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Wonderful color history-map of territories and states, when ceded, and when they became states. (333 Kilobyte file; slow to load) For data and annotated hotlinks on the history of each Western state, click on the state name, below: ALASKA ARIZONA ARKANSAS CALIFORNIA COLORADO HAWAII IDAHO ILLINOIS INDIANA? IOWA KANSAS LOUISIANA MINNESOTA MISSOURI MONTANA NEBRASKA NEVADA NEW MEXICO NORTH DAKOTA OKLAHOMA OREGON SOUTH DAKOTA TEXAS UTAH WASHINGTON WISCONSIN WYOMING Puzzle: Hmmmm, There are 29 states listed above. Guess which 7 are NOT Westerns, and click to see if you're right.
ALASKA Settled: 1784 Date admitted to the Union: 3 Jan 1959 Order of admission: 49 Capital: Juneau Extent in Miles (length): 1,480 (not including Aleutian Islands and Alexander Archipelago) Extent in Miles (width): 810 Area in square miles (land): 570,833 Area in square miles (inland water): 20,171 Area in square miles (total): 591,004 Rank in Area: 1 Unofficial Nickname: "The Last Frontier" Motto: North to the future. Flower: Forget-Me-Not Bird: Willow Ptarmigan Tree: Sitka Spruce Song: Alaska's Flag Population (1990): 550,043 Population Rank (1990): 49 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: oil, gas, tourism, commercial fishing Annotated Link List: ABOUT.COM chronologies Yukon/Alaska Chronology 200,000,000 BC - 1799 AD 1800 - 1875 1876 - 1899 1900 - 1929 1930 - 2000 Northern History Links Northern Timelines & Chronologies ALASKA HISTORY from ABOUT.COM Alaska History: Index Archaeology & Anthropology Archives & Libraries Arctic Explorations Famous Northerners History (General) Klondike Gold Rush Museums Timelines and Chronologies Yukon & Alaska History other Alaska links: {to be done} Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
ARIZONA Settled: 1776 Date admitted to the Union: 14 Feb 1912 Order of admission: 48 Capital: Phoenix Extent in Miles (length): 400 Extent in Miles (width): 310 Area in square miles (land): 113,508 Area in square miles (inland water): 492 Area in square miles (total): 114,000 Rank in Area: 27 Official Nickname: Grand Canyon State Motto: Ditat Deus (God Enriches) Flower: Blossom of the Saguarro cactus Bird: Cactus Wren Tree: Palo Verde Song: Arizona Population (1990): 3,665,228 Population Rank (1990): 24 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: manufacturing, tourism, mining, agriculture Annotated Link List: Arizona History Traveller This site is sponsored by the Arizona Humanities Council and Arizona Office of Tourism. Journal of Arizona History Articles The Journal of Arizona History is published quarterly by the Arizona Historical Society, an agency of the State of Arizona. The Journal of Arizona History's Editor-in-Chief is Bruce J. Dinges and William H. Broughton is Associate Editor. Articles linked to this page appear with the permission of the authors and AHS. These articles greatly contribute to making scholarly publications on Arizona and the Southwest available to students, researchers and the public. The Arizonan There are disagreements over the origin of the word "Arizona." There are four Indian versions of the word. "Arizuma" is an Aztec word meaning "silver bearing." "Ali shonak" or "Ari-son" came from the Pima Indians and means "small spring." "Aleh-zone" also means "small spring" from the Tohono Oiodham Indians. However, it is known that a Spanish missionary first used the word in print during the 1750's. Organized as a territory in 1863, admitted to the Union in 1912, Arizona is one of the nation's youngest states. It is one alive with the spirit of youth, yet it is a place that has been inhabited for nearly 20,000 years. The region began with cliff dwellings and has continued on to the present with high-rise condominiums. From this early beginning, Arizona has grown. All the towns throughout Arizona have a history. These pasts have woven together to create a colorful tapestry that makes this great state what it is today. Take a journey back in time and learn what life was like long ago. To find out more about Arizona's history, continue to look through You will discover more about the rich history of the Grand Canyon State. Arizona Kids' History includes "THE ARIZONA STORY" (narrative) plus "ARIZONA HISTORICAL DATE-LINE", as excerpted below: 2000 BC: Indians introduce agriculture to Arizona. 1200 AD: Hopi village of Oraibi is founded. May be oldest American town where people have continuously lived. 1539: Father Marcos de Niza, looking for cities of gold, explores Arizona and claims it for Spain. 1540: De Cardenas discovers Grand Canyon. 1692: Father Kino starts work and founds Guevavi mission. 1700: San Xavier del Bac mission (White Dove of the Desert) is founded. 1776: A presidio (fort) is built at Tucson. 1821: Arizona is now governed by Mexico. 1848: At end of Mexican War most of Arizona becomes part of United States. 1853: By Gadsden Purchase, rest of Arizona becomes part of United States. 1854: Copper is discovered in Arizona. 1857: First stagecoach in Arizona. 1858: Gold is discovered on Gila River. 1862: Chief Cochise and Apaches attack soldiers at Apache Pass, beginning a ten year war with settlers. 1863: Territory of Arizona is created by Congress, with Prescott as capital. 1864: Kit Carson captures approximately 7,000 Navajo indians in Canyon de Chelly, forcing them to leave Arizona. 1869: John Wesley Powell explores the Grand Canyon by boat. 1870: Population is 9,658 1881: Railroad crosses state. 1881: The gunfight at the O.K. Corral, October 26. 1886: The great Apache Chief Geronimo surrenders to soldiers on September 4. Indian fighting is over. 1880: Phoenix becomes capital of Arizona Territory. 1900: Population is 122,931. 1911: Roosevelt Dam is completed. 1912: February 14th, Valentines Day, Arizona becomes the 48th State: Capital is Phoenix, first Governor is George W. P. Hunt. 1919: Grand Canyon National Park is founded. 1930: The planet Pluto is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff. 1936: Hoover Dam is completed. 1940: Population is 499,261. Arizona is known as Grand Canyon State. 1948: Indians obtain the right to vote. 1960: Population has zoomed to 1,302,161. 1963: United States Supreme Court decision maintains Arizona's right to large amounts of Colorado river water. 1964: Barry M. Goldwater, Senator from Arizona, runs for president.... but loses. 1965: Judge Lorna Lockwood is elected as Chief Justice of Arizona State Supreme Court. 1968: London Bridge (which was falling down) is moved to Lake Havasu City, Arizona. 1968: Congress authorizes Central Arizona Project to bring Colorado river water to Phoenix and Tucson. 1975: Raul H. Castro became the first Mexican American Governor of Arizona. 1981: Population grows to 2,718,425. 1981: Arizona Justice Sandra Day O'Connor becomes the first woman on the United States Supreme Court. 1988: Governor Evan Mecham becomes the first United States Governor in 59 years to be impeached. 1988: Acting Governor Rose Mofford sworn in as the 18th Governor on April 5, the first woman in the state to hold the office. 1991: Fife Symington elected Governor in special run-off election. 1997: Secretary of State Jane Hull becomes Governor September 5, 1997, after Fife Symington resigns Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
ARKANSAS Settled: 1686 Date admitted to the Union: 15 June 1836 Order of admission: 25 Capital: Little Rock Extent in Miles (length): 260 Extent in Miles (width): 240 Area in square miles (land): 52,078 Area in square miles (inland water): 1,109 Area in square miles (total): 53,187 Rank in Area: 27 Official Nickname: Land of Opportunity Motto: Regnat Populus (The People Rule) (adopted 1836) Flower: Apple Blossom (adopted 1901) Bird: Mockingbird (adopted 1929) Tree: Pine (adopted 1939) State gem: (1967) diamond State insect: (1973) honeybee State instrument: (1985) fiddle State beverage: (1985) milk State fruit and blossom: (1987) South Arkansas vine ripe pink tomato State rock: (1967) quartz crystal State mineral: (1967) bauxite Official state historical song: (1987) The Arkansas Traveler (lyrics by the Arkansas State Song Selection Committee, 1949; music by Col. Sanford "Sandy" Faulkner, 1850) Official state songs: (1987) "Arkansas (You Run Deep in Me)" by Wayland Holyfield "Oh, Arkansas" by Terry Rose and Gary Klaff Official state anthem" (1987) "Arkansas" by Eva Ware Barnett The Arkansas Creed: (1972) I believe in Arkansas as a land of opportunity and promise. I believe in the rich heritage of Arkansas and I honor the men and women who created this heritage. I believe in the youth of Arkansas who will build our future. I am proud of my state.I will uphold its constitution, obey its laws, and work for the good of all its citizens. Population (1990): 2,350,725 Population Rank (1990): 33 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: manufacturing, agriculture, tourism, forestry Annotated Link List: The Arkansas History Commission and State Archives Includes the Questions & Answers excerpted below: How did Arkansas get its name? From the Quapaw Indians, who were called Akansea by certain other tribes. The name means "South Wind." Why is the name Arkansas pronounced and spelled as it is? The spelling comes from early French usage and the precedent set by the Arkansas Gazette. The pronunciation was determined by the General Assembly of 1881 after scholarly investigation. Who were the earliest inhabitants of Arkansas? Among them were the Folsom people, who wore skins and hunted with darts; the Bluff Dwellers, who lived in caves and rock shelters along the Ozark streams; and the Mound Builders, who constructed earthen mounds as foundations for houses and temples. Which Indian tribes were in Arkansas when European exploration and settlement began? The Quapaws, who lived on the lower Arkansas River near the Mississippi; the Osages, who roamed the Ozark region; and the Caddo, who lived along the streams of the southwest. After 1790 Cherokees, Choctaws, and a few Shawnee and Delaware came into Arkansas. Who was Sequoyah? A Cherokee who invented an alphabet for his people. He lived in Arkansas for a few years before 1828. What was the Trail of Tears? The route taken by the eastern Cherokees on their forced removal to Oklahoma in 1838-1839. The "trail" crossed northern Arkansas. Do Indians still live in Arkansas? Citizens of Indian ancestry live here, but there have been no tribes or reservations since the Quapaws were removed in 1834. Who were the first Europeans in Arkansas? A Spanish expedition led by Hernando de Soto in 1541-1542. When did the French come to Arkansas? Marquette and Joliet explored the Mississippi to the mouth of the Arkansas in 1673. Then in 1682 La Salle claimed the land for the King of France. What was the first permanent European settlement in Arkansas? Arkansas Post, founded in 1686 by Henry de Tonty on the Arkansas River south of present day DeWitt. What did La Harpe do? La Harpe, a French explorer, led expeditions up the Red and Arkansas rivers in 1719-1722. What does the name "Ozark" mean? The word comes from the French "aux arcs" but the meaning is uncertain. It could have meant "of the Arkansas" or "from among the Arkansas"; "with bows," referring to Indians; or the curves and bends of the rivers. What is the origin of the name "Ouachita"? It was the name of an Indian tribe in what is now Louisiana. How long did Arkansas belong to France? Until 1762, when France ceded Louisiana Territory including Arkansas to Spain. In 1800 a secret treaty returned Louisiana to France, but Spanish officials were still in charge when the Americans took over at Arkansas Post in 1804. Did Spanish Arkansas have any part in the American Revolution? Spain joined the Americans in their war against England. An attack by pro-English forces on Arkansas Post in 1783, known as the Colbert Incident, was repulsed by the Spanish and Quapaws. How did Arkansas become American Territory? By the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, when France sold most of the territory between the Mississippi and the Rockies to the United States. What was the political status of Arkansas in 1803-1819? Arkansas was a part of Louisiana Territory and then of Missouri Territory before it became the Territory of Arkansas in 1819. Has Arkansas had any major earthquakes? The New Madrid earthquake of 1811-1812 affected northeastern Arkansas. Where and when was the first post office established in Arkansas? At Davidsonville, near present day Pocahontas, in 1817. When did Arkansas become a state? Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the twenty-fifth state on June 15, 1836. Who was the first governor of the state? Who were the first United States senators and who was the first representative? James S. Conway was the first governor; Ambrose H. Sevier and William S. Fulton, the first senators; and Archibald Yell the first representative in Congress. Has Little Rock always been the capital of Arkansas? Arkansas Post was the capital of Arkansas Territory from 1819 until 1821, when the capital was moved to the new town of Little Rock. The latter place has been the capital ever since, except in 1863-1865 when the Confederate state government was at Washington in Hempstead County. How did Little Rock get its name? From a stone outcropping on the bank of the Arkansas River which was a landmark to early travelers. A cliff called "Big Rock" was located upstream. What was the first Arkansas newspaper? The Arkansas Gazette, founded by William E. Woodruff at Arkansas Post in 1819 and moved to Little Rock two years later. What were two of the earliest roads in Arkansas? The Southwest Trail, which led across Arkansas from the northeast to Fulton on Red River; and the Memphis military road to Little Rock, built in 1826-1828. Who or what was the "Arkansas Traveler"? A humorous dialogue and fiddle tune attributed to Sanford C. "Sandy" Faulkner (1806-1874). Edward Payson Washburn, early Arkansas artist, did a painting illustrating the story. Who was Albert Pike? Pike (1809-1891) was an attorney, poet, journalist, schoolmaster, explorer, soldier, and Masonic leader who became the most famous Arkansas personality of his time. Where was the first Arkansas railroad? In 1858 the Memphis and Little Rock railroad company began operating trains on 38 miles of track between Hopefield on the Mississippi and Madison on the St. Francis River. On which side did Arkansas fight in the Civil War? Arkansas seceded from the Union in 1861 and joined the Southern Confederacy. About 60,000 Arkansas men fought for the South and 15,000 for the Union. What were the most important Civil War battles in Arkansas? In order of occurrence, they were Pea Ridge, Prairie Grove, Arkansas Post, Helena, Poison Spring, Marks' Mills, and Jenkins' Ferry. Who was David Owen Dodd? An Arkansas youth of 17, sometimes called the "Boy Martyr of the Confederacy," who was hanged as a spy by Union military authorities in Little Rock in 1864. Which Civil War generals came from Arkansas? The best known were Confederate generals Patrick R. Cleburne, Thomas C. Hindman, Thomas J. Churchill, and James F. Fagan. Who was "Hanging Judge Parker"? Judge Isaac C. Parker presided over the U.S. district court at Fort Smith from 1875-1896. His court hanged 88 criminals and brought in almost 9,500 convictions. Who discovered bauxite in Arkansas? John C. Branner, state geologist, in 1887. How did large-scale rice growing get started in the state? In 1904 William H. Fuller, who learned rice cultivation in Louisiana, raised his first successful crop near Hazen. Who found the first Arkansas diamonds? John M. Huddleston, a Pike County farmer, found the first diamonds near Murfreesboro in 1906. Why are University of Arkansas athletic teams called "Razorbacks"? Coach Hugo Bezdek is credited with naming the football team in 1909 when he referred to his men as "a wild band of razorback hogs." Where was the largest military camp in Arkansas in both world wars? Near North Little Rock. It was called Camp Pike during the First World War and Camp Joseph T. Robinson in the Second. When did the oil industry begin in Arkansas? In 1921 when a well near El Dorado produced a "gusher." What was the first large artificial dam in the state? Remmel Dam on the Ouachita River, completed in 1924. When did radio and television come to Arkansas? The first radio station, WOK in Pine Bluff, began broadcasting in 1921. Television station KRTV in Little Rock went on the air in 1953. How many state constitutions has Arkansas had? Five, adopted successively in 1836, 1861, 1864, 1868, and 1874. Who served longest as governor of Arkansas? Orval E. Faubus served six terms in 1955-1967. Which political party has been