrillion Vigintillion Years. [based on Don Page's equation in: "Black Holes & Time Warps", Kip Thorne, NY: W.W. Norton, 1994] The total volume of the universe is roughly 7.68887845 times (10 to the power of 79) cubic feet. Since we know (as of late 2003) that the universe is 13.7 Billion years old, let us pretend for this web page that the farthest we can see (to the "edge of the universe") is exactly 13.7 Billion Light Years. In that case, the total volume of the universe is 2.571353 nonillion cubic Light Years. That equals 5.22349554 times (10 to the power of 68) cubic miles, which is also 522,349.554 vigintillion cubic miles. Dividing cubic feet into cubic miles, we get the above. (10 to the power of 81) AD

100,000 Solar Mass Black Holes Evaporate

By my calculations, at 1.5 times (10 to the power of 81 years), a black hole of 100,000 times the mass of our sun would evaporate and disappear by Hawking radiation. That's 1.5 Quintillion Vigintillion Years. [based on Don Page's equation in: "Black Holes & Time Warps", Kip Thorne, NY: W.W. Norton, 1994] The total volume of the universe is roughly 1.3286382 times (10 to the power of 83) cubic inches. Since we know (as of late 2003) that the universe is 13.7 Billion years old, let us pretend for this web page that the farthest we can see (to the "edge of the universe") is exactly 13.7 Billion Light Years. In that case, the total volume of the universe is 2.571353 nonillion cubic Light Years. That equals 5.22349554 times (10 to the power of 68) cubic miles, which is also 522,349.554 vigintillion cubic miles. Dividing cubic inches into cubic miles, we get the above. (10 to the power of 84) AD

Million Solar Mass Black Holes Evaporate

By my calculations, at 1.5 times (10 to the power of 84 years), a black hole of 1,000,000 times the mass of our sun would evaporate and disappear by Hawking radiation. That's 1.5 Sextillion Vigintillion Years. [based on Don Page's equation in: "Black Holes & Time Warps", Kip Thorne, NY: W.W. Norton, 1994] (10 to the power of 87) AD

10 Million Solar Mass Black Holes Evaporate

By my calculations, at 1.5 times (10 to the power of 87 years), a black hole of 10,000,000 times the mass of our sun would evaporate and disappear by Hawking radiation. That's 1.5 Septillion Vigintillion Years. [based on Don Page's equation in: "Black Holes & Time Warps", Kip Thorne, NY: W.W. Norton, 1994] The total volume of the universe is roughly 2.17724792 times (10 to the power of 87) cubic millimeters. Since we know (as of late 2003) that the universe is 13.7 Billion years old, let us pretend for this web page that the farthest we can see (to the "edge of the universe") is exactly 13.7 Billion Light Years. In that case, the total volume of the universe is 2.571353 nonillion cubic Light Years. That equals 5.22349554 times (10 to the power of 68) cubic miles, which is also 522,349.554 vigintillion cubic miles. Dividing cubic millimeters into cubic miles, we get the above. (10 to the power of 90) AD

100 Million Solar Mass Black Holes Evaporate

By my calculations, at 1.5 times (10 to the power of 90 years), a black hole of 100,000,000 times the mass of our sun would evaporate and disappear by Hawking radiation. That's 1.5 Octillion Vigintillion Years. [based on Don Page's equation in: "Black Holes & Time Warps", Kip Thorne, NY: W.W. Norton, 1994] (10 to the power of 93) AD

Billion Solar Mass Black Holes Evaporate

By my calculations, at 1.5 times (10 to the power of 93 years), a black hole of 1,000,000,000 times the mass of our sun would evaporate and disappear by Hawking radiation. That's 1.5 Nonillion Vigintillion Years. [based on Don Page's equation in: "Black Holes & Time Warps", Kip Thorne, NY: W.W. Norton, 1994] (10 to the power of 96) AD

10 Billion Solar Mass Black Holes Evaporate

By my calculations, at 1.5 times (10 to the power of 96 years), a black hole of 10,000,000,000 times the mass of our sun would evaporate and disappear by Hawking radiation. That's 1.5 Decillion Vigintillion Years. [based on Don Page's equation in: "Black Holes & Time Warps", Kip Thorne, NY: W.W. Norton, 1994] The total volume of the universe is roughly 2.17724792 times (10 to the power of 96) cubic microns. Since we know (as of late 2003) that the universe is 13.7 Billion years old, let us pretend for this web page that the farthest we can see (to the "edge of the universe") is exactly 13.7 Billion Light Years. In that case, the total volume of the universe is 2.571353 nonillion cubic Light Years. That equals 5.22349554 times (10 to the power of 68) cubic miles, which is also 522,349.554 vigintillion cubic miles. Dividing cubic microns into cubic miles, we get the above. (10 to the power of 96) AD

100 Billion Solar Mass Black Holes Evaporate

By my calculations, at 1.5 times (10 to the power of 96 years), a black hole of 100,000,000,000 times the mass of our sun would evaporate and disappear by Hawking radiation. That's 1,500 Decillion Vigintillion Years. This is the mass of a galaxy somewhat smaller than our Milky Way. [based on Don Page's equation in: "Black Holes & Time Warps", Kip Thorne, NY: W.W. Norton, 1994] There are roughly (10 to the power of 99) cubic Planck lengths in a cubic centimeter. The cubic Planck length is theorized to be the smallest possible non-zero volume. "The quantum of volume is so tiny that there are more such quanta in a cubic centimeter than there are cubic centimeters in the visible universe (10 to the power of 85)." ["Atoms of Space and Time", Lee Smolin, Scientific American, Jan 2004, p.71] 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Googol Years From Now