strongest in Arkansas? The Democratic party. Of our elected governors, 38 have been Democrats and four Republicans. The Democrats have controlled the general Assembly since 1873. How many counties does Arkansas have? Seventy-five. The first five - Arkansas, Lawrence, Pulaski, Clark, and Hempstead - were established while Arkansas was part of Missouri. The last county created was Cleburne in 1883. What is the official nickname of Arkansas? "The Natural State." Earlier names were "The Land of Opportunity" and "The Wonder State." Copyright © 1996 Arkansas History Commission. All rights reserved. ----------------------- The Butler Center for Arkansas Studies Arkansas History Lesson Plans Lesson plans are organized under the following subjects. Within each time period, plans are arranged by chronological order of events or by topic. In instances, where plans are on the same topic, the material is arranged by grade level with the lower grade material appearing first. Currently there is a single plan listed under each subject; more will be added. * Prehistory: The Land and Its People Can You Dig It? Developing an Overview of Arkansas History Mound Builders to the Civil War Arkansas Land Regions Introduces student to the role of geography in the study of history. Arkansas Geography Prehistoric Indian Game Arkansas' Prehistoric Indian * Exploration and Colonization: 1541-1803 Osage Legend and Arkansas History: Fact or Fiction DeSoto's Early Life DeSoto in North America Black Pioneers Before 1803 * The Territorial Years: 1803-1836 Territorial Population Life in Arkansas Territory Louisiana Purchase I Louisiana Purchase II 1818 Arkansas Journal * The United States Expands * The Early Statehood Years: 1836-1860 Slavery * The Civil War and Reconstruction Years: 1860-1874 Emancipation Proclamation Arkansas Civil War Drama Civil War Time Line * The New South Era: 1874-1900 Jim Crow and the Poll Tax St. Joseph's Colony * The Progressive Era and World War: 1900-1920 The Oil and Gas Boom in Arkansas Arkansas Progressive Era Dinner Party Horseshoes to Hubcaps: Blacksmithing in Arkansas History Mucket Mania: The Mussel Industry in Arkansas Happy Birthday, Arkansas Style circa 1920 * Development, Depression, and World War: 1920-1945 1927 Flood in Arkansas Big Arky, A Real Arkansas Monster * An Era of Social Change: 1945-1970 Daisy Bates and the Little Rock Crisis * Modern Arkansas: 1970 to the present Attracting a Business Producing a Product Arkansas Trade Arkansas in the World Market * General Topics Climate Arkansas On the Internet Create An Arkansas Climograph Minding Your P's and Q's Arkansas, a Feminine Perspective The Arkansas Poetry Connection Disasters! Arkansas': Earth, Wind and Water Idealism v. Reality; The Black Experience in Arkansas Arkansas, the Land of Cotton My Town Snapshot: Arkansas Photographs as Research Tools Ozark Folk Culture and the Geography in the Mt. View Area Who's Who in Arkansas This site is made possible in part by the generous donations of Friends of Central Arkansas Libraries (FOCAL) and in part through the support of the Arkansas Humanities Council and the National Endowment for the Humanities. more: {to be done} Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
CALIFORNIA Settled: 1769 Date admitted to the Union: 9 Sep 1850 Order of admission: 31 Capital: Sacramento Extent in Miles (length): 770 Extent in Miles (width): 250 Area in square miles (land): 156,299 Area in square miles (inland water): 2,407 Area in square miles (total): 158,706 Rank in Area: 3 Official Nickname: Golden State Motto: Eureka (I Have Found It) Flower: Golden Poppy Bird: California Valley Quail Tree: California Redwood Song: I Love You, California Population (1990): 29,760,021 Population Rank (1990): 1 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: agriculture, manufacturing, services, trade Annotated Link List: California Chronology Created by "Joel GAzis-SAx", includes: * Spanish Colonization 1530 to 1821 * The Californios 1821 to 1848 * The Gold Rush 1848 to 1869 * The Robber Barons 1869 to 1906 * Real Estate Boom 1906 to 1929 * Agony and Optimism 1929 to 1945 * New Dreams 1945 to 1964 * Revolution and Reaction 1964 to Present * Other California Chronologies * Earthquakes * The Missions * Joaquin Miller * California Almanac * California Reader Museum of the City of San Francisco San Francisco Gold Rush Chronology 1846-1849 A Southern California Chronology based on: Carruth, Gordon, The Encyclopedia of American Facts and Dates, Harper & Row, 1989 Clark, David L., Los Angeles: A City Apart, Winsor Publications, Inc., 1981 Longstreet, Stephen, All Star Cast: An Anecdotal History of Los Angeles, Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1977 Engstrand, Iris H.W., San Diego: Gateway to the Pacific, Pioneer Publications, 1992 Los Angeles Business Journal, July 19, 1999 Los Angeles Times Magazine, January 10, 1999 Newmark, Harris, My Sixty Years in Southern California, Houghton-Mifflin, 1916 Pitt, Leonard and Dale Pitt, Los Angeles A to Z: An Encyclopedia of the City and County, University of California Press, 1997 Robinson, W.W., Los Angeles: From the Days of the Pueblo, California Historical Society, 1981 California Historical Society As the state's official historical society, we hold extensive materials about California's rich history. Our Web site is still young, but growing and it primarily provides "content" for researchers. The History of How California Became a State * Pre-European Population The original California natives inhabited an isolated corner of North America, with mountains to the east and deserts to the south. They developed a stable and peaceful culture, with numerous tribes within well defined borders, leading to remarkable linguistic diversity but limited ability to organize a defense against European colonialism. * Spanish Period Spain claimed and occupied California in the interest of increasing the Spanish realm -- in terms of both land and people -- to increase Spanish and Catholic influence. The Spanish colonization was highly authoritarian and subject to all the inefficiencies of centralized planning. To their credit, the Spanish envisioned the native population as playing an important role as Catholic citizens, but the mission/presidio system failed to adopt the Indians to this role and failed to attract a sufficient number of Spanish settlers. * Mexican Period When Mexico fought and obtained independence, California lost virtually all its centralized support. As members of an isolated community, Californios spent three decades in political confusion (at one point, a Californio-based republic was declared). The richest families turned to the one industry guaranteed to earn a comfortable living -- selling hides and tallow generated from the virtually free cattle that roamed vast ranchos. In an attempt to increase the non-Indian population, foreigners of all types were admitted. Soon a sizable minority of Yankees grew, dominating the merchant class and entering into important positions in the political and social structure. * The Bear Flag Revolt and the Mexican-American War The defense of California, completely neglected by Mexico and lacking support from unstable Californio administrations, led to the unusual condition where any of several world powers could have easily occupied California. In point of fact, the Yankee residents themselves were the first to do it, in the Bear Flag revolt of June 1846. Just one month after, due to the Mexican-American war that in turn stemmed from the Yankee takeover of Texas, the American Navy took control of California without firing a shot. Most Californios were resigned to inevitable Yankee rule, though a revolt at Los Angeles led to a pocket of Californio resistance lasting from September 1846 to January 1847. * Achieving Statehood California was officially made a territory with the end of the Mexican-American war February 2, 1848, nine days before gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill. Through some local PR efforts, and support in late 1848 from President Polk himself, a gold mania swept the States and the world resulting in the remarkable 49er migration. The population soared, quickly (and brutally) overwhelming the Californios and Indians. Political leaders seized the moment to obtain a constitution and voter's ratification by November 1849, with recognition by the U.S. Congress in October 1850. Meanwhile, the great influx of miners was redirected to farming, trade, and business. The beauty, richness, and climate of California -- as well as a lack of options for bankrupt miners -- kept the population here long after the gold mania died down. The State of California, a chaotic mix of ethnicities and incomes, hopes and cynicism, was born. Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
COLORADO Settled: 1858 Date admitted to the Union: 1 Aug 1876 Order of admission: 38 Capital: Denver Extent in Miles (length): 380 Extent in Miles (width): 280 Area in square miles (land): 103,595 Area in square miles (inland water): 496 Area in square miles (total): 104,091 Rank in Area: 8 Official Nickname: Centennial State Motto: Nil Sine Numine (Nothing Without Providence) Flower: Rocky Mountain Columbine Bird: Lark Bunting Tree: Colorado Blue Spruce Song: Where the Columbines Grow Population (1900): 539,700 Population (1910): 799,024 Population (1920): 939,629 Population (1931): over one million Population (1990): 3,294,394 Population Rank (1990): 26 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: manufacturing, government, tourism, agriculture, aerospace, electronics equipment Annotated Link List: Old Colorado City Historical Society StudyWeb, Words and images copyright Old Colorado City Historical Society ( Many historical documents and information, maps, and photographs for Colorado of the Old West. Colorado State Government Colorado State Archives Includes: Biographies of Notable Coloradans; Colorado; Incorporated Cities and Towns; Colorado History; a Chronology of Colorado; "Firsts"; Colorado History; Bibliographies; and History Links Colorado State Government Colorful Colorado History Page Chronology which describes events of Colorado's prehistory, early history and later history, nicely organized and presented The Photography Collection at The Denver Public Library The Denver Public Library collection of more than 500,000 photographs related to the history of the Old West, and Colorado in particular. C o l o r a d o H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y "WHERE HISTORY UNFOLDS" Extremely thorough history site about all of Colorado. COLORADO HISTORICAL SOCIETY: snail-mail address 1300 Broadway Denver, Colorado 80203. Georgetown, Colorado-History History of Georgetown, Colorado, as taken from a pamphlet printed in 1968 for guests new to the area. A Taste of Colorado History Includes: The Miner's Burro - Remembering Colorado's Flop Eared Heroes; Law & Disorder in Colorado; Chaffee County's only legal hanging (Nicolo Fiminello - 1888); and more... Colorado history - Buena Vista, Salida, Leadville FourteenerNet describes: "The Rich History of Colorado's Fourteener Country." Colorado lore, legend and fact New location of site for "History from Colorado's colorful past, stories and images of its people and places, quick facts, maps..." Golden History Time line and historical overview from the Colorado School of Mines. Colorado Department of Personnel, General Support Services Colorado State Government Colorado State Archives (GSS) Colorado State Archives. Area History: Mesa Verde Country Mesa Verde Country, and the University of Colorado area, "is fast becoming the cultural center..." Colorado Ski Museum - Ski Hall of Fame - Vail, Colorado "Overflowing with Ski History! For over 130 years, Colorado has been making skiing history. From the early trappers and miners of the late 1800's..." Artslynx Colorado - Cultural History Links 19th Century Colorado History Links, integrated with the Alfred Packer Collection at the Colorado State Archives; American Numismatic Association and Museum Colorado History 211 - Homepage Syllabus of University of Southern Colorado, Colorado History. History 211 course Colorado History Pages A brief outline of the history of the state of Colorado A Colorado History (Pruett Publishing) A Colorado History by Maxine Benson and Duane A. Smith, Carl Ubbelohde Publisher Colorado history videos, books, art, gifts... Data and links for Colorado history videos, books, art, gifts, mining camps, ghost towns, boomtowns, mines, mountain sight-seeing tours. ... Colorado GenWeb Project - Colorado History "Helpful links": Colorado Lookups; Colorado History; Colorado Newspapers On line; more helpful links to information; Colorado History. ... - Results for Colorado (History) Electric Library's Free Encyclopedia on Colorado (History). "The cliff dwellings of Colorado's early inhabitants are preserved at Mesa Verde..." Colorado Family History Centers Listing of Latter Day Saints (Mormon) Family History Centers Colorado History "This page is for me a place to collect all of my facts, stories, and information on the topic of Colorado history..." CSU Libraries: Colorado History Special Topics Colorado History Special Topics; includes Photographs courtesy of the Denver Public Library Photograph Collection Homework Helper--COLORADO HISTORY Colorado History Resources, Women of the West, Western History Leadville Colorado History Leadville, Colorado: history, recreation, sight seeing, historic Ghost Towns, and the Colorado Video Collection Custer County, Colorado History and Genealogy Page A Short History of Custer County, Colorado. ... Georgetown, Colorado: The Birth of a Town Colorado History Chronology (from Colorado State Archives): The following chronology describes events of Colorado's prehistory, early history and events up to WWII. It is excerpted from archival records of the State Planning Commission's Colorado Year Book, 1959-1961. A.D. 1 to 1299 A.D.: Advent of great Prehistoric Cliff Dwelling Civilization in the Mesa Verde region. 1276 to 1299 A.D.: A great drought and/or pressure from nomadic tribes forced the Cliff Dwellers to abandon their Mesa Verde homes. c. 1500: Ute Indians inhabit mountain areas of southern Rocky Mountains making these Native Americans the oldest continuous residents of Colorado. 1541: Coronado, famed Spanish explorer, may have crossed the southeastern corner of present Colorado on his return march to Mexico after vain hunt for the golden Seven Cities of Cibola. 1682: Explorer La Salle appropriates for France all of the area now known as Colorado east of the Rocky Mountains. 1765: Juan Maria Rivera leads Spanish expedition into San Juan and Sangre de Cristo Mountains in search of gold and silver. 1776: Friars Escalante and Dominguez seeking route from Santa Fe to California missions, traverse what is now western Colorado as far north as the White River in Rio Blanco County. 1803: Through the Louisiana Purchase, signed by President Thomas Jefferson, the United States acquires a vast area which included what is now most of eastern Colorado. While the United States lays claim to this vast territory, Native Americans have resided here for hundreds of years. 1806: Lieutenant Zebulon M. Pike and small party of U.S. soldiers sent to explore southwestern boundary of Louisiana Purchase; discovers peak that bears his name, but fails in effort to climb it; reaches headwaters of Arkansas River near Leadville. 1807: Pike crosses Sangre de Cristo Mountains to Conejos River in San Luis Valley and builds Pike's Stockade; placed under nominal arrest by Spanish authorities and taken to Santa Fe; later, he and his men are released. 1820: Numerous Native American tribes live in the Colorado area. The Utes live in the mountains, the Cheyenne and Arapahoe reside on the plains from the Arkansas to the Platte rivers, and the Kiowas and Comanches live south of the Arkansas River. The Pawnee tribe hunts buffalo along the Republican River and the Sioux sometimes hunt in the outskirts of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe lands. 1820: Major Stephen H. Long is sent by President Monroe to explore southwestern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase. Long's party came up the South Platte River. Long's Peak named for him. Dr. Edwin James, historian of Long's expedition, leads first recorded ascent of Pike's Peak. James Peak, west of Denver, named for him. 1825: Opening of era of fur-traders, trappers and Mountain Men - Bent brothers, Ceran St.Vrain, Louis Vasquez, Kit Carson, Jim Baker, James Bridger, Thomas Fitzpatrick, "Uncle Dick" Wooten, and Jim Beckworth - who established posts in Arkansas and South Platte Valleys. 1832: Bent's Fort, one of the most important trading posts in the West, is built by the Bents and St. Vrain near present city of La Junta. 1836: Texas becomes independent republic and claims narrow strip of mountain territory extending northward through Colorado to 42nd parallel. Early 1840's: Mexico granted lands to the wealthy, south of the Arkansas Valley and in the San Luis Valley hoping to secure claims against Texas or America. 1842: Lieutenant John C. Fremont undertakes first of his five exploration trips into Rocky Mountains. His last expedition, in 1853, took him through the San Luis Valley and into the Gunnison River country. 1846: General Stephen W. Kearney leads Army of the West along Santa Fe Trail through southeastern Colorado en route to conquest of New Mexico during Mexican War. 1848: By Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico cedes to United States most of that part of Colorado not acquired by Louisiana Purchase. 1850: Federal Government purchases Texas' claims in Colorado, and present boundaries of Colorado established. 1851: First permanent non-Indian settlement in Colorado is founded at Conejos in San Luis Valley; irrigation is begun; Fort Massachusetts established in San Luis Valley to protect settlers from Indians who believe that the non-Indians are encroaching on their land. 1853: Captain John W. Gunnison leads exploring party across southern and western Colorado. Gunnison named for him. Fremont's last expedition, seeking feasible railroad route through mountains, follows Gunnison's route. 1854: Treaties with Native American groups prove unsatisfactory which results in conflict as the Utes kill fifteen inhabitants of Fort Pueblo on Christmas Day. 1858: Green Russell's discovery of small placer gold deposits near confluence of South Platte River and Cherry Creek, precipitates gold rush from the East and "Pikes Peak or Bust" slogan. Montana City, St. Charles, Auraria, and Denver City are founded on present site of Denver. November 6, two hundred men meet here to organize County of Arapahoe, Kansas Territory. Pueblo founded as Fountain City. 1859: Gold is found by George A. Jackson along Chicago Creek on present site of Idaho Springs. March 9, first stagecoach with mail for Cherry Creek settlements leaves Leavenworth, Kansas. April 23, first newspaper in the region, the Rocky Mountain News, is published by William N. Byers. May 6, John Gregory makes famous gold-lode strike on North Clear Creek, stimulating rush of prospectors, who establish camps of Black Hawk, Central City and Nevadaville. October 3, O.J. Goldrick opens first school, at Auraria. Jefferson Territory is organized without sanction of Congress to govern gold camps; officers are elected. Prospectors spread through mountains and establish camps at Boulder, Colorado City, Gold Hill, Hamilton, Tarryall, and Pueblo. 1860: Rich placer discoveries cause stampede of miners to California Gulch on present site of Leadville. First schoolhouse is built at Boulder. Region continues to be administered variously by Jefferson Territory officials, and Miners' and People's Courts. 1861: Congress establishes Colorado Territory with boundaries of present state; President Lincoln appoints William Gilpin as first Territorial governor. July, Supreme Court is organized and Congressional delegates chosen. September, first assembly meets, creates 17 counties, authorizes university, and selects Colorado City as Territorial capitol. Manufacture of mining machinery begins. The population of the Colorado Territory is 25,371. 1862: Colorado troops aid in defeating Confederate General Henry H. Sibley's Army at La Glorieta Pass, New Mexico. Second Territorial Legislature meets for a few days at Colorado City, adjourns to Denver, and selects Golden as the new capitol. First tax-supported schools are established. First oil well drilled near Florence. 1863: Telegraph line links Denver with East; ten words to New York cost $9.10. Plains Indians attempt to drive white intruders from their hunting lands on the Eastern slopes. 1864: Tension between non-Indians and the Native American tribes escalates. The massacre (Sand Creek Massacre) of Native American men, women and children in a Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indian encampment by soldiers and settlers stirs Native Americans to fresh violence and overland trails are often closed. Fort Sedgwick is established near Julesburg. Camp Collins established to protect travelers on Overland Trail. Later became Fort Collins. Colorado Seminary (now University of Denver) is chartered; Sisters of Loretto open academy. 1865: Indian attacks along trails reach highest intensity; food is scarce for settlers and prices high; potatoes bring $15 a bushel and flour costs $40 per 100 pounds. Fort Morgan established for protection against Indians. 1867: Denver established as permanent seat of government by territorial legislature meeting in Golden. Golden Transcript established by George West. 1868: Nathaniel Hill erects first smelter in Colorado, at Blackhawk, inaugurating era of hard-rock mining. Cheyenne Indians disastrously defeated at Beecher Island near present site of Wray. The Pueblo Chieftain established by Dr. M. Beshoar at Pueblo. 1869: The final military engagement between whites and plains Indians in the eastern part of the territory took place at Summit Springs. 1870: Denver and Pacific Railroad is constructed to connect Denver with Union Pacific at Cheyenne, Wyoming; the Kansas Pacific enters Colorado from Missouri River. Union Colony is established by Horace Greeley and Nathan C. Meeker at Greeley, and first irrigation canal surveyed there. The Greeley Tribune established. Population of Colorado territory 39,864. 1871: Colorado Springs is founded by General William J. Palmer. Denver and Rio Grande Railroad is built southward from Denver by Palmer. Colorado School of Mines established at Golden. 1872: Blackhawk and Central City are connected with Denver by railroad; Denver and Rio Grande reaches Pueblo. Agricultural settlements established throughout South Platte Valley. Out West, later the Colorado Springs Gazette, was established. This year signals an end to the major use of the "Mountain Branch" of the Santa Fe Trail. 1874: Colorado College is founded at Colorado Springs; territorial legislature appropriates $15,00 for University of Colorado at Boulder, on condition that equal sum is raised by that city. W.H. Jackson, famous photographer of the Hayden Geological Survey, notes ruins of ancient cliff dwellings along the canyon on Mancos River. 1875: Lead carbonate ores, rich in silver, are found near present site of Leadville. Constitutional Convention of 38 members holds first meeting. 1876: Colorado is admitted to Union as 38th State; John L. Routt is elected first governor. Greeley's first industry, the tanning of buffalo hides, turns out 12 robes a day. 1877: University of Colorado opens classes at Boulder, with two teachers and 44 students. State Board of Agriculture is created to develop Agricultural College at Fort Collins. 1878: Leadville is incorporated; rich silver strikes on Iron, Carbonate, and Fryer hills soon make is one of the world's greatest mining camps. Central City opera house opens. First telephones are installed in Denver. 1879: Colorado College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts offers instruction at Fort Collins. Nathan C. Meeker, Indian Agent on White River (near Meeker) and several employees are slain in Ute uprising. Major Thornburg and half of his command of 160 soldiers killed in effort to give protection to Meeker. Utes defeated. 1880: Denver & Rio Grande lays tracks through Royal Gorge and on to Leadville. Great Ute Chief, Ouray, dies. Dry land farming undertaken extensively in eastern Colorado. Population of Colorado, 194,327. 1881: Ute tribes are removed onto reservations. Grand Junction is founded. Small quantities of carnotite are found in western Colorado along with gold; later, this mineral is found to contain radium. Tabor Opera House opens in Denver, built by H.A.W. Tabor, famous Leadville capitalist. 1882: Steel is milled in Pueblo from Colorado ores. Company later becomes Colorado Fuel and Iron Company. 1883: Narrow gauge line of Denver & Rio Grange is completed from Gunnison to Grand Junction. First electric lights are installed in Denver. 1886: The Steamboat Pilot established at Steamboat Springs. Charles H.Leckenby becomes owner and publisher, 1893. Denver Union Stockyards are established, later becoming largest receiving market for sheep in the nation. Town of Lamar is founded. The last public hanging in Denver occurred when Andrew Green was executed for the murder of streetcar driver, Joseph Whitnah. 1888: Band of Utes from Utah under Colorow make last Indian raid into Colorado; they are defeated and returned to the reservation. Union Colony at Greeley completes 900,000 acre irrigation project. Cliff Palace ruins, in what is now Mesa Verde National Park, discovered by two cowboys. 1890: Passage of Sherman Silver Purchase Act raises price of silver to more than $1.00 an ounce. New rich silver strikes are made along Rio Grande and Creede is founded. July 4, cornerstone of State Capitol at Denver is laid. October 3, first building of the State Normal School (now University of Northern Colorado) at Greeley is occupied. Population of state, 413,249. Boulder Daily Camera established by L.C. Paddock. 1891: Robert Womack's discoveries open great gold field of Cripple Creek. First national forest reserve in Colorado is set aside - White River Forest in Meeker area. Pike's Peak cog railroad begins operation. 1892: The Denver Post established. H. C. Brown opens Brown Palace Hotel in Denver. 1893: National panic brings great distress to Colorado. Repeal of Sherman Act strikes silver mining a paralyzing blow and adds to already acute unemployment problems. Grand Junction Sentinel established. 1894: State Capitol is completed at a cost of $2,500,000. Colorado is second state in the nation to extend suffrage to women, following the precedent set by Wyoming. 1899: First beet sugar refinery is built at Grand Junction. 1900: Gold production reaches peak of more than $20,000,000 annually at Cripple Creek, the second richest gold camp in the world. Population of State, 539,700. 1902: Constitutional amendment permits towns of 2,000 to adopt "Home Rule"; Denver becomes home rule city. Beet sugar refinery built at Fort Collins. David H. Moffat and associates begin construction of Moffat Railroad over the Continental Divide. Completed to Steamboat Springs in 1980 and to Craig in 1913. 1903: Mine, mill and smelter workers strike in many camps for higher wages and better working conditions; at Cripple Creek, strike results in much property damage and loss of life; all strike objectives in gold field are lost. Uncompahgre irrigation project, first federal government reclamation project in Colorado, is authorized. 1905: Colorado has 3 governors in one day in a political squabble. First, Alva Adams, then James H. Peabody, and finally Jesse F. McDonald. Construction of the six mile Gunnison water tunnel started by Bureau of Reclamation. 1906: United States Mint, Denver, issues first coins. March 12, National Western Stock Show is born with chartering of Western Stock Show Association following successful showing of about 60 head of cattle and horses and a few sheep and hogs in makeshift tent at Stockyards. July 29, Mesa Verde national Park is created by Congress. 1907: With Ben B. Lindsey as Judge, Denver Juvenile Court opens - the first such court in the United States. 1908: July 7, Denver municipal Auditorium, seating 12,500, is completed in time for the Democratic National Convention, when William Jennings Bryan was nominated the third time for President. August 1, Colorado Day is first celebrated, marking thirty-second anniversary of State's admittance to Union. Dome of the State Capitol is plated with gold leaf at a cost of $14,680. 1909: Colorado attains first rank among states in irrigation area with 2,790,000 acres under irrigation. Gunnison water tunnel completed by Reclamation Service and opened, on September 23, by President William Howard Taft at the tunnel site. Western State Teachers College opens at Gunnison. 1910: Population of State, 799,024. Number of farms, 46,170. Colorado voters adopt a constitutional amendment giving to the people the right of the initiative and referendum. May 8, first long distance phone call made from Denver to New York City. First airplane flight in Denver. 1911: Colorado National Monument west of Grand Junction, created by Presidential order. 1913: State Tax Commission created by Legislature. Assessed value of Colorado property for tax purposes set at $1,306,536,692. The "Big Snow of 1913" covers Colorado to a depth of 3 - 5 feet; transportation paralyzed for weeks. State begins licensing autos for the first time. 1914: Strike of coal miners in southern Colorado fields is climaxed by "Battle of Ludlow" near Trinidad; several men, women and children killed during hostilities between miners and the State militia. August: WWI begins. 1915: Worker's compensation measures are passsed: State Industrial Commission is created. Rocky Mountain National Park created by Congress. Toll road for auto travel to top of Pikes Peak built by Spencer Penrose. Construction of Broadmoor Hotel at Colorado Springs started. 1916: Colorado adopts prohibition. Emily Griffith Opportunity School is opened in Denver. Mining of tungsten causes flurry in Boulder-Nederland area. 1917: April 6: Congress declares war on Germany and many Coloradans volunteer for service. Colorado reaches maximum mineral production, more then $80,000,000. William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody, Famous Indian scout, dies and is buried on Lookout Mountain, west of Denver. 1918: Agricultural production increased sharply to aid war needs. Dry lands plowed up to produce wheat. Colorado citizens purchase Liberty Bonds by the millions of dollars to help finance war. More than 125,000 Colorado men register for the draft for army service. Fitzsimmons General Hospital established near Denver. Coal production of state reaches new high of 12,500,000 tons. Impetus of war stirs development of mining of molybdenum at Climax, near Leadville - the nation's greatest source of the metal. Denver Tourist Bureau establishes free auto camp ground for tourists at Overland Park, Denver. Other cities follow suit during the next few years. Federal Reserve branch bank established in Denver. Colorado voters approve constitutional amendment providing Civil Service for state employees. November, 11, 1918, Germany surrenders. 1919: Post-war inflation brings higher prices to farmers and producers; prices of farm land high; wages high; boom times everywhere. Colorado enacts tax of one cent per gallon on gasoline, for building of roads. Monte Vista stages first Ski-Hi Stampede. 1920: Population of State, 939,629. Employees of Denver Tramway company go on strike. Aroused by editorials in The Denver Post, strikers raid Post building and do much damage to property. 1921: General Assembly creates State Highway Department with seven man Advisory Board. Colorado begins building concrete highways on main traveled routes. Pueblo suffers disastrous flood in June; scores drowned and property damage amounts to $20,000,000. Post war deflation sets in and decline in prices brings trouble in the rural areas. During the next several years, numerous banks serving farming areas close, price and farm lands decline sharply from levels reached in World War I, and farmers clamor for farm relief. 1922: Coloradans vote $6,000,000 in bonds for highway construction. Moffat Tunnel Improvement District is created by General Assembly for construction of 6.4 mile bore under Continental Divide to provide better rail connections between Eastern and Western Slopes of the State. First commerical radio license in Colorado is issued, to station KLZ. Daring daylight hold-up of Federal Reserve bank truck is staged as it leaves U.S. Mint in Denver and $200,000 stolen. Robbery never solved. 1923: Oil discovered in Wellington field north of Fort Collins; flurry of oil stock promotion follows. 1924: April 26, Colorado is second state to ratify child labor amendment to federal Constitution. Celebration held in Greeley marking completion of concrete pavement between Denver and Greeley - first two major cities in State to be connected by paved highways. Ku Klux Klan secures domination of Republican party in Colorado and elects a pro-Klan Governor and U.S. Senator. 1925: Adams State Teachers College at Alamosa and junior colleges at Grand Junction and Trinidad are opened. 1931: Population reaches over one million. 