Years = 10 to the power of 100 Note the spelling: "Googol." This is not to be confused with "Google," which is a trademarked corporate name. Or, for that matter, Nikolay Vasilyevich Gogol [1809-1852], the Russian comic writer best known for his novel "Dead Souls" [1842]. "Words of wisdom are spoken by children at least as often as by scientists. The name 'googol' was invented by a child (Dr Kasner's nine-year-old nephew) who was asked to think up a name for a very big number, namely, 1 with a hundred zeros after it. He was very certain that this number was not infinite, and therefore equally certain that it had to have a name. At the same time that he suggested 'googol' he gave a name for a still larger number: 'Googolplex'. A googolplex is much larger than a googol, but is still finite, as the inventor of the name was quick to point out. It was first suggested that a googolplex should be 1, followed by writing zeros until you got tired. This is a description of what would happen if one actually tried to write a googolplex, but different people get tired at different times and it would never do to have Carnera a better mathematician than Dr Einstein, simply because he had more endurance. The googolplex then, is a specific finite number, with so many zeros after the 1 that the number of zeros is a googol. A googolplex is much bigger than a googol, much bigger even than a googol times a googol. A googol times a googol would be 1 with 200 zeros, whereas a googolplex is 1 with a googol of zeros. You will get some idea of the size of this very large but finite number from the fact that there would not be enough room to write it, if you went to the farthest star, touring all the nebulae and putting down zeros every inch of the way." [Kasner and Newman, Mathematics and the Imagination, 1940] At 1.2 times (10 to the power of 100 years), a black hole of 200 Billion times the mass of our sun would evaporate by Hawking radiation. That is the mass of a galaxy slightly larger than our Milky Way, after half of its stars have diffused away and the other half fell into the central massive black hole. [based on Don Page's equation in: "Black Holes & Time Warps", Kip Thorne, NY: W.W. Norton, 1994] At 1.5 times (10 to the power of 102 years), a black hole of 1 Trillion times the mass of our sun would evaporate by Hawking radiation. That is the mass of a typical cluster of galaxies, after half of the stars have diffused away and the other half fell into the central massive black hole of each galaxy, and then the galactic black holes spiralled together and merged. That's 150 Googol Years. [based on Don Page's equation in: "Black Holes & Time Warps", Kip Thorne, NY: W.W. Norton, 1994] At 1.2 times (10 to the power of 103 years), a black hole of 2 Trillion times the mass of our sun would evaporate by Hawking radiation. That is the mass of a larger than typical cluster of galaxies, after half of the stars have diffused away and the other half fell into the central massive black hole of each galaxy, and then the galactic black holes spiralled together and merged. Or the mass of a typical supercluster of galaxies. That's 1,200 Googol Years. [based on Don Page's equation in: "Black Holes & Time Warps", Kip Thorne, NY: W.W. Norton, 1994] At 1.5 times (10 to the power of 105 years), a black hole of 10 Trillion times the mass of our sun would evaporate by Hawking radiation. That is the mass of a larger than typical supercluster of galaxies. That's 150,000 Googol Years. [based on Don Page's equation in: "Black Holes & Time Warps", Kip Thorne, NY: W.W. Norton, 1994] The total volume of the universe is roughly 2.17724792 times (10 to the power of 108) cubic angstroms. Or we could say that The total volume of the universe is roughly 217,724,792 googol cubic angstroms. Since we know (as of late 2003) that the universe is 13.7 Billion years old, let us pretend for this web page that the farthest we can see (to the "edge of the universe") is exactly 13.7 Billion Light Years. In that case, the total volume of the universe is 2.571353 nonillion cubic Light Years. That equals 5.22349554 times (10 to the power of 68) cubic miles, which is also 522,349.554 vigintillion cubic miles. Dividing cubic angstroms into cubic miles, we get the above. We can easily reach a googol using the Factorial function. 70! = 1.19785717 googol = 70x69x68x67x66x65x64x63x62x61x61x59x58x57x56x55x54x53x52x51x50x49x48x47x46x45x44x43x42x41x40x39x38x37x36x35x34x33x32x31x30x29x28x27x26x25x24x23x22x21x20x19x18x17x16...x3x2x1 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 AD