1941: Denver recruiting offices swamped by over 2,000 enlistments during the month of December as United States enters World War II. 1941-1945: During World War II agriculture industry has greatest production in Colorado history. 1941-1945: Growth of military installations in Colorado mushroom. 1942: Federal government established Amache, a camp for Japanese-Americans who were interned and relocated from their homes on the West Coast. 1945-1950: Federal government presence in Colorado grows, military installations and scientific institutions continue to develop while many veterans relocate to Colorado. These changes cause a steady increase in population. 1958: Air Force Academy is built near Colorado Springs and first class graduates in June, 1959. 1950's and 1960's: Numerous water storage and diversion projects are constructed in response to increased agricultural and municipal water demands. Tourist and ski industries blossom. Population continues to increase. 1960: Colorado gets the Denver Broncos professional football team which eventually wins two Super Bowls. 1962-1965: Disposition of poisonous wastes into a deep well at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal results in earthquakes and hundreds of tremors around the Denver area. 1967: Denver Rockets become Colorado's professional American Basketball Association team. In 1974 they are renamed the Denver Nuggets. 1973: Eisenhower Tunnel is built beneath the Continental Divide sixty miles west of Denver, making it easier to reach the ski slopes of western Colorado. 1974: Desegregation of schools in Denver begins as busing attempts to achieve racial balance. 1970's and 1980's: Tremendous growth of Denver suburbs occurs. 1970's: The population swells, traffic problems grow, and the "brown cloud" develops over much of the Front Range. Coloradans become concerned over the consequences of pollution and overselling Colorado and reject hosting the 1976 Winter Olympics as a result. July 31, 1976: A cloudburst on the Big Thompson River results in a massive flood in Larimer County, killing more than 145 people. 1980: Coal mining production in Colorado on the Western Slopes hits all time high as United States becomes more dependent on energy resources at home rather than overseas. 1982: The state economic structure is shaken when the oil shale giant Exxon announces the closure of its oil shale development fields in Rio Blanco, Mesa and Garfield counties. Thousands are laid off and the economic stability of the western slope of the state is severely impacted. 1980's and 1990's: Major growth of technological industries occurs in Colorado. 1992: The voters of Colorado pass a citizens' initiative to limit the growth of state and local governments with the passage of the TABOR (Taxpayer Bill of Rights) amendment to the state constitution. 1993: Colorado Rockies become first regional major league baseball team. 1995: Quebec Nordiques National Hockey League team moves to Colorado to become the Colorado Avalanche. 1998: Colorado voters elect the first Republican Governor (Bill Owens) to the statehouse in twenty-four years. Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
HAWAII Settled: 1820 Date admitted to the Union: 21 Aug 1959 Order of admission: 50 Capital: Honolulu Extent in Miles (length): Not Applicable Extent in Miles (width): Not Applicable Area in square miles (land): 6,425 Area in square miles (inland water): 46 Area in square miles (total): 6,471 Rank in Area: 47 Official Nickname: The Aloha State Motto: The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness Flower: Yellow Hibiscus Bird: Hawaiian Goose Tree: Candlenut Song: Hawaii Ponoi Population (1990): 1,108,229 Population Rank (1990): 41 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: tourism, defense (and other government), sugar refining, pineapple (and other agriculture), aquaculture, fishing, motion pictures Annotated Link List: {to be done} Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
IDAHO Settled: 1842 Date admitted to the Union: 3 July 1890 Order of admission: 43 Capital: Boise Extent in Miles (length): 570 Extent in Miles (width): 300 Area in square miles (land): 82,412 Area in square miles (inland water): 1,153 Area in square miles (total): 83,564 Rank in Area: 13 Official Nickname: Gem State Motto: Esto Perpetua (It is perpetual) Flower: Syringa Bird: Mountain Bluebird Tree: White Pine Song: Here We Have Idaho Population (1990): 1,006,749 Population Rank (1990): 42 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: agriculture, manufacturing, tourism, lumber, mining, electronics IDAHO HISTORY Northwest Territory 1803 - 1847
Oregon Territory 1848 - 1852
Oregon &Washington Territories 1853 - 1858
Washington Territory 1859 - 1862
Idaho Territory 1863 - 1889
State of Idaho 1890 - 1899
State of Idaho 1900 - 1919
State of Idaho 1920 - 1939
State of Idaho 1940 - 1959
State of Idaho 1960 - 1979
State of Idaho 1980 to present

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ILLINOIS NOT in the West: the Mississippi is its Western boundary. Illinois is considered an East-North Central state. Settled: 1720 Date admitted to the Union: 3 Dec 1818 Order of admission: 21 Capital: Springfield Extent in Miles (length): 390 Extent in Miles (width): 210 Area in square miles (land): 55,645 Area in square miles (inland water): 700 Area in square miles (total): 56,345 Rank in Area: 24 Official Nickname: The Prarie State Motto: State Sovreignty -- National Union Flower: Native Violet Bird: Cardinal Tree: White Oak Song: Illinois Population (1990): 11,430,602 Population Rank (1990): 6 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: manufacturing, services, travel, wholesale and retail trade, finance, insurance, construction, government, health care, agriculture Annotated Link List: {to be done} Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
INDIANA NOT in the West: the Mississippi is its Western boundary. Indiana is considered an East-North Central state. Settled: 1733 Date admitted to the Union: 11 Dec 1816 Order of admission: 19 Capital: Indianapolis Extent in Miles (length): 270 Extent in Miles (width): 140 Area in square miles (land): 35,932 Area in square miles (inland water): 253 Area in square miles (total): 36,185 Rank in Area: 38 Official Nickname: Hoosier State Motto: Crossroads of America Flower: Peony Bird: Cardinal Tree: Tulip Poplar Song: On the Banks of the Wabash, Far Away Population (1990): 5,544,159 Population Rank (1990): 14 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade, finance, agriculture, government, services Annotated Link List: {to be done} Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
IOWA Settled: 1788 Date admitted to the Union: 28 Dec 1846 Order of admission: 29 Capital: Des Moines Extent in Miles (length): 310 Extent in Miles (width): 200 Area in square miles (land): 55,965 Area in square miles (inland water): 310 Area in square miles (total): 56,275 Rank in Area: 25 Official Nickname: Hawkeye State Motto: Our Liberties We Prize and Our Rights We Will Maintain Flower: Wild Rose Bird: Eastern Goldfinch Tree: Oak Rock: Geode Song: none ? Population (1990): 2,776,755 Population Rank (1990): 30 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: insurance, manufacturing, agriculture Annotated Link List: Illustrated Historical Atlas of the State of Iowa, 1875 Author: A. T. Andreas Table of Contents: Preface, Iowa History, Biographies Portraits, Town Plats, Views. "All information below the State level is organized by county. The biographies, portraits, town plats and views listed above provide an alphabetical listing for the entire state. County maps, atlas patrons, business directory and county histories are grouped by county and accessed only through the county table below. Biographies, portraits, town plats and views may also be accessed through the appropriate county. In some situations, a biography, portrait, etc. may be listed under two or more counties as appropriate." The Historic Period [of Iowa] by Carl A. Merry © Copyright 1996 The University of Iowa. All rights reserved. [Opening paragraph, to give a sample of the flavor of this fine essay.]: "The historic period began in Iowa with the European exploration of the midcontinent, as evidenced by their written records and artifacts. Many Indians possessed and traded European manufactured goods long before they ever set eyes on a French explorer, and the historic period for them began before actual contact. The presence of western Siouan and Algonquian Indians and fur-bearing animals, lead, and other natural resources was reported for the Upper Mississippi Valley as early as 1634 by Jean Nicolet, and confirmed by other western Great Lakes explorers in the decades that followed. The first recorded Europeans to venture into Iowa were Louis Joliet, Father Jacques Marquette, and the voyageurs who exited the Wisconsin River and paddled down the great Mississippi River in June of 1673. They traveled for eight days camping along the Iowa shoreline before visiting the Illiniwek (Illinois) Indians at the Illiniwek Village State Historic Site near the mouth of the Des Moines River, on the Missouri side. Jolliet-Marquette expedition journals indicated this summer village had nearly 300 lodges, laid out with streets. Archaeologists have recently begun excavations at this important early historic site." State of Iowa History by Dorothy Schwieder, professor of history, Iowa State University [1st paragraph as sample of style]: Marquette and Joliet Find Iowa Lush and Green "In the summer of 1673, French explorers Louis Joliet and Father Jacques Marquette traveled down the Mississippi River past the land that was to become the state of Iowa. The two explorers, along with their five crewmen, stepped ashore near where the Iowa river flowed into the Mississippi. It is believed that the 1673 voyage marked the first time that white people visited the region of Iowa. After surveying the surrounding area, the Frenchmen recorded in their journals that Iowa appeared lush, green, and fertile. For the next 300 years, thousands of white settlers would agree with these early visitors: Iowa was indeed lush and green; moreover, its soil was highly productive. In fact, much of the history of the Hawkeye State is inseparably intertwined with its agricultural productivity. Iowa stands today as one of the leading agricultural states in the nation, a fact foreshadowed by the observation of the early French explorers." Heart of Iowa ©1998 Vision Blue Design & Imaging: "French explorers Louis Joliet and Father Jacques Marquette and their crew members were the first non-Native Americans to set foot on what is now known as Iowa. They came ashore in the summer of 1673 and described the land as being lush, green and fertile." "Prior to 1673 that description of the region was well known to the many Native Americans who called the territory home. At various times approximately 17 different Indian tribes inhabited the area. They included the Iowa, Sauk, Mesquakie, Sioux, Potawatomi, Otoe and Missouri. Iowa is still home to the Mesquakie tribe." "Although some hardy settlers began drifting into the area following Joliet and Marquette, the first official European settlement was not begun until June 1833. That occurred in what was known as the Black Hawk Purchase, an area about 50 miles wide along the Mississippi River from Missouri to what is now the area of Clayton and Fayette counties." "Early settlers found Iowa to be a far different place than what they were accustomed to in the eastern United States. In the East, wood was plentiful for building homes, barns and fences, and for fuel. However, only in eastern Iowa could they find enough wood for all those activities. In some parts of eastern and central Iowa they found only enough wood for constructing homes and other buildings, and had to use alternatives, such as dried prairie hay or corn cobs, for fuel. Pioneers venturing into northwest Iowa constructed their homes from the only material they had available... sod." "Life in early Iowa was not easy. Constructing farmsteads was hard work, but those who stayed to work the land discovered it was worth it. The land was the richest to be found anywhere in the world and made agriculture the backbone of the state's economy. Although pioneers living on Iowa's fertile prairies faced many hardships, settlers continued to pour into the state in the mid-1800's." "In 1838 Iowa officially became a territory and Burlington was established as the as the capitol was moved to Iowa City in 1841. Finally, on December 28, 1846, Iowa was admitted as the 29th state in the Union. Iowa City continued to serve as the state's capitol until 1857, when a provision in Iowa's new Constitution moved it to Des Moines." "Those early Iowans, as do their present day descendants, considered education important; as the state's population and economy grew, so did plans for educational institutions. Iowa's first high school was established in the 1850's. In 1847 the University of Iowa was founded to provide classical and professional education to the state's youth. Iowa State College of Science and Technology (now Iowa State University) was established in 1858 for agricultural and technical training. In 1876 Iowa State Teachers' College (now the University of Northern Iowa) was founded to train teachers for the state's public schools." "With the outbreak of the Civil Wat in 1861, the peaceful lives of Iowans took a drastic turn. No battles were actually fought on Iowa soil, but the state sent more than 75,000 men to the Union Army. More than 13,000 of them died in the war from wounds or disease, while others died in prison camps. That number is almost equal to the total of all Iowans killed in World War I, World War II, Korea and Vietnam." "Following the Civil War, farms and small towns covered the state and the trend of raising crops continued. Prior to the war, farmers had primarily raised wheat; following the war they began to diversify. Their main crop became corn, which they fed livestock tp produce pork, beef and wool, a [practice] that continues today." "Also, after the Civil War the state continued to attract people. Iowa's population shot from 674,913 in 1860 to 1,194,020 in 1870. With this growth, Iowa--like the nation--became a community of diverse cultures. Germans were the largest group of immigrants and could be found in every county in the state. Iowa also became home for many other nationalities, including Swedes, Norwegians, Danes, Dutch, Czechs, Italians and Croatians." "Many of these groups settled in certain areas of the state and were known by particular occupations. For example, the Norwegians who settled in Boone County, and the Danes who settled in southwestern Iowa were known for their farming. However, many Swedes also became coal miners. The Dutch settled in two areas, Marion County and northwestern Iowa, and were also involved in farming. Many of the Italians and Croatians settled in southern and central Iowa and worked the coal mines." "During the late 19th and early 20th centuries many African-Americans also migrated to Iowa. At that time, Iowa was a center of the coal industry, and one of the best known coal communities was Buxton, which at one time had a population of 5000; 54% of which was African-American. When the coal mines died in the early 1900's so did Buxton, and its African-American population moved on to other areas of the state." "When the United States entered World War I in 1914 the wartime economy brought prosperity to Iowa's farmers and those in other states as well. To show their patriotism, Iowa farmers were urged to increase production of corn, beef and pork for the war effort. Because of the economic good times, they bought more land and expanded their operations. However, their economic boom was about to bust." "Starting in 1929, the farming community fell on hard times. Many farmers had trouble making payments for their earlier expansion. Those hardships continued until 1933, when a federal farm program was created to help farmers along the road to recovery; although complete recovery did not occur until the 1940's." "As the 1940's rolled in, so did World War II. Thousands of Iowans fought either in the European Campaign or in the Pacific, while thousands of others worked in factories which produced materials for the war effort." "Following World War II, peace brought prosperity and secutiry to Iowa. Agriculture continued as the state's number one industry, but more manufacturing operations started. Goods and commodities produced in Iowa were being sold around the world and all Iowans were enjoying a quality of life seldom, if ever, matched anywhere." "Life in Iowa continues to change. However, through all the changes there has been a constant: Iowans continue to hold fast to traditions. They still believe in strong educational systems, strong families, honesty and friendliness." Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
KANSAS Settled: 1727 Date admitted to the Union: 29 Jan 1861 Order of admission: 34 Capital: Topeka Extent in Miles (length): 400 Extent in Miles (width): 210 Area in square miles (land): 81,778 Area in square miles (inland water): 499 Area in square miles (total): 82,277 Rank in Area: 14 Official Nickname: Sunflower State Motto: Ad Astra Per Aspera (To the Stars Through Difficulties) Flower: Native Sunflower Bird: Western Meadowlark Tree: Cottonwood Song: Home on the Range Population (1990): 2,477,574 Population Rank (1990): 32 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: manufacturing, finance, insurance, real estate, services Annotated Link List: Cultures Timeline, Kansas State Historical Society Good timeline, and organization by topics Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
LOUISIANA Settled: 1699 Date admitted to the Union: 30 Apr 1812 Order of admission: 18 Capital: Baton Rouge Extent in Miles (length): 380 Extent in Miles (width): 130 Area in square miles (land): 44,521 Area in square miles (inland water): 3,230 Area in square miles (total): 47,752 Rank in Area: 31 Official Nickname: Pelican State Motto: Union, Justice, and Confidence Flower: Magnolia Bird: Eastern Brown Pelican Tree: Cypress Song: Give Me Louisiana Population (1990): 4,219,973 Population Rank (1990): 21 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: wholesale and retail trade, government, manufacturing, construction, transportation, mining Annotated Link List: Louisiana Timeline "This section of the Encyclopedia Louisiana contains chronological information about the development and history of the colony, territory and the state of Louisiana." "This timeline is the heart of the history section of this encyclopedia. A year by year and eventually a day by day chronology of the history of Louisiana will have links to biographies of people and maps of events that will help you understand the historical development that made our state what it is today. Below are indices arranged by decade and by historical period." 1671-1680: Early Exploration of North America 1681-1690: The Exploration of North America Heats Up 1691-1700:Early Exploration of Louisiana and the Mississippi 1701-1710:French Explore the Upper Mississippi 1711-1720: Crozat owns Louisiana, Louis XIV dies, John Law owns Louisiana Natchitoches and New Orleans Established 1731-1740 Louisiana Returns to Crown Colony Status Charity Hospital Established 1741-1750 Bienville Resigns for Good Vaudreuil Holds Court as Governor 1751-1760 Battle Over North America Heats Up Acadians Begin their Diaspora 1761-1770 France Loses Seven Years War Louis XV Cedes Louisiana to Spain First Revolution in Western Hemisphere Eventually Fails 1771-1780 The American Revolution Affects New Orleans Galvez Retakes Florida From Great Britain 1781-1790 Galvez takes West Florida The United States gets help from Louisiana 1791-1800 The Colony is Ignored Louisiana: The Most Efficient Spanish Colony 1801-1810 The Louisiana Purchase Territorial Struggles 1811-1820 Statehood The Borders of Louisiana Defined by treaties 1821-1830 Growing Pains Creoles vs. Americans 1831-1840 Rapid Growth American Economic Supremacy New Orleans Divided 1841-1850 War in Mexico and Zachary Taylor The Baroness Dresses Up the Square 1851-1860 Cotton is King Yellow Jack Visits Again and Again Storm Clouds Ahead 1861-1870 War and Military Occupation Freedom from Slavery Scalawags, Carpetbaggers and Crippled Heros 1871-1880 Reconstruction | Bulldozers A Deal for the Presidency 1881-1890 World's Industrial & Cotton Centennial Exposition Jim Crow and Agrarian Reforms in the North 1891-1900 Comprehensive Drainage Plan | Storeyville Then one page per decade for 20th Century Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
MINNESOTA Settled: 1805 Date admitted to the Union: 11 May 1858 Order of admission: 32 Capital: St. Paul Extent in Miles (length): 400 Extent in Miles (width): 250 Area in square miles (land): 79,548 Area in square miles (inland water): 4,854 Area in square miles (total): 84,402 Rank in Area: 12 Official Nicknames: North Star State, Gopher State Motto: L'Etoile Nord (The Star of the North) Flower: Pink and White Lady's Slipper Bird: Common Loon Tree: Red Pine Song: Hail! Minnesota Population (1990): 4,375,099 Population Rank (1990): 20 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: agribusiness, forest products, mining, manufacturing, tourism Annotated Link List: Minnesota History: A Chronology Minnesota History: A Chronology 1659-1660: French fur traders Groseilliers and Radisson explore western end of Lake Superior and environs. 1673: French explorers Marquette and Joliet discover the upper portion of the Mississippi River. 1679: Frenchman Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Luth meets with Dakota Indians near Mille Lacs. 1683: Catholic Missionary Father Louis Hennepin returns to France after exploring Minnesota and being held captive by the Dakota to write the first book about Minnesota, Description de la Louisiane. 1745: The Ojibwe Indians defeat the Dakota Indians at the Kathio, driving the Dakota into southern and western Minnesota. 1763: Spain receives Louisiana Territory (includes Minnesota west of the Mississippi River) from France in compensation for its loss of Florida during the Seven Years War. Great Britain wins claim to what is now eastern North America (east of the Mississippi River) and Canada. 1770-1804: Grand Portage (Minnesota) evolves into the western fur-trading headquarters of the British Empire in North America. British troops stationed here act as only military force in Minnesota during the American Revolution. Fur trading continues to be the main source of commerce in Minnesota through the early 19th century. 1775-1783: American Revolution 1783: The newly formed republic of the United States of America wins the eastern portion of Minnesota (from the Mississippi river east) from Great Britain in the American Revolution. 1787: Eastern Minnesota officially designated part of the American Northwest Territories of the United States of America. David Thompson, working for the North West Company (fur-trading) completes the first formal mapping of Minnesota. 1800: France acquires Louisiana Territory from Spain. 1803: The United States of America purchases Louisiana Territory from France, gaining ownership of the western portion of Minnesota. Boundary disputes with British Canada keep British fur companies in Minnesota until 1818. 1805: Lieutenant Zebulon Montgomery Pike leads the first United States expedition through the Minnesota country. 1812-1814: War of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain with their Dakota, Winnebago, and Ojibwe allies. 1815 Peace treaty negotiated between the Dakota Indian nation and the United States government. First American fur traders enter Minnesota. 1818 Northern boundary of Minnesota fixed at the forty-ninth parallel. Boundary negotiations with British Canada continue until 1931. Lawrence Taliaferro instated as first United States Indian agent at Fort Snelling. 1819 Colonel Josiah Snelling begins construction of Fort St. Anthony on land purchased from the Dakota Indians for $2000 US. 1824 Fort St. Anthony completed. Name changed to Fort Snelling in Honor of Colonel Josiah Snelling's work. 1832 Henry Schoolcraft credited with finding the source of the Mississippi River at Lake Itasca, Minnesota with his Ojibwe guide Ozawindib. 1836 Creation of Wisconsin Territory which encompassed Minnesota. 1837 Land-cession treaties negotiated with the Dakota Indians and the Chippewa Indians for United States rights to a portion of land between the Mississippi and St. Croix rivers. This new land stimulates the lumber industry in Minnesota. 1841 Chapel of Saint Paul built. Later it would serve to name the state capitol which sprang up around it. 1838-1848 St. Paul, St. Anthony, and Stillwater (Minnesota's first towns) founded. 1848 Wisconsin admitted into the union as a state, leaving residents of the area between the Mississippi and St. Croix rivers (current day eastern Minnesota) without a territorial government or legal system. 1849 Minnesota Territory formed with present day eastern and southern boundaries set. The population amounts to less than 4000 people, not including persons of pure Native-American heritage. Law provides for free public schools to be open to all people between four and twenty-one years of age. Minnesota Historical Society formed to collect, publish, and educate people about Minnesota history. James Madison Goodhue begins publishing Minnesota's first newspaper, the Minnesota Pioneer. 1850 Treaties concluded at Traverse des Sioux and Mendota with the Dakota Indians whereby the Dakota ceded their lands east of the Red River, Lake Traverse, and the Big Dakota River and south of a boundary line between the Dakota and Chippewa in 1825. In return the Dakota received $1,665,000 US, $1,360,000 of which was set into a trust fund, of which the interest would be distributed to chiefs partly in cash, partly in supplies, and partly in education and civilization funds. The vast majority ended up being used to pay off Indian debts to white traders. Wheat becomes a major crop in Minnesota. 1851 Charter granted to the University of Minnesota, the first collegiate institution in the territory. 1853-1857 Population explosion occurs in Minnesota from 40,000 people in 1853 to approximately 150,000 people in 1857. 1854 St. Paul becomes a city with a total area of four square miles. 1855 Die Minnesota Deutsche Zeitung (The Minnesota German Newspaper), Minnesota's first non-English newspaper, rolls off the press for the first time in St. Paul. 1857 The Dred Scott Decision is rendered by the United States Supreme Court, where a Missouri slave, Dred Scott, sued for his freedom based in part upon his residence in Minnesota. Amidst the sectional and racial animosity sweeping the nation, the court ruled Scott remained a slave. The residents of the Minnesota territory ratify the state constitution almost unanimously. The Panic of 1857 sends prices skyrocketing. Banks bust and businesses fail. Depression lingers until 1861. 1858 Newspaper promotion of the Minnesota Territory prompts over one thousand steamboat arrivals in St. Paul, filled with settlers. On May 11 Minnesota becomes the thirty-second state admitted to the Union of the United States of America. State seal adopted by the Minnesota Legislature. 1858-1859 Henry Sibley instated as first governor of Minnesota. 1859 First Minnesota State Fair held. 1861 Civil War of the United States begins. Minnesota volunteers one thousand men for service in the Union Army. Minnesota eventually provides 24,000 men for service in the Union Army for fighting in the Civil War or the Indian Outbreak. 1862 The Dakota Conflict sweeps across Minnesota with a series of attacks motivated by hungry Dakota enraged by the failure of land treaties and unfair fiscal practices of local traders. By the end of the conflict 486 white settlers would be dead. On December 26 thirty-eight Indians were hung at Mankato. Minnesota's first railroad is completed, connecting Minneapolis and Saint Paul. 1863 At the Battle of Gettysburg the First Minnesota Regiment makes a heroic charges, losing 215 of 262 men. 1865 Civil War of the United States ends. 1868 Mankato receives a city charter. The Minnesota Legislature authorizes establishment of the 2nd State Normal School in Mankato (now known as Minnesota State University, Mankato). 1873 A three-day blizzard hits Minnesota in January, killing seventy Minnesotans. 1878 68.98% of tilled land in Minnesota devoted to wheat production, the high point for wheat farmers in Minnesota. After five consecutive summers of devastating infestations of Rocky Mountain Locusts (called the great Grasshopper Plague) which thrived on wheat, farmers decided to diversify, and wheat production was slowly replaced by other crops and dairy farming. A massive explosion in a Minneapolis flour mill kills 18. 1880 Telephone communication begun between St. Paul and Minneapolis. 1881 St. Paul is destroyed by fire. 1883 Mayo Clinic founded by Dr. William Worrall Mayo in Rochester, Minnesota after a tornado sweeps through Rochester, killing 35. With his two sons, Dr. William James Mayo and Dr. Charles Horace Mayo, he begins a clinic world-renowned for its dedication to the latest advances in medicine and surgical procedures. 1884 Minnesota iron ore begins to be exported heralding the dawn of iron mining in Minnesota. Over the next two decades mines spring up on the Mesabi, Cuyuna, and Vermilion iron ranges, spurring the rapid growth of mining cities such as Evelyth, Chisholm, Virginia, and Hibbing, Minnesota as well as the port cities of Duluth, Minnesota and Superior, Wisconsin. 1886 Sauk Rapids is flattened by a tornado. Seventy-nine people die. St. Paul holds its first winter carnival. 1887 St. Paul hosts the first ski tourney in the Midwest. 1888 Western Minnesota receives a major blizzard on January 12 which takes 109 lives. 1890s Electric streetcars become commonplace in large Minnesota cities. 1893 The Minnesota state flag, designed by Amelia Hyde Center of Minneapolis, is accepted by the Minnesota Legislature. Virginia, Minnesota destroyed by fire. 1894 A massive forest fire caused by clear-cut logging debris encompasses Hinckley, Minnesota and several other nearby communities. Over four hundred die. 1898 The Spanish-American War begins. Minnesota, the first state to volunteer, raises four regiments, one of which serves in the Philippines. Disease proves to be the biggest killer, with combat fatalities accounting for only four Minnesota soldier deaths. Farmer Olof Ohman finds a stone tablet with runic carvings on it in his field near Kensington, Minnesota. The runes indicate a party of Viking explorers passed through that area in 1362. Initially considered a hoax, it was accepted by the Smithsonian Institution in 1948. Opinions differ, but most academic sources today doubt its veracity. 1899 Minnesota's lumber industry reaches its peak. By 1930 only 1/3 of the state would remain forested, with very little of that virgin growth. 1900 Virginia, Minnesota destroyed by fire again. 1902 Approximately twelve automobiles appear in Minneapolis. Tom Shevlin, son of a lumber magnate, gets arrested for violating the ten mile per hour city speed limit. 1905 John A. Johnson, Minnesota's first native-born governor, elected to the first of his three terms. Lumber production peaks in Minnesota. 1906 William Williams is hanged in the county jail in St. Paul on February 13, ending capital punishment in Minnesota. 1908 Chisholm, Minnesota is virtually obliterated by a late summer forest fire. 1914 World War I begins. Minneapolis becomes the home of the Federal Reserve Bank. 1917 The United States of America enters World War I. 118,497 men from Minnesota serve in the war. 1918 World War I ends with 1,432 Minnesotans in uniform giving their lives for their country. The new Farmer-Labor Party becomes the second largest political party in Minnesota and capitalizes on the rural depression which plagues Minnesota until 1824 to gain a broad base of support. Influenza spreads to Minnesota. Labeled a "pandemic of influenza", this disease managed to kill 7,521Minnesotans in 1918 and more than 4,200 over the course of the following two years. Cloquet and Moose Lake, Minnesota are destroyed when seventy mile an hour winds change minor forest fires into major conflagrations. 1919 Minnesota ratifies the 19th amendment (women's suffrage) to the United States constitution. A tornado strikes Fergus Falls, Minnesota killing 59. 1920 Minnesota authors receive international recognition. Main Street, written by Sinclair Lewis, earns national recognition as he takes a critical look at his hometown of Sauk Centre, Minnesota. By the end of the decade he had won the Nobel Prize for literature after a string of four more novels won international acclaim. St. Paul native F. Scott Fitzgerald receives much acclaim for his book This Side of Paradise. By 1925 he had published five more works, all focusing on the extravagance and despair of the 1920s in the United States. 1921 WLB, the first Minnesota radio station, formed at the University of Minnesota. 1927 Charles Lindbergh, a native of Little Falls, Minnesota, flies solo across the Atlantic Ocean from New York to Paris. 