One Mega-Googol Years From Now: Supermassive Black Holes Evaporate

Years = 10 to the power of 106 Supermassive Black Holes Evaporate. After this mind-bogglingly long period of time, the hyper-gargantuan black holes finally evaporate [from Hawking Radiation] The universe now contains electrons, positrons, photons, and neutrinos (none of which are subject to decay, as far as we know). The density of the universe is so staggeringly low that the electrons and positrons never have an opportunity to collide and annihilate." ["The Future of the Universe", Professor Barbara Ryden, Ohio State University; update of 10 Mar 2003] By my calculations, from Don Page's equation, a black hole with mass 20 Trillion times that of our Sun would evaporate in 1.2 times (10 to the power of 106) years, thus confirming Professor Ryden's result. The actual formula for the lifetime of a black hole is T = (G^2 M^3 / hbar c^4) [S. W. Hawking, Commun.Math.Phys. 43 (1975)199] "At the end of its life, every black hole emits about 10^31 erg of high-temperature radiation. The cold expanding universe will be illuminated by occasional fireworks for a very long time." ["Time Without End: Physics and Biology in an Open Universe"; Freeman J. Dyson, see below] "The apparent poverty of this distant epoch is most likely due to our difficulties in extrapolating far enough into the future, rather than an actual dearth of physical processes." ["Physics offers glimpse into the dark side of the universe", Sally Pobojewski, The University Record, University of Michigan, 21 Jan 1997] I believe that it is overwhelmingly likely that we live in a simulated universe created by ultra-diffuse ambiplasma (electron and positron) beings of that perpetual era. Freeman Dyson was the first to predict such beings, and suggest that, by slowing their subjective time and reducing their energy expenditures, they could have a literal infinity of thoughts with finite energy in the cosmology decsribed on this web page. ["Time Without End: Physics and Biology in an Open Universe"; Freeman J. Dyson, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey; originally presented as four lectures, the "James Arthur Lectures on Time and Its Mysteries" at New York University, Autum 1978; edited for Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol.51, No.3, July 1979] However, according to Professor John Baez at the University of California at Riverside, and Keith Ramsay: "Everything is really doomed to eventually ionize and/or sublimate.... [This puts] a rather sad spin on the latest discoveries about the cosmological constant. Freeman Dyson had this rather appealing picture of the ultimate fate of the universe, assuming among other things a slower expansion which would allow a society in principle to get in contact with an endlessly widening sphere of other societies, and a temperature going to zero in such a way that in theory an infinite amount of information could be processed, by using ever-smaller amounts of energy to do it." "With an expansion accelerating as it appears to be doing, though, the local cluster [of galaxies] will become entirely isolated from the rest of the universe after awhile. This would still be sort of okay, except that with the temperature having this (small) positive lower limit, all the usable energy will supposedly be exhausted. The authors said Dyson was still hoping there was a way out of it, though...." "... They're talking about the analog of Unrah radiation due to the cosmological horizons that exist in deSitter spacetime. This would give a positive limiting temperature... very low indeed. In order to survive for a googol years, as previously planned, though, it has to get colder still. To us, it's a phenomally low temperature, but to our hypothetical descendants at a point when it becomes noticeable, it would be this annoying source of heat that slowly degrades your friends' brains bit by bit, like a cosmological fever." ["Re: Expansion of the Universe and Ionization, sci.physics.research. 7 Aug 2000] (10 to the Power of 303) AD

One Centillion Years From Now

Years = 10 to the power of 303 We can easily reach a centillion using the Factorial function. 169! = 42.6906801 centillion = 169x168x167x166x165x164x...x3x2x1 Raising 26 to the 215th power, we calculate that there are approximately 16.5679896 Centillion arrangements of 215 letters (the same letter can occur more than once). "Haught develops a kenotic form of process theology with a metaphysics grounded in the future.... He recognizes the possible challenge to eschatological purpose posed by the Big Bang cosmology, but claims that 'the cosmological features of modern science are no less assimilable to a deep religious trust than were the cosmologies of the past.' Gloomy scenarios of the cosmic future were based on 'emaciated mathematical abstractions that ignored the contingent openness of nature's de facto historicity'.... Instead, Haught points to the new sciences of chaos and complexity as rendering 'the process of a precise scientific prediction of final cosmic catastrophe... shakier than ever.'" [http://www.counterbalance.net/rjr/besch-body.html] "Two lights for guidance. The first, our little glowing atom of community, with all that it signifies. The second, the cold light of the stars, symbol of the hypercosmic reality, with its crystal ecstasy. Strange that in this light, in which even the dearest love is frostily asserted, and even the possible defeat of our half-waking world is contemplated without remission of praise, the human crisis does not lose but gains significance. Strange, that it seems more, not less, urgent to play some part in this struggle, this brief effort of animacules striving to win for their race some increase of lucidity before the ultimate darkness. [Olaf Stapledon, "Star Maker"]
Link List for History of Science and Science Fiction |Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Precursors |13,000,000,000 BC Big Bang |4,600,000,000 - 4,500,000,000 BC Planet Earth |4,600,000,000 - 3,800,000,000 BC Hadean Era |4,000,000,000 BC start of the Archean |4,000,000,000 - 2,500,000,000 BC Archean |2,500,000,000-543,000,000 BC Proterozoic |543,000,000 BC Precambrian/Cambrian Boundary |543,000,000-525,000,000 BC Cambrian |525,000,000-435,000,000 BC Ordivician |435,000,000-410,000,000 BC Silurian |410,000,000-365,000,000 BC Devonian |365,000,000-290,000,000 BC Carboniferous |290,000,000-245,000,000 BC Permian |245,000,000 BC Paleozoic/Mesozoic |245,000,000-210,000,000 BC Triassic |210,000,000-145,000,000 BC Jurassic |145,000,000-65,000,000 BC Cretaceous |65,000,000 BC Chixulub Extinction |65,000,000-56,500,000 BC Paleocene |56,500,000-33,500,000 BC Eocene |33,500,000-23,500,000 BC Oligocene |23,500,000-5,500,000 BC Miocene |5,500,000-1,800,000 BC Pliocene |3,200,000-3,100,000 BC pulse of cooling |3,000,000 BC to 2,000,000 BC Australopithecus africanus |2,000,000 BC to 1,000,000 BC Homo habilis |1,800,000-20,000? BC Quaternary, Pleistocene |500,000 BC to 100,000 BC start of Homo sapiens |100,000 BC to 80,000 BC Homo neanderthalensis |80,000 BC to 70,000 BC stone lamps |70,000 BC to 60,000 BC Early Wurm Glaciation |60,000 BC to 50,000 BC relatively warmer |50,000 BC to 40,000 BC reaching Australia |40,000 BC to 30,000 BC Cro-Magnons vs. Neanderthals |30,000 BC to 25,000 BC another big freeze-up |Foraging Societies: From 30,000 BC |25,000 BC to 20,000 BC full glacial world |20,000 BC to 10,000 BC Last Glacial Maximum |10,000 BC to 9,000 BC Beginnings of Settled Agriculture |9,000 BC to 8,000 BC |8,000 BC to 7,000 BC |6,000 BC to 5,000 BC |5,000 BC to 4,000 BC |4,000 BC to 3,500 BC |3,500 BC to 3,000 BC |6th Millennium BC: When the Goddess Ruled |5th Millennium BC: Mesopotamia, Egypt |4th Millennium BC: Iceman of the Alps, Old Kingdom Egypt |3rd Millennium BC: Gilgamesh and Cheops |2nd Millennium BC: Abraham to David |1st Millennium BC: Homer, Buddha, Confucius, Euclid |1st Century: Jesus, Cymbeline, Caligula, Pliny |2nd Century: Hero, Ptolemy, Nichomachus |3rd Century: 3 Kingdoms China, Legendary Japan |4th Century: Constantine, Hypatia, Ausonius |5th Century: Rome in Crisis, Dark Ages start |6th Century: Boethius, Taliesin, Mohammed |7th Century: Bede, Bramagupta, Isidorus |8th Century: Beowulf, Charlemagne, 1001 Arabian Nights |9th Century: Gunpowder and the First Printed Book |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China |11th Century: Khayyam, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Fibonacci and final flowering of Chivalry |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: This Decade |2010-2020: Next Decade