1929 Great Depression begins in the United States. The depression begins in Minnesota with the bankruptcy of key employers in Minneapolis and quickly spreads to the rest of the state. 1930-1935 Over 1/2 of iron ore extracted from the earth originates in Minnesota mines. 1931 Ancient remains of 20,000 year old skeleton dubbed "Minnesota Man" found in Otter Tail County, Minnesota. 1933 "Browns Valley Man" remains, estimated to be 8,000 - 10,000 years old, discovered in Brown County, Minnesota. 1934 Edward G. Bremer of St. Paul kidnapped by the Barker-Karpis gang. His ransom of $200,000 US is one of the largest ransoms in the United States up to that time. By 1936 the kidnappers had been caught and convicted. "Public Enemy Number 1" John Dillinger has a gun battle with FBI agents in St. Paul on March 11 and escapes. 1936 Temperatures remain below zero for a record thirty-six days beginning on January 18. Later in the summer Moorhead, Minnesota ties a state record high official temperature of 114 degrees Fahrenheit, previously set in Beardsley, Minnesota in 1927. 1939 A hockey game in the Duluth Amphitheater is interrupted when the ceiling collapses under the weight of snow. No deaths are reported. 1940 The Armistice Day Blizzard strikes Minnesota leaving a 16.8 inches of snow in twenty four hours. Winds that day exceed thirty two miles per hour with gusts over sixty miles per hour. Forty-nine Minnesota residents die and over $1,500,000 US worth of property is damaged as a result of the storm. 1941 First tax on taconite, a black magnetic iron-bearing ore, in effect in Minnesota. The United States enters World War II. Singer Bob Zimmerman (Bob Dylan) born in Duluth. 1944 The Democratic and Farmer Labor parties merge to form the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party. 1945 World War II ends with 6,255 American servicemen from Minnesota giving their lives for their country. The Minnesota state song, "Hail! Minnesota" is adopted by the Minnesota Legislature. 1948 Minnesota's first television station, KSTP, goes on the air. 1950 The Korean War begins. By the time of the armistice in 1953, 688 Minnesotans had died in the fighting. 1951 Over 82% of iron ore extracted from United States mines during this year originates in Minnesota. 1954 Coya Knutson becomes the first (and currently the only) Minnesota woman elected to the Congress of the United States. 1958 Prince Rogers Nelson (the artist formerly known as Prince) born in Minneapolis. 1959 The opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway makes Duluth accessible to the Atlantic Ocean. 1963 Last iron ore shipment leaves the Vermillion iron range. 1964 Minnesota Senator Hubert Humphrey elected vice-president of the United States as the running-mate of president Lyndon Johnson. Conventional American ground forces are introduced into Vietnam. 1968 Senator Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota begins his bid for the presidency by easily winning the New Hampshire presidential primary. Minnesota Senator Hubert Humphrey also runs for president that year, narrowly losing to Richard Nixon. The American Indian Movement (AIM) is founded in Minneapolis to combat racism. 1969 Warren Burger, a native of St. Paul, named to the Supreme Court of the United States. 1970 Minnesotan Harry Blackmun named to the Supreme Court of the United States. He would later write the majority opinion in the case of Roe v. Wade, which legalizes abortion. 1975 The last American military personnel leave Vietnam with the evacuation of the United States embassy in Saigon, completely ending American involvement in Vietnam and the Vietnam War. 1,053 Minnesotans gave their lives over the course of the war. 1976 Jimmy Carter becomes the 39th president of the United States with Minnesota Senator Walter Mondale as his vice-president. Mondale would later run for president in 1984, losing to Ronald Reagan. 1977 Rosalie Wahl becomes the first woman justice in the Minnesota Supreme Court. 1980 Last iron ore shipment leaves the Cuyuna iron range. 1982 A total of 34.3 inches of snow falls on the Twin Cities on January 20 and 22. Taconite mining emerges as the future employment source for the iron range, with 12,000 workers. The subsequent depression and trend toward mechanization halve that number by 1995. 1984 Last iron ore shipment leaves the Mesabi iron range, effectively ending Minnesota's direct iron ore industry and confirming a difficult depression on the iron range. 1987 The Minnesota Twins win the World Series. 1988 The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, passed to promote tribal economies, causes a boom in Indian casinos and gambling in Minnesota. By 1990 Minnesota ranks fourth in the nation in per capita gambling sales. Minnesota hit by a record setting drought. 1990 Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev visits Minnesota. 1991 Operation Desert Storm occurs with approximately 11,000 Minnesotans in uniform helping to defeat Iraq and liberate Kuwait. The Minnesota Twins win the World Series. A record-breaking snowstorm hits Minnesota on November 1 depositing twenty-four inches of snow in twenty-four hours. 1996 Coldest official temperature ever recorded in Minnesota set at -60 degrees Fahrenheit on February 2 near Tower, MN. 1998 Minnesota becomes home to largest ethnic Hmong population in America. Sources: * The Minnesota Legislative Manual * Awesome Almanac Minnesota * Minnesota: A History of the State * The American Past: Part 1: A Survey of American History to 1877 * All Hell Broke Loose: Experiences of Young People During the Armistice Day 1940 Blizzard * The People's Health: A History of Public Health in Minnesota to 1948 * Muskets to Missiles: A Military History of Minnesota * Minnesota: A History * "The Minnesota Territory." A lecture by Dr. William E. Lass * The Minnesota Book of Days * State of Minnesota, Department of Natural Resources Website Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
MISSOURI Settled: 1735 Date admitted to the Union: 10 Aug 1821 Order of admission: 24 Capital: Jefferson City Extent in Miles (length): 300 Extent in Miles (width): 240 Area in square miles (land): 68,945 Area in square miles (inland water): 752 Area in square miles (total): 69,697 Rank in Area: 19 Official Nicknames: Show Me State Motto: Salus Populi Suprema Lex Esto (The Welfare of the People Shall Be the Supreme Law)) Flower: Hawthorn Bird: Bluebird Tree: Dogwood Song: Missouri Waltz Population (1990): 5,117,073 Population Rank (1990): 15 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: agriculture, manufacturing, aerospace, tourism Annotated Link List: Missouri State Archives Timeline of Missouri History 1673 During their voyage down the Mississippi River, Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet were the first Europeans to set foot on land that would later become Missouri 1682 Explorer Robert Cavalier, Sieur de La Salle took possession of the Louisiana Territory area for France (Apr. 9) 1724 Fort Orleans built on the north bank of the Missouri River by Etienne de Bourgmont in today's Carroll County; it was abandoned six years later 1750 Approximate date of the founding of Ste. Genevieve, the first permanent white settlement 1762 Spain gained control of the Louisiana Territory in the Treaty of Fontainebleau (Nov. 13) 1764 City of St. Louis was founded by Pierre Laclede Liguest (Feb. 15) 1769 City of St. Charles was established by Louis Blanchette as a trading post 1770 The Spanish government officially assumed control of the Territory of Louisiana (May 20) 1773 Mine au Breton (later Potosi) founded 1789 Colonel George Morgan established the city of New Madrid (Feb. 14) 1793 Louis Lorimer received trading privileges and authority to establish a post at Cape Girardeau (Jan. 4) 1798 Lieutenant Governor Zenon Trudeau of the Spanish government offered Daniel Boone 1000 arpents to settle in the Louisiana Territory. 1800 Moses Austin made the first sheet lead and cannonballs manufactured in Missouri 1800 Spain returned the Louisiana Territory to France (Oct. 30) Fort Osage 1803 The Louisiana Purchase was signed (Apr. 30) 1804 The Lewis and Clark Expedition set out from St. Louis (May 21) 1805 The Territory of Louisiana was established; the seat of government was St. Louis (Mar. 3) 1808 The city of Ste. Genevieve was incorporated (June 18) 1808 Joseph Charless founded the first newspaper in Missouri, the "Missouri Gazette" 1808 Fort Osage was established on the Missouri River 1809 The Missouri Fur Company was organized in St. Louis. The abundance of animal pelts in the Mississippi Valley region played a key role in the development of the Upper Louisiana territory. Prominent members of the Company included fur trader Manuel Lisa, Auguste and Pierre Chouteau, and William Clark 1811 The first shocks of the New Madrid earthquakes, the worst in US history, occurred (Dec. 16) 1812 A portion of the Territory of Louisiana became the Territory of Missouri (June 4) 1812 The first general assembly of the Territory of Missouri met (Oct. 1); the five original counties were organized: Cape Girardeau, New Madrid, St. Charles, St. Louis, and Ste. Genevieve 1816 Mid-Missouri's first circuit court opened at Cole's Fort (July 8) 1817 The steamboat Zebulon M. Pike reached St. Louis, the first steamboat to navigate the Mississippi River above the mouth of the Ohio River (Aug. 2) 1818 The Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives presented the first petition to Congress from Missouri requesting statehood (Jan. 8) 1820 The Missouri statehood controversy became a national issue as the issue of slavery was debated. The "Missouri Compromise" allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free state, thus keeping the balance of slave and free states equal in Congress. Although Missouri was allowed to enter as a slave state, the remaining portion of the Louisiana Purchase area north of the 36° 30¢ line was to be forever free of slavery. 1820 Missouri's Enabling Act was passed and approved by President James Monroe (Mar. 6) 1820 Missouri's first Constitution was adopted (July 19) 1820 Missouri's first state elections were held and Alexander McNair was elected Missouri's first governor (Aug. 28) 1820 Missouri's first General Assembly began its first session at the Missouri Hotel in St. Louis (Sept. 18) 1821 President James Monroe admitted Missouri as the 24th state; the state capitol was located in St. Charles until a permanent location was designated (Aug. 10) 1821 The Santa Fe Trail was opened by William Becknell's successful trading expeditions to Santa Fe (Sept. 1) 1821 Governor Alexander McNair signed the bill designating the site for the City of Jefferson (Dec. 31) 1822 A bill to create the Missouri State Seal was adopted (Jan. 11) 1825 William Beaumont began research observing the human digestive system (Aug. 1) 1826 Jefferson City was designated Missouri's permanent seat of government; all state records, equipment, and the Great Seal were moved to Jefferson City on October 1st. 1829 Missouri State Library established by law (Jan. 22) 1835 Writer Samuel L. Clemens (Mark Twain) was born in Florida, Missouri (November 30) 1836 Missouri State Penitentiary received its first prisoner (Mar. 8) 1837 President Martin Van Buren issued a proclamation which completed the annexation of the Platte Purchase area to Missouri, establishing the northwestern border of the state (Mar. 28) 1837 Missouri's first capitol in Jefferson City was destroyed by fire (Nov.15) 1838 Governor Lilburn Boggs issued the "Extermination Order" against Mormons living in Missouri, demanding that members of the Mormon church leave the state (Oct. 27) 1839 The Geyer Act, the foundation of Missouri's public school system, was approved (Feb. 9) 1841 The University of Missouri, the first state university west of the Mississippi River, opened (Apr. 14) 1843 Joseph Robidoux filed a plat of a town which he called St. Joseph (July 26) 1843 Susan Elizabeth Blow, founder of the public kindergarten movement, was born in St. Louis (June 7) 1847 Legislation was enacted to establish a hospital for care and treatment of the insane; State Hospital No. 1 was established in Fulton and began receiving patients in 1851 1847 Boatmen's Bank, the oldest bank west of the Mississippi River, was established (Oct. 18) 1847 St. Louis was connected to the East Coast by telegraph (Dec. 20) 1849 U.S. Senator David Rice Atchison, from Missouri, was President for a day (Mar. 4) 1849 With the discovery of gold in California, the Missouri towns of St. Louis, Independence, Westport, and St. Joseph became points of departure for emigrants bound for California, making Missouri the "Gateway to the West" 1849 The second, and most serious, cholera epidemic struck St. Louis; over 4000 people died 1850 The town of Kansas (later Kansas City) was incorporated (Feb. 4) 1850 Poet Eugene Field was born in St. Louis (Sept. 3) 1851 Groundbreaking ceremonies for the construction of the Pacific Railroad were held in St. Louis; the line was to go from St. Louis to Jefferson City and then to some point on the western boundary (July 4) Missouri Botanical Gardens 1854 President Franklin Pierce signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, allowing the notion of "popular sovereignty" in determining if a territory would be a slave state or a free state. This act set the stage for the violent Kansas-Missouri border wars where the Missouri "Border Ruffians" and the Kansas "Jayhawkers" transformed a frontier quarrel over slavery's borders into a national issue (May 30) 1857 The Dred Scott decision was handed down by U.S. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney; the case originated in St. Louis. Under Missouri statutes, in 1846 Scott was allowed to sue for his freedom from slavery based on the fact that he had previously lived in a free territory (Wisconsin) before his return to the slave state of Missouri (Mar. 6) 1857 Work began on the Missouri Botanical Gardens in St. Louis, established by Henry Shaw 1860 The short-lived Pony Express started its first run from St. Joseph to Sacramento, California (Apr. 3) 1861 The Battle of Wilson's Creek resulted in a Union retreat and southwestern Missouri was left in Confederate hands until the Battle of Pea Ridge (Aug. 10) 1861 President Abraham Lincoln revoked John Fremont's emancipation proclamation for Missouri (Sept. 11) Lincoln University, c1900 1861 Missouri's "Rebel Legislature" adopted an Act of Secession (Oct. 28) 1862 In a three-day battle at Pea Ridge, Arkansas, the Union Army forced the Confederates, excluding the state guard from Missouri, to retreat; this battle effectively ended the threat of Confederate military control in Missouri (Mar. 6-8) 1863 William Clarke Quantrill and his band of pro-Southern guerillas raided the pro-Union town of Lawrence, Kansas, killing nearly 150 men and boys. This attack served to avenge the imprisonment of their wives, mothers, and sisters in Kansas City (Aug. 21) 1863 Brigadier General Thomas Ewing issued General Order No. 11, requiring all people living in Jackson, Cass, Bates, and northern Vernon counties to vacate the area unless their loyalty to the Union could be proven (Aug. 25) 1864 George Washington Carver born near Diamond, Missouri 1865 Slavery was abolished in Missouri by an ordinance of immediate emancipation, making Missouri the first slave state to emancipate its slaves before the adoption of the 13th Amendment to the US Constitution (Jan. 11) 1865 Missouri's second Constitution (Drake Constitution) was adopted. A group of politicians, known as "Radicals," favored emancipation of slaves and disfranchisement of persons who were sympathetic to the Confederacy during the Civil War. The Radicals included an "Ironclad Oath" in the new constitution to exclude former Confederate sympathizers from the vote and certain occupations, severely limiting their civil rights (Apr. 10) 1866 Lincoln Institute (later Lincoln University) was incorporated (Apr. 6) as an institution for black students in Missouri 1866 The Missouri Historical Society was organized in St. Louis (Aug. 11) 1867 The Missouri Woman's Suffrage Club was organized in St. Louis; the sole purpose of this organization was the political enfranchisement of women, the first such organization in the United States (May 8) 1868 Ragtime composer Scott Joplin was born in Sedalia, Missouri (Nov. 24) 1870 M. Lemma Barkeloo was the first woman lawyer in Missouri (St. Louis); She was the first woman trial lawyer in the United States, and the first woman lawyer to try a case in federal court. 1871 Phoebe W. Couzins of St. Louis became Missouri's first woman law school graduate when she graduated from the Washington University Law Department (May 8) Couzins later became the nation's first Woman U.S. Marshal in 1887 1872 Governor B. Gratz Brown and family moved into the newly completed Governor's Mansion (Jan. 20) Eads Bridge, St. Louis, Mo. 1873 The Missouri Supreme Court upheld a decision by the St. Louis Circuit Court, denying Virginia Minor the right to register to vote 1873 Susan Blow opened the first public kindergarten in the United States in St. Louis 1874 The first train robbery by the James Gang took place at Gads Hill (Jan. 31) 1874 The Eads Bridge, spanning the Mississippi River, was opened in St. Louis (July 4) 1875 Grasshopper plague in Missouri caused an estimated $15 million worth of damages 1875 Missouri's third Constitution was adopted (Oct. 30) 1881 Governor Thomas Crittenden offered a $5000 reward for the arrest and conviction of members of the Jesse James gang (July 28) 1882 Jesse James was killed by Bob Ford in St. Joseph (Apr. 3) 1891 St. Louis' Wainwright Building, one of America's first skyscrapers, was designed by Louis Sullivan. 1894 The American School of Osteopathy was incorporated by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still in Kirksville (Oct. 30) 1898 Volunteers for the Spanish-American War began arriving in St. Louis (May 4) 1899 The State Historical Society of Missouri was incorporated in Columbia (Mar. 9) 1901 The first State Fair held at Sedalia opened (Sept. 9) 1901 The Monsanto Company was founded in St. Louis (Nov. 29) 1904 Worlds Fair 1904 The 1904 World's Fair opened in St. Louis (Apr. 30) 1907 The primary election law was adopted in Missouri 1909 Missouri Supreme Court handed down a decision in the case against Standard Oil Company, affirming the company's violation of Missouri antitrust laws 1911 Missouri State Capitol was completely destroyed by fire after being struck by lightning (Feb. 5) 1913 Direct election of senators was authorized; previously US senators from Missouri were elected by the General Assembly 1919 Governor Frederick D. Gardner signed a law granting presidential suffrage to women (Apr. 5) 1919 Missouri became the eleventh state to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment granting suffrage to women (July 2) 1920 Marie Byrum became the first woman to vote in Missouri history (Aug. 31) 1921 The Centennial Road Law, providing for the construction of a modern system of Missouri highways, was signed into law (Aug. 4) 1922 Mellcene T. Smith and Sarah Lucille Turner became the first women elected to the Missouri state legislature (Nov. 7) 1927 Charles Lindbergh landed the "Spirit of St. Louis" in Paris (May 21) 1931 A bill creating the Missouri State Highway Patrol was signed by Governor Henry S. Caulfield (Apr. 24) 1931 Bagnell Dam was completed, forming the Lake of the Ozarks, one of the largest artificial lakes in the world with approximately 1400 miles of shoreline 1933 William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, was opened to the public in Kansas City 1935 Thomas Hart Benton painted A Social History of Missouri in the State Capitol Building's House Lounge 1937 The first Missouri Conservation Commission was appointed (July 1) 1938 The United States Supreme Court handed down its decision in the Lloyd Gaines case. The court struck a blow to Missouri's "separate but equal" laws, stating that in the absence of an equal law school for black students, Gaines should be admitted to the University of Missouri law school (Dec. 12) 1939 Kansas City "Boss" Tom Pendergast was sentenced to fifteen months in the federal penitentiary for income tax evasion (May 22) 1939 The McDonnell Aircraft Corporation was organized by J.S. McDonnell; it merged with Douglas to form McDonnell Douglas Aircraft Corporation in 1967 1940 The Ellis Fischel State Cancer Center was opened in Columbia, becoming the first state-owned and operated hospital west of the Mississippi River devoted exclusively to the care of cancer patients 1945 The Missouri Supreme Court handed down its decision in the Kraemer v. Shelley St. Louis housing segregation case 1945 Missouri's fourth, and current, Constitution became effective (Mar. 30) 1945 U.S. Vice President Harry S Truman became President upon the death of Franklin Delano Roosevelt (Apr. 12) 1945 Japan signed documents of surrender ending World War II in the Pacific on the deck of the USS Missouri (Sept. 2) 1946 Winston Churchill, former Prime Minister of England, delivered his "Iron Curtain" speech at Fulton's Westminster College (Mar. 5) 1948 President Harry S Truman elected to the Presidency 1952 Leonor K. Sullivan became Missouri's first woman U.S. Representative 1954 The Missouri State Penitentiary Riot (Sept. 22) 1957 Missouri Commission on Human Rights was created (June 8) 1965 The Gateway Arch (Jefferson National Expansion Memorial) designed by Eero Saarinen was completed. Located on the original settlement site of St. Louis, it symbolizes the role of St. Louis in the development of the western frontier 1968 Race riots in Kansas City in response to the death of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (April) 1972 Mary Gant became Missouri's first woman state senator 1977 Gwen B. Giles became Missouri's first African-American woman state senator 1980 Court-ordered desegregation began in Missouri, attempting to alleviate the racial isolation of black students. The court determined that the State of Missouri was required to pay half of the cost of school desegregation plans; numerous legal issues arose (May) 1982 Government workers began taking soil samples, testing for dioxin at Times Beach; the town was later evacuated 1984 Margaret B. Kelly became the first woman to hold statewide office in Missouri when she was appointed to the office of State Auditor (May 30) 1987 Whiteman Air Force Base in Knob Knoster was designated as the home of the B-2 Stealth Bomber unit 1987 Ann K. Covington became the first woman appointed to the Missouri Supreme Court 1988 The Missouri Supreme Court handed down its decision in the Nancy Cruzan "right to life" case 1988 Missouri's first presidential primary on the occasion of Richard Gephardt, US Congressman from Missouri, running for the Democratic nomination 1992 Missouri voters approved riverboat gambling excursions on the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers 1993 The Great Flood of 1993 devastated parts of Missouri and the Midwest 1993 Outstanding Schools Act was passed; it was a $310 million measure to reform Missouri schools and their funding Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
MONTANA Settled: 1809 Date admitted to the Union: 8 Nov 1889 Order of admission: 41 Capital: Helena Extent in Miles (length): 630 Extent in Miles (width): 280 Area in square miles (land): 145,388 Area in square miles (inland water): 1,658 Area in square miles (total): 147,046 Rank in Area: 4 Official Nicknames: Treasure State Motto: Oro y Plata (Gold and Silver) Flower: Bitterroot Bird: Western Meadowlark Tree: Poderosa Pine Song: Montana Population (1990): 799,065 Population Rank (1990): 44 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: agribusiness, forest products, mining, manufacturing, tourism Annotated Link List: MONTANA HISTORY TIMELINE 1805-1806: Lewis and Clark Expedition crosses and recrosses Montana 1807: Manuel Lisa builds first fur fort in Montana on the Yellowstone River 1828: Fort Union, an American Fur Company post, is built at the mouth of the Yellowstone River 1841: Father Pierre Jean de Smer establishes St. Mary's Mission in the Bitterrot Valley 1853: Johnny Grant starts the first beef herd in the Deer Lodge Valley 1857: First sheep ranching begins in the Bitterroot Valley 1860: First steamboat reaches Fort Benton 1862: Placer miners rush to gold strike on Grasshopper Creek (Bannack) 1864: Vigilantes hang Henry Plummer and other "Innocents"; Congress creates Montana Territory; First newspaper, the Montana Post, published in Virginia City 1870: Open-range cattle industry begins on Montana Prairies 1872: Congress creates Yellowstone National Park 1876: Custer's command is annihilated at the Battle of the Little Big Horn 1877: Significant copper mining begins in Butte; Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce retreat across Montana 1880: Utah and Northern Railroad enters Montana 1883: Northern Pacific Railroad is completed through Montana; Marcus Daly establishes the town of Anaconda and its smelting works 1889: Montana joins the Union as the 41st state 1890: First hydroelectric dam is built at Great Falls 1935: Works Progress Administration (WPA) begins projects in Montana; Series of severe earthquakes hits central Montana 1936: Rural Electrification Administration (REA) begins work in Montana 1941: Congresswoman Jeanette Rankin votes against U.S. entry into World War II 1943: Smith Mine disaster kills 70 coal miners 1950: Great Falls replaces Butte as Montana's largest city 1951: Petroleum boom begins in eastern Montana 1952: Mike Mansfield is first elected to the U.S. Senate 1953: KOOK-TV (Billings), Montana's first licensed television state, broadcasts 1955: Aluminum plant begins processing in Columbia Falls; Berkeley Pit copper operation starts in Butte 1956: Construction of the federal interstate-highway system begins in Montana 1959: Severe earthquakes hit upper Madison Valley 1961: Malmstrom Air Force Base (Great Falls) becomes site of the nation's first ICBM missile command 1964: Congress passes federal Wilderness Act 1967: Bell Creek petroleum field is discovered and developed; Longest and costliest strike in Montana history runs in Butte 1968: Yellowtail Dam is completed; Work begins on Libby Dam 1969: Large-scale strip mining of coal begins at Colstrip 1970: Consolidation creates the Burlington Northern Railroad 1972: Montana's electorate approves new constitution 1975: Underground mining ceases in Butte 1976: Mike Mansfield retires from U.S. Senate; becomes U.S. ambassador to Japan 1980: Anaconda Company announces the closing of its Montana operations; Billings replaces Great Falls as Montana's largest city; Fallout from Mount St. Helena volcanic eruption blankets Montana 1981: Milwaukee Road declares bankruptcy 1982: Copper-mining operations cease at Butte's Berkeley Pit 1986: Limited underground mining resumes in Butte; Some high-tech gold mining reopens in Montana mountains 1987: Burlington Northern sells a major portion of its Montana trackage to Montana Rail Link; Last gaps in federal interstate-highway system are completed in Montana 1988: U.S. and Canada initiate a Free-Trade Agreement, directly affecting Montana's economy; Large forest fires sweep areas of a drought-striken Montana and Yellowstone National Park 1989: Montana celebrates its statehood centennial 1990: Montana's timber-industry income declines, while gains occur in tourism and specialized mining Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
NEBRASKA Settled: 1823 Date admitted to the Union: 1 Mar 1867 Order of admission: 37 Capital: Lincoln Extent in Miles (length): 430 Extent in Miles (width): 210 Area in square miles (land): 76,644 Area in square miles (inland water): 711 Area in square miles (total): 77,355 Rank in Area: 15 Official Nickname: Cornhusker State Motto: Equality Before the Law Flower: Goldenrod Bird: Western Meadowlark Tree: Cottonwood Song: Beautiful Nebraska Population (1990): 1,578,385 Population Rank (1990): 36 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: agriculture, food processing, manufacturing Annotated Link List: History of the State of Nebraska [CHICAGO: THE WESTERN HISTORICAL COMPANY, A. T. ANDREAS, Proprietor; 1882] : A FULL ACCOUNT OF ITS GROWTH FROM AN UNINHABITED TERRITORY TO A WEALTHY AND IMPORTANT STATE; OF ITS EARLY SETTLEMENTS; ITS RAPID INCREASE IN POPULATION, AND THE MARVELLOUS DEVELOPMENT OF ITS GREAT NATURAL RESOURCES. ALSO AN EXTENDED DESCRIPTION OF ITS COUNTIES, CITIES, TOWN AND VILLAGES, THEIR ADVANTAGES, INDUSTRIES, MANUFACTURES AND COMMERCE; BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES, PORTRAITS OF PROMINENT MEN AND EARLY SETTLERS; VIEWS OF RESIDENCES AND BUSINESS BLOCKS, CITIES AND TOWNS. ILLUSTRATED. Some Nebraska History Early Exploration of Nebraska (1541-1804) The Creation of Wild Bill Hickok (1837 -1861) To Nebraska in 1857 (A diary of a pioneer) The Grand Hunt (1871) Scotts Bluff and the Oregon Trail (1840s -1870) A Pioneer Woman's Daily Routine (1884) Other Links to Nebraska History: United States Resources: Nebraska - Nebraska genealogical and historical information and links. Nebraska History- Information, Resources, Activities, and Dates that pertain to Nebraska History. Sources: Roundup: A Nebraska Reader, compiled and edited by Virginia Faulkner, University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln, 1957. History of Nebraska, James C. Olson, University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln, 1966. History of Nebraska, James C. Olson and Robert Naugle, University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln, 1997. Nebraska: A guide to the cornhusker state, Federal Writers Project sponsored by the Nebraska State Historical Society, Hastings House Publishers. New York, 1974 Western Story, Charles O'Keiffe, University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln, 1960. To Nebraska in '57; a diary of Erastus F. Beadle, printed from the original manuscript by courtesy of its owner, Dr. Frank P. O'Brien. [New York] The New York public library, 1923 Provided by the Nebraska United Pentecostal Churches (Last Updated: 8/8/98) Francisco Vasquez Coronado, 1541 In the spring of 1541, Coronado came in search of the Kingdom of Quivira, a rich land with much gold. Although early Nebraska historians believed that Quivira was located in Nebraska, modern scholarship suggest its location was near present day Lindsborg, Kansas. The Knights of Aksarben still crown the Queen on Quivira annually. Coronado's search for gold was disappointing to the Spaniards. Of the great plains Coronado wrote: "What I am sure of is there is not any gold nor any other metal in all that country, and the other things of which they had told me are nothing but little villages, and in many of these they do not plant anything and do not have any houses except of skins and sticks, and they wander around with the cows." The cows were actually buffalo. The Spaniards interest in the plains were somewhat diminished by the lack of gold. Pedro de Villasur, 1720 Around the 1660's the Spanish became suspicious that the French were trading with the Pawnees. In 1699, during a raid on the Pawnees a Navajo war party captured French carbines, powder flasks, clothing and other equipment. Pedro de Villasur was sent to out from Santa Fe on June 16, 1720 to scout enemy positions on the plains. His party included forty-five white soldiers, sixty Pueblo Indians, a priest and an interpreter. He made several attempts to trade with the Pawnees but was openly rebuffed. Pedro de Villasur paused to regroup and plan his next move. As Pedro de Villasur and his group camped near present day Columbus, Nebraska, they were attacked by the Pawnees. Most of the Pueblos had sensed danger and left before the battle began. Pedro de Villasur was killed before he could reach his weapons and only thirteen Spaniards made it back to Santa Fe. Although it can't be confirmed, the Spaniards blamed the French for instigating the attack. Pierre and Paul Mallet, 1739 While looking for a path to Santa Fe, they traveled north along the Missouri river to the mouth of the Niobrara. Here they concluded they were traveling in the wrong direction. They traveled south parallel to the Missouri and crossed the Platte and Republican rivers on their way. Eventually, they found their way to Sante Fe. Treaty of Paris, 1763 All land west of the Mississippi River became Spanish. Juan Munier, 1789 After the American Revolutionary War, the Spanish took more interest in the vast plains. Juan Munier met the Ponca Indians living near the mouth of the Niobrara river. He was given exclusive trading rights with the Ponca's by the Spanish. Jacques D'Eglise, 1793 He began trading with the Mandan Indians and was given exclusive trading rights by the Spanish government for his exploration efforts. Treaty of San Ildefonso, 1800 The Spanish found it costly to explore this new country and could not see the rewards being worth the investment. They returned the Louisiana to France in 1800. Louisiana Purchase, 1803 Since Napoleon had concluded that it was impracticable to settle this part of America, The Louisiana was sold by France to the fledgling United States of America. President Jefferson signed the treaty to pay about $15,000,000 (four cents an acre) to buy Louisiana from the French. Lewis and Clark, 1804 Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were selected by President Jefferson to lead an expedition to find a way to the Pacific Ocean. They began their journey up the Missouri on May 14, 1804. By July 15, they had made it up to the mouth of the Little Nemaha. Lewis and Clark had a council with a group of Oto and Missouri Indians at a point near the present town of Fort Calhoun. This place was called the Council Bluff (hence the name Council Bluffs, Iowa). They were at the villages of the Mandan Indians near present Bismark, North Dakota by October. They spent the winter there and set out again on April 7, 1805. They came to view the Pacific on November 7, 1805. Lieutenant Zebulon M. Pike, 1806 In 1806, Lieutenant Zebulon Pike traveled along the Republican river (southern Nebraska) on his way to Sante Fe. His impression of the plains was " barren soil, parched and dryed up for eight months in the year". He predicted that the plains would "become in time equally celebrated as the sandy desarts of Africa." The view was later echoed by Major Stephen H. Long. Major Stephen H. Long, 1820 He made an expedition to the rocky mountains and back. His opinion of the plains was not favorable. "In regard to this extensive section of country, I do not hesitate in giving the opinion, that it is almost wholly unfit for cultivation, and of course uninhabitable by a people depending on agriculture for their subsistence." This opinion, shared by many, could explain the reluctance of settlers to make the prairie their home. The plains most certainly offered new challenges to the pioneer. The Oregon Trail In 1830, Jedediah Smith, David Jackson, and William Sublette set out from St. Louis. They followed a route up the Missouri river to the Platte river. Instead of following the Missouri north as Lewis and Clark did, they went west on the Platte river. These were the first travelers on what was to become the Oregon Trail. By the 1840s the southern pass of the trail went west from Independence MO to Kansas City, northwest to Ft. Kearney (Nebraska) and then turned west again to Fort Vancouver (Present Vancouver, Washington). Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