Where to Go for More

Useful Reference Books and Web Sites Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources: Bibliography (books, articles, websites) This web page draws heavily on FACTS as listed in "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. It does not merely copy the TEXT of that fine and recommended reference, and has value added in correlating the scientific and literary production of the century, and in hotlinking to additonal resources. Other sources (cited where used) include: "Geological Time Scale" "Life's Origins Get Murkier and Messier", Nicholas Wade, Science Times, The New York Times, 13 June 2000, p.D1 "Becoming Human: Evolution and Human Uniqueness" by Ian Tattersall, 1997 "Climate Forcing and the Origin of the Human Genus", Steven M. Stanley, Johns Hopkins U. "Daily Life in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Scotland", Kevin L. Callahan, Anthropology Dept. U. Minnestota "Neogene Ice Age in the North Atlantic Region: Climatic Changes, Biotic Effects, and Forcing Factors", Steven M. Stanley (Johns Hopkins) & William F. Rudderman [U.Virginia], in "Effects of Past Global Change on Life" [National Academy Press, 1995] Jay Cross' attempt at all-embracing chronology (fun, but lacking any citations or crosslinks). Another source of facts (not text) is "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" , ed. Martin A. Bacheller. et al. [Maplewood New Jersey: Hammond Almanac, Inc., 1978]

Selected References on Human Evolution and Paleoanthropology

Smithsonian's bibliography on human evolution Staff in the Smithsonian's Department of Anthropology have prepared the following teacher bibliography on human evolution as a result of the many inquiries they receive in this broad area of research. Table of Contents: Introductory Readers Textbooks Advanced Reading History Fiction Biographical Teaching About Evolution Student Bibliography

Introductory Readers

American Museum of Natural History. The First Humans [volume 1 of The Illustrated History of Humankind]. Harper Collins, 1993. Andrews, Peter, and Christopher B. Stringer. Human Evolution: An Illustrated Guide. University Press, 1989. Berger, Lee. "The Dawn of Humans: Redrawing Our Family Tree?" National Geographic 194 (August 1998): 90-99. Bordes, Francois. A Tale of Two Caves. Harper and Row, 1972. Caird, Rod and Robert Foley, scientific ed. Apeman, The First Story of Human Evolution. S&S Trade, 1994. Based on the A&E television series. Cartmill, Matt. "Lucy in the Sand with Footnotes," Natural History (April 1981):90-95. Places the writing of LUCY within its historical context and explains the theoretical issues the book raises. Diamond, Jared. The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal. Harper Collins,1992. Edey, Maitland A. and Donald C. Johanson. Blueprints: Solving the Mystery of Evolution. Viking, 1990. Gore, Rick. "Dawn of Humans: Expanding Worlds." National Geographic 191 (May 1997): 84-109. Gore, Rick. "Dawn of Humans: The First Europeans." National Geographic 192 (July 1997): 96-113. Gore, Rick. "Dawn of Humans: Tracing the First of Our Kind." National Geographic 192 (September 1997): 92-99. Gore, Rick. "Neanderthals." National Geographic 189 (January 1996): 2-35. Gowlett, John. Ascent to Civilization; The Archaeology of Early Humans. 2nd ed. McGraw, 1993. This heavily illustrated book gives up-to-date coverage of human development from the earliest evidence to the beginnings of cities. Isaac, Glynn L., ed. Human Ancestors. Scientific American. W. H. Freeman, 1980. Selected significant articles from Scientific American from 1960-90. Includes "The Food-Sharing Behavior of Protohuman Hominids" by Glynn Isaac, reviewing evidence that early erect-standing hominids made tools and carried food to a home base. Johanson, Donald, Lenora Johanson and Blake Edgar. Ancestors. In Search of Human Origins. Random, 1994. Companion volume to the NOVA television series. Johanson, Donald C. and James Shreeve. Lucy's Child: The Discovery of a Human Ancestor. Repr. ed. Avon: 1990. Johanson, Donald C. and Maitland Edey. Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind. S&S Trade, 1990. A highly readable book that describes the finding and significance of Lucy and her contemporaries. Johanson, Donald C. From Lucy to Language. Simon & Schuster, 1996. Johanson, Donald C. "Dawn of Humans." National Geographic 189 (March 1996):96-117. Jones, Steve, Robert Martin and David Pilbeam, eds. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994. Konner, Melvin. The Tangled Wing: Biological Constraints on the Human Spirit. H Holt & Co, 1990. Konner, an anthropologist, explores the biological aspects and determinants of human behavior. Human thought, mood, and action are explored on many levels based on insights from the social sciences and the humanities. Lambert, David and the Diagram Group. Field Guide to Early Man. Facts on File, 1987. Leakey, Meave. "Dawn of Humans." National Geographic 188 (September 1995): 38-51. Leakey, Richard. The Origin of Humankind. (Science Masters Ser.) Basic Books, 1994. Leakey, Richard and Roger Lewin. The Sixth Extinction: Patterns of Life and the Future of Human Kind. Doubleday, 1995. Leakey, Richard and Roger Lewin. Origins Reconsidered in Search of What Makes Us Human. Doubleday,1993. Concentrating on the hominid line and his own point-of-view, this work is written in easy-to-read conversational style with colored pictures and diagrams. It traces human evolution and the physical and behavioral adaptation reflecting our social and cooperative nature. Lewin, Roger. Patterns of Evolution: The New Molecular View. WH Freeman, 1996. Lewin, Roger. The Origin of Modern Humans: A Scientific American Library Volume. W. H. Freeman, 1995. Lewin, Roger. Human Evolution; An Illustrated Introduction. 3rd ed. Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1993. Lewin, Roger. Thread of Life: The Smithsonian Looks at Evolution. Smithsonian, 1991. Lewin, Roger. In the Age of Mankind: A Smithsonian Book of Book Evolution. Foreword by Donald C. Johanson. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989. Maitland, Edey and Donald C. Johanson. Blueprints: Solving the Mystery of Evolution. 1st ed. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1989. Pfeiffer, John. The Creative Explosion: An Inquiry into the Origins of Art and Religion. Harper and Row, 1983. An excellent summary of the place of art in Upper Paleolithic life, and its relationship to the development of our own species. Pinker, Steven. How the Mind Works. W. W. Norton & Co., 1997. Pinker, Steven. The Language Instinct. Harper Perennial Library, 1995. Potts, Richard. Humanity's Descent: The Consequences of an Ecological Instability. Morrow, 1996 Reader, John. Missing Links; The Hunt for Earliest Man. Little, Brown, and Co., 1981. The story of the search for human fossils, from the discovery of Neandertal to recent finds in East Africa. Color photographs. Rensberger, Boyce. "Facing the Past," Science 81 (October 1981):40-53. Describes how Jay Matternes puts muscle and flesh to a Neandertal skull. Schick, Kathy D. and Nicholas Toth. Making Silent Stones Speak, Human Evolution and the Dawn of Technology. Simon & Schuster, 1994. Shreve, James. The Neandertal Enigma: Solving the Mystery of Modern Human Origins . Morrow, 1995. Shreve, James. "Erectus Rising," Discover (September 1994):80-89. Smithsonian Timelines of the Ancient World: A Visual Chronology from the Origins of Life to A.D. 1500. Chris Scarre, editor-in-chief. Smithsonian Institution and A. Dorling Kindersley Books, 1993. Solecki, R. S. Shanidar: The First Flower People. Alfred A. Knopf, 1971. An account of the excavation of this important Neandertal site. Tattersall, Ian. The Fossil Trail: How We Know What We Think We Know About Human Evolution. Oxford Univ. Press, 1995. Tattersall, Ian. The Last Neanderthal: The Rise, Success and Mysterious Extinction of Our Closest Human Relatives. Macmillan, 1995. Tattersall, Ian. The Human Odyssey. Four Million Years of Human Evolution. Prentice Hall, 1993. Based on the new hall of human biology and evolution at the American Museum of Natural History. Thomas, Herbert, Paul G. Bahn (translator), Sharon Avrutick (editor). Human Origins: The Search for Our Beginnings. Harry N. Abrams, 1995. Trinkaus, Erik and Pat Shipman. The Neandertals: Of Skeletons, Scientists, and Scandal. Vintage Books, 1994. Weaver, Kenneth F. "The Search for Our Ancestors," National Geographic 168(5), November 1985, pp. 560-623. An overview of the fossil finds and the paleoanthropological research that has contributed to our knowledge of hominid evolution. Includes photographs of nine fossil hominid skulls and illustrations by Jay H. Matternes distinguishing the physical characteristics of these hominids. Wolpoff, Milford H. and Rachel Caspari. Race and Human Evolution: A Fatal Attraction. S&S Trade, 1997. Zihlman, A. L. The Human Evolution Coloring Book. HarperC, 1982. Introduces earth history, evolution, genetics, anatomy, primates, and human evolution with an easy to understand text and diagrams that are an effective teaching aid.

Textbooks

Boaz, Noel T. and Alan J. Almquist. Biological Anthropology: A Synthetic Approach in Human Evolution. Prentice-Hall, 1996. Brace, C. Loring. The Stages of Human Evolution. 5th ed. Prentice-Hall, 1994. Brace, C. Loring, Harry Nelson, Nel Korn and Mary Brace. Atlas of Human Evolution. 2nd ed. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1979. Descriptive guide with excellent drawings of important representative skulls from the fossil record. Campbell, Bernard and James D. Loy, eds. Humankind Emerging. 7th ed. Addson-Wesley Educ., 1995. See also teacher edition. Fagan, Brian. The Journey from Eden: Peopling of Our World. Thames and Hudson, 1990. Fagan, Brian. People of the Earth: An Introduction to World Prehistory. 7th ed. Add-on-Wesley Educ., 1995.. Feder, Kenneth L. The Past in Perspective: An Introduction to Human Prehistory. Mayfield Pub., 1995. Howells, W. W. Getting Here: The Story of Human Evolution. New ed. Compass Press, 1997.

Advanced Reading

Aiello, Leslie C. and Phillip L. Wheeler. "The expensive tissue hypothesis: the brain and the digestive system in human and primate evolution," Current Anthropology 36(2):199-221, 1995. Aiello, Leslie C. and Christopher Dean, eds. An Introduction to Human Evolutionary Anatomy. Academic Press, 1990. Akazawa, Takeru, Kenichi, Aoki, and Ofer Bar-Yosef, eds. Neandertals and Modern Humans in Western Asia. Plenum Publ. Corp., 1999. Brain, C. K. ed. Swartkrans. A Cave's Chronicle of Early Man. Transvaal Museum Monograph 8; 1993. Brain, C. K. The Hunters or the Hunted? An Introduction to African Cave Taphonomy. University of Chicago Press, 1981. Brown, Michael. The Search for Eve. Harper & Row, 1990. Byrne, Richard. The Thinking Ape: The Evolutionary Origins of Intelligence. Oxford Univ. Press, 1995. Campbell, Bernard. Human Ecology:(Foundations of Human Behavior Series). 2nd ed. Aldine de Gruyter, 1995. Cartmill, Matt, William L. Hylander and James Shafland. Human Structure. Harvard Univ. Press, 1987. Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi and Francesco L. K. Cavalli-Sforza. The Great Human Diaspora: A History of Diversity and Evolution. (Foundations of Human Behavior Ser.) Add-on-Wesley, 1995. Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi, et al. The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton Univ. Press, 1993. Clark, J. Desmond. The Prehistory of Africa. Thames and Hudson, 1970. (outdated but only publication on this topic) Ciochon, R. L. & J. G. Fleagle eds. The Human Evolution Source Book. (Advances in Human Evolution.) Prentice Hall, College Div., 1993. Ciochon, Russell L. and John G. Fleagle, eds. Primate Evolution and Human Origins. Aldine de Gruyter, 1987. Conroy, Glenn C. Primate Evolution. W. W. Norton & Co., 1990. Day, Michael H. Guide to Fossil Man. 4th ed. Univ. of Chicago Press, 1986. A handy reference to early human fossils organized by country and sites where the fossils were found. Includes descriptions and often photographs of the fossils. Deacon, Terrance.W. The Symbolic Species: The Co-Evolution of Language and the Brain. W.W.Norton & Co., 1997. Delson, Eric, et al., eds. Paleoanthropology Annual. Vol. 1. Garland, 1990. Delson, Eric. Ancestors: The Hard Evidence. Alan R. Liss, 1985. Durant, John R., ed. Human Origins. Clarendon Press; Oxford Univ. Press, 1989. Falk, Dean. Braindance: New Discoveries About Human Brain Evolution. Henry Holt and Co., 1994. Foley, Robert. Another Unique Species: Patterns in Human Evolutionary Ecology. Longman, 1987. Gamble, Clive. Timewalkers: The Prehistory of Global Colonization. Harvard Univ. Press, 1996. Gibson, Kathleen R. and Tim Ingold, eds. Tools, Language, and Cognition in Human Evolution. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1993. Goldsmith, Timothy H. The Biological Roots of Human Nature: Forging Links Between Evolution & Behavior. Oxford Univ. Press, 1994. Harding, Robert S. O., and Geza Teleki. Omnivorous primates: Gathering and Hunting in Human Evolution. Columbia University Press, 1981. Hay, Richard L. and Mary D. Leakey. "The Fossil Footprints of Laetoli," Scientific American 246(2):50-57, 1982. Interesting, well-illustrated article reporting the discovery of fossilized footprint 3.6 million years old indicating that hominids walked erect a half of a million years before previously believed. Holloway, Ralph L. "The Casts of Fossil Hominid Brains," Scientific American (July 1974). Important article discussing the brain structure of the australopithecines as studied from endocast material. Hrdy, Sarah Blaffer. The Woman That Never Evolved. Harvard University Press, 1983. Hrdy, a sociobiologist, focuses on nonhuman primate behavior, particularly monkeys, to demonstrate the wide diversity in primate social structure and behavior. According to Hrdy, primate social systems are dictated by how females space themselves and by the hierarchies they establish that are determined by the availability and utilization of resources. Her observations demonstrate that most female primates are more assertive and sexually active than previously supposed. Ingold, Tim. Evolution and Social Life. Cambridge University Press, 1986. Isaac, Glynn L. The Archaeology of Human Origins: Papers by Glynn Isaac. Cambridge Univ. Press,1990. Isaac, Glynn L. "Aspects of Human Evolution," In Essays on Evolution; A Darwin Centenary Volume, edited by D. S. Bendall. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1983. A review of the major trends and transitions that have characterized human evolution with an emphasis on the changes studied by archeologists. Isaac, Glynn L. and Elizabeth McCown. Human Origins: Louis Leakey and the East African Evidence. W. A. Benjamin, Inc., 1976. Klein, Richard G. The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins. 2nd ed. Univ. of Chicago Press, 1999. Lahr, Marta M. The Evolution of Modern Human Diversity: A Study on Cranial Variation. (Studies in Biological Anthropology, no. 18.) Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996. Lieberman, Philip. The Biology and Evolution of Language. Harvard Univ. Press, 1984. Lovejoy, C. Owen. "The Origins of Man, " Science 211:341-350, 1981. Megarry, Tim. Society in Prehistory: The Origins of Human Culture. New York Univ. Press, 1995. Mellars, Paul, ed. The Emergence of Modern Humans: An Arch¾ological Perspective. Cornell Univ. Press, 1991. Mellars, Paul, ed.. The Emergence of Modern Humans: An Archaeological Perspective. Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1990. Mellars, Paul and Christopher Stringer, eds. The Human Revolution: Behavioral and Biological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans. Princeton Univ. Press, 1990. Mellars, Paul. The Neanderthal Legacy: An Archaeological Perspective from Western Europe. Princeton Univ. Press, 1995. Minthen Steven. The Prehistory of the Mind: The Cognitive Origins of Art, Religion, and Science. Thames & Hudson, 1996. Phenice, T. W. and N. J. Sauer. Hominid Fossils: An Illustrated Key. 2nd ed. William C. Brown and Co., 1977. Handbook to the fossil record with excellent outline drawings of various fossils. Potts, Richard. Early Hominid Activities at Olduvai. (Foundations of Human Behavior Series) A. de Gruyter, 1988. Potts, Richard. "Home Bases and Early Hominids," American Scientist 72:338-347, 1984. Discusses new views about the earliest archeological sites and interpretations about early human behavior. Smith, Fred H. and Frank Spencer, eds. The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence. Alan R. Liss, 1984. A technical review of human evolution from 300,000 to 10,000 years ago, specifically the transition from archaic to modern Homo sapiens. Covers the fossil evidence and major interpretations of the fossils from Europe, the Near East, Africa, and Asia. Smith, Fred H. The Neanderthal Remains from Krapipna: A Descriptive and Comparative Study. Repr. ed. (Univ. Tennessee, Department of Anthropology, Report of Investigations Series, no. 15.) Bks Demand. Stringer, Christopher and Clive Gamble. In Search of the Neanderthals. Thames & Hudson, Ltd., 1993. Tattersall, Ian, Eric Delson, John Van Couvering, and Alison S. Brooks, eds. 2nd edition Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory. Garland Publishing, 1999. Trinkaus, Erik, ed. The Emergence of Modern Humans: Biological Adaptations in the Late Pleistocene. (School of American Research Advanced Seminar Series) Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990. Trinkaus, Erik. "The Neandertals and Modern Human Origins." Annual Review of Anthropology 15 (1986):193-218. Vrba, Elizabeth S., et al., eds. Paleoclimate and Evolution, with Emphasis on Human Origins. Yale Univ. Press, 1994. Wolpoff, Milford H. Paleoanthropology. 2nd ed. McGraw, 1996. College-level text about the evidence for human evolution with emphasis on the fossils and their interpretation. Wood, Bernard A., et al., eds. Major Topics in Primate and Human Evolution. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988.

History

Landan, Misia. Narratives of Human Evolution. Yale Univ. Press, 1991. Lewin, Roger. Bones of Contention: Controversies in the Search for Human Origins. Simon & Schuster, 1987. McCown, Theodore D. and Kenneth A. R. Kennedy. Climbing Man's Family Tree: A Collection of Major Writings on Human Phylogeny, 1699 to 1971. Prentice Hall, 1972. A chronological collection of classic writings "dealing with the initial discoveries and descriptions of human fossils, the ideas concerning human antiquity and place of origin, and the philosophical speculations about man's place in nature." Each section is prefaced with an essay that clarifies the major concepts involved.

Fiction

(more Science Fiction {to be done} Auel, Jean M. The Clan of the Cave Bear. Crown Publishers, 1980. Sequels: Valley of the Horses, 1982. The Mammoth Hunters, 1985. Crown Pub. Group. Tells the tale of a band of Neandertal gatherers-hunters living on the Crimean peninsula near the shores of the Black Sea. The band adopts a 5 year old Cro-Magnon orphan. With many exciting passages the book captures the essence of that great and subtle gap between Neandertals and their successors. (high school) Crichton, Michael. Eaters of the Dead. Ballantine 1988. Golding, William. The Inheritors. Pocket Books, 1981. A novel about Neandertals and their terror of the "civilized" invaders. Also could use Lord of the Flies to discuss what are human characteristics and how much a social organization is necessary for altruism. (high school) Kurten, Bjorn. Dance of the Tiger: A Novel of the Ice Age. Univ. of California Press, 1995. A very engaging novel about the co-existence and possible fate of Neandertals and Cro-Magnons between 40,000 and 25,000 years ago. Kurtˇn provides excellent background details on the flora and fauna of the time from his background as a paleontologist. The dialogue is well paced and you quickly become engrossed in the plot. He intermingles the ideas of Hultkrantz, de Lumley, Solecki, Trinkaus and Howells in a very convincing manner. (high school) Thomas, Elizabeth Marshall. Reindeer Moon. Simon & Schuster, Pocket Books, 1991.

Biographical

Leakey, L. S. B. By the Evidence: Memoirs, 1932-1951. Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1974. Memoirs of his middle career discussing anthropological finds, African wildlife, and Kikuyu tribal customs. Very readable. Leakey, Mary Douglas. Disclosing the Past. Doubleday, 1985. A fascinating autobiography which reveals much about Mary Leakey's personal life as well as her archaeological discoveries, told in a dramatic and highly readable style. Leakey, Richard. One Life: An Autobiography. Published by Salem House Ltd. Distributed by Merrimack Publishing, 1984. Morell, Virginia. Ancestral Passions: The Leakey Family & the Quest for Humankind's Beginnings. Touchstone Books, 1996. Willis, Delta. The Leakey Family: Leaders in Science for Human Origins. (Makers of Modern Science Ser.) Facts on File, 1992.

Teaching About Evolution

National Academy of Sciences. Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science (140 pp.) Available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., N. W., Box 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313. Also available online at Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science Chapters include: Why Teach Evolution?, Major Themes in Evolution, Evolution and the Nature of Science, Evolution and the National Science Education Standards, Frequently Asked Questions, Activities for Teaching, and Selecting Instructional Materials.

Student Bibliography

Collins, Desmond. The Human Revolution: From Ape to Artist. Phaidon - E. P. Dutton, 1976. Excellent illustrations. Cornell, James. Where Did They Come From? Scholastic Books, 1978. Dramatic reading about human evolution from the search for Peking Man to the seven cities of gold. Some outdated information. (junior high) Day, Michael H. Guide to Fossil Man. 4th ed. Univ. of Chicago Press, 1986. A short introductory booklet on the subject, good for secondary school students. Early Humans. Eyewitness Books. Alfred A. Knopf, 1989. Very well-illustrated with photographs. Elting, Mary and Franklin Folsom. The Wild Mammoth Hunters. Scholastic Books Services, 1968. (Jr. H.) Higham, Charles. Life in the Old Stone Age. (Cambridge Introduction to the History of Mankind Series.) Cambridge University Press, 1971. (high school) Johanson, Donald C. "Ethiopia Yields First 'Family' of Early Man." National Geographic (December 1976). Well-illustrated article describing the discovery of associated fossils representing adults and children -- possibly a 'family' 3 million years old. Leakey, Richard. Origin of Humankind. HarperC, 1996. Leakey, Richard and Alan Walker. "Homo Erectus Unearthed," National Geographic 168(5), November 1985, pp. 624-629. Discusses the 1984 find at Lake Turkana of the most complete early Homo skeleton thus far discovered (approximately 1.6 million years old). Lewin, Roger. Human Evolution; An Illustrated Introduction. Blackwell Scientific/ W. H. Freeman, 1984. Covers Aegyptopithecus, Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus, and Australopithecus and Homo. A very readable book. Man's Place in Evolution. British Museum (Natural History): Cambridge Univ. Press, 1980. Written in connection with a museum exhibition, this clearly written and superbly illustrated book discusses how human beings are related to primates and to various "fossil men." Patent, Dorothy Hinshaw. Evolution Goes on Every Day. Holiday House, 1977. (junior high - 10th) Patent's overview includes discussions of genes, DNA, mutations, formation of new species, natural and artificial selection, viruses, bacteria, human effects of evolution and even sociobiology. Adequately illustrated. Wolf, Josef. The Dawn of Man. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1978. Tells the story from apes to modern humans with many illustrations. (high school) ANTHROPOLOGY OUTREACH OFFICE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1999 NOTE: This publication [bibliography above, only) can be made available in Braille or audio cassette. To obtain a copy in one of these formats, please call or write : Smithsonian Information SI Building, Room 153 Washington, DC 20560-0010 202/357-2700 (voice); 202/357-1729 (TTY)
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