NEVADA Settled: 1849 Date admitted to the Union: 31 Oct 1864 Order of admission: 36 Capital: Carson City Extent in Miles (length): 490 Extent in Miles (width): 320 Area in square miles (land): 109,894 Area in square miles (inland water): 667 Area in square miles (total): 110,561 Rank in Area: 44 Official Nicknames: Sagebrush State, Battleborn State, Silver State Motto: All For Our Country Flower: Sagebrush Bird: Mountain Bluebird Trees: Single Leaf Pinon, Bristlecone Pine Song: Home Means Nevada Population (1990): 1,201,833 Population Rank (1990): 39 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: gaming, tourism, mining, manufacturing, government, agriculture, warehousing, trucking Annotated Link List: NEVADA HISTORY This is just a few page summary of a long history that began more that 20,000 years ago. Archeological findings indicate that prehistoric cave dwellers once left picture writings on the surrounding rock surfaces in Southern Nevada, revealing that early Indian settlements existed here. Additional findings tell us that basket makers of the Pueblo ancestry once flourished in the early 1800's along with Mojave, Paiute, Shoshone, and Washoe Tribes in areas that are now Nevada. Missionaries and fur traders then began their explorations into our area. Missionary travels from New Mexico to California in the late 1700's were led by Francisco Garces, and then followed by other members of the Spanish Franciscan Orders. Then in 1825, the trappers with the Hudson Bay Company initiated explorations over the Northern and Central regions of what is now Nevada. In 1827, Jebediah Smith led his party across the Great Basin and into the Las Vegas Valley. Within another 3 years, the Old Spanish Trail saw many more traders coming from Santa Fe and foundling Los Angeles areas. From 1843 to 1845, the explorations of John C. Fremont and Company gave national publicity to the Great Basin and the Sierra Nevada regions. But then with the Humboldt Valley-Donner Pass finding in the mid-1840's, the pioneers started coming through to California until the gold rush of 1849, when the flow through Nevada exploded. When Mexico ceded authority over Nevada in 1848, the sovereignty of the area fell under U.S. jurisdiction, and was considered a part of California until incorporated into the newly organized Utah Territory in 1850. In 1849, Mormon Station (now called Genoa), became a settlement in the Carson Valley. But with the heat and arid conditions, their population remained quite sparse until the famed Comstock Lode was discovered in 1859. That's when Ben Cartwright and his boys showed up, developed the Ponderosa Ranch, and hit a Bonanza. (Only kidding!). But in truth, when Nevada ceased being merely a path to the Golden West for gold miners, Virginia City became the most famous of all the West's mining camps. The great numbers of prospectors and settlers brought about the organization of the Nevada Territory in 1861. And because the Civil War was now going on, President Lincoln, recognizing how Nevada's mineral wealth could help save the Union, gave special strategic importance to the new territory. Lincoln wanted Nevada to be considered a Northern State, and one that would support the constitutional anti-slavery amendment. At that time, Nevada had merely one-fifth of the population requirement needed out of the 127,381 people mandated for admission to statehood. Nevertheless, Nevada residents were encouraged to seek such statehood. Nevadans went along with requesting such admission, and in 1864, Congress passed the bill admitting Nevada to the Union. In the early years of statehood, local economy was primarily made up of mining and ranching. At that time, the rich Comstock increased their work force, creating a new annual output of silver reaching $36 million in 1878. But, at that time, Congress also enacted a law limiting the use of silver in the federal monetary system. This caused silver prices to plummet and caused the closure of many of the mines in Nevada. Once thriving communities began turning into Ghost Towns. With the decline of silver, cattle ranching became the big industry. But it was a big precarious industry. High railroad rates infringed on profits. Beef prices became totally unpredictable. Some very severe winters contributed to the deaths of thousands of cattle. And by the late 1880's, many giant cattle ranchers were forced into bankruptcy. Nevada went from ultimate productivity into a severe depression. Without mining and ranching, the state population dived from 62,000 in 1880 to 47,00 by 1890. And so it remained until the start of the 20th Century. New and rich silver lodes were discovered near Tonopah, and major copper lodes were found around Ely. But then, a major gold strike came in at Goldfield. Again, thousand of miners came pouring back into Nevada, answering the lure of these bonanzas. The railroads began building extensive branch lines into these nouveau riche mining areas to haul out the ores. And with that move, newly reduced railway fares enabled the cattle ranchers to renew their large-herd productivity. Then irrigation throughout the fertile river valleys brought in some sizeable agrarian crops led by the growth of hay. Now winter feed for the cattle could be assured through storage, and give protection to the ranchers during the formerly barren seasons. When World War I began, a new boom got underway with the needs for Nevada beef and metals - a boom that lasted into the 20's when the stock markets began their declines, signaling the horrible depression that would fall upon this nation in 1929. The first three decades of statehood, saw Nevadans supporting what was then considered Republican orientation on the political fronts. The State residents were frequently naïve and often found themselves being manipulated by corrupt politics. The mine owners and rich ranchers frequently subsidized government officials, amid accusations that these wealthy owners had purchased their seats into the United States Senate. By the 1890's, monetary issues were constantly paramount, as the Free Silver Party swept four consecutive state elections. But in 1890, Nevadans returned to the traditional two-party system and have since voted consistently with the national trends. During the 1930's, as the Great Depression crippled much of the U.S. Economy, Nevada legalized gambling. This legislation passed in 1931, and soon after, Nevada enacted another bill that reduced divorce requirements to a six-week residency before dissolution. The State now became the marriage, divorce, and resort center of the Nation. The initial resort area started in Reno, but then expanded to Lake Tahoe, Las Vegas, and then Laughlin. A transition to the modern economy of Nevada had now ensued. In Las Vegas, the resort industry has now burgeoned into an industry that is unparalleled anywhere. The businesses here attract people from Southern California, many foreign countries, and host a multitude of business and professional conventions. Reno attracts many residents from Northern California and the Pacific Northwest. Laughlin, the newest resort center, emerged in the 1980's, while Lake Tahoe has become the fashionable locale. And in spite of the economy spurts that developed from ranching and mining, construction of the Hoover Dam on the Colorado River, assures stability into the future. This now unimaginable asset provides the hydroelectric power that brought manufacturing into Southern Nevada. And with the erection of the equally necessary Bonneville Dam on the Colorado River, additional hydroelectric power and importation of natural gas now provides security in the industrial development of our Northwest regions. And finally, with the establishment of the Nevada Test Site in the 50's, the federal government opened employment opportunities into various technical industries Statewide. Or in looking back, one has to marvel with the oft-quoted expression, "What a country!" Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
NEW MEXICO Settled: 1610 Date admitted to the Union: 6 Jan 1912 Order of admission: 47 Capital: Santa Fe Extent in Miles (length): 370 Extent in Miles (width): 343 Area in square miles (land): 121,335 Area in square miles (inland water): 258 Area in square miles (total): 121,593 Rank in Area: 5 Official Nickname: Land of Enchantment Motto: Crescit Eundo (It Grows as it Goes) Flower: Yucca Bird: Roadrunner Tree: Pinon Song: O, For New Mexico, Asi Es Nuevo Mexico Population (1990): 1,515,069 Population Rank (1990): 37 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: government, services, trade Annotated Link List: Timeline of New Mexico HistoryTimeline of New Mexico History Brought to you by PPSA Online Magazine c. 25000 B.C. Sandia people leave earliest evidence of human existence in what is now New Mexico. c. 10000-9000 B.C. Clovis hunters roam area in search of mammoth, bison and other game. c. 9000-8000 B.C. Folsom people flourish throughout Southwest at the end of the last Ice Age. c. 10000-500 B.C. Cochise people are first inhabitants to cultivate corn, squash and beans, the earliest evidence of agriculture in the Southwest. A.D. 300-1400 Mogollon culture introduces highly artistic pottery and early architecture in the form of pit houses. A.D. 1-700 Anasazi basketmakers elevate weaving to a high art, creating baskets, clothing, sandals and utensils. A.D. 700-1300 Anasazi culture culminates in the highly developed Chaco Civilization. A.D. 1200-1500s Pueblo Indians establish villages along the Rio Grande and its tributaries. 1536 Cabeza de Vaca, Estevan the Moor and two others reach Culiacdn, Mexico, after possibly crossing what is now southern New Mexico, and begin rumors of the Seven Cities of Cibola. 1539 Fray Marcos de Niza and Estevan lead expedition to find Cibola and reach the Zuni village of Hawikuh, where Estevan is killed. 1540-42 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explores area from Gulf of California to present-day Kansas, discovers the Grand Canyon. 1580-81 Fray Agustin Rodriguez leads expedition to New Mexico; four members of the party killed by Indians. 1582-83 Fray Bernadino Beltran and Fray Antonio de Espejo lead expedition to New Mexico to search for survivors of the ill-fated Rodriguez mission. 1598 Juan de Onate establishes the first Spanish capital of San Juan de los Caballeros at the Tewa village of Ohke north of present-day Espanola 1599 Battle at Aroma between natives and Spaniards; seeds of Pueblo Revolt sown. 1600 San Gabriel, second capital of New Mexico, is founded at the confluence of the Rio Grande and the Chama River. 1601 Mass desertion of San Gabriel by colonists; new recruits front Spain and Mexico sent to reinforce colony. 1605 Onate expedition to the Colorado River; visits El Morro, leaves message on Inscription Rock. 1608 Onate removed as governor and sent to Mexico City to be tried for mistreatment of the Indians and abuse of power. Decision made by Spanish Crown to continue settlement of New Mexico as a royal province. 1609-10 Gov. Pedro de Peralta establishes a new capital at Santa Fe. Construction begins on the Palace of the Governors. Gaspar de Villagra publishes epic history on the founding of New Mexico, the first book printed about any area in the modern United States. 1626 Spanish Inquisition established in New Mexico. 1641 Gov. Luis de Rosas assassinated by colonists during conflict between the church and state. 1680 Pueblo Indian Revolt Spanish survivors flee to El Paso del Norte. Late 1600's Navajos, Apaches, lies, and Comanches begin raids against Pueblo Indians. 1692-93 Don Diego de Vargas recolonizes Santa Fe. Spanish civilization returns to New Mexico. 1695 Santa Cruz de la Cahada (Canada) founded. 1696 Second Pueblo Revolt; efforts thwarted by Gov. De Vargas. 1706 Villa de Albuquerque founded. 1743 French trappers reach Santa Fe and begin limited trade with the Spanish. 1776 Franciscan friars Dominguez and Escalante explore route from out New Mexico to California. 1786 Gov. Juan Bautista de Anza makes peace with the Comanches. 1793 First school text printed in New Mexico by Padre Antonio Jose Martinez of Taos. 1807 Zebulon Pike leads first Anglo American expedition into New Mexico. Publishes account of way of life in New Mexico upon return to U.S. 1821 Mexico declares independence from Spain. Santa Fe Trail opened to international trade. 1828 First major gold discovery in western U. S. made in Ortiz Mountains south of Santa Fe. 1837 Chimayo Revolt against Mexican taxation leads to the assassination of Gov. Albino Perez and top officials. 1841 Texas soldiers invade New Mexico and claim all land east of the Rio Grande. Efforts thwarted by Gov. Manuel Armijo. 1846 Mexican-American War begins. Stephen Watts Kearny annexes New Mexico to the United States. 1847 Taos Rebellion against the U.S. military. Gov. Chat Charles Bent killed. 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mexican-American War. 1850 New Mexico (which included present-day Arizona, southern Colorado, southern Utah, and southern Nevada) is designated a territory but denied statehood. 1851 Bishop Jean Baptiste Lamy arrives in New Mexico and establishes schools, hospitals and orphanages throughout the territory 1854 The Gadsden Purchase front Mexico adds 45,000 square miles to the territory 1861 Confederates invade New Mexico front Texas. The Confederate Territory of Arizona is declared with the capital at La Mesilla. Territory of Colorado is created. New Mexico loses extreme northern-most section to the new territory 1862 Battles of Velarde de and Glorieta Pass fought, ends confederate occupation of New Mexico. 1863-68 Known as the "Long Walk," Navajos and Apaches are relocated to Bosque Redondo: finally allowed to return to their homelands after thousands die of disease and starvation. 1863 New Mexico is partitioned in half. Territory of Arizona is created. 1878 The railroad arrives in New Mexico, opening full-scale trade and migration from the east and midwest. Lincoln County War erupts in southeast New Mexico 1881 Billy the Kid shot by Sheriff Pat Garrett in Fort Sumner N.M. 1886 Geronimo surrenders; Indian hostilities cease in the Southwest. 1898 First movie filmed in New Mexico, Indian Day School by Thomas A. Edison. 1906 People of New Mexico and Arizona vote on issue of joint statehood, New Mexico voting in favor and Arizona against. 1910 New Mexico Constitution drafted in preparation for statehood. 1912 New Mexico admitted to the Union as the 47th state. 1916 Pancho Villa raids Columbus, N.M. 1920 Adoption of the l9th Amendment gives women the right to vote. 1922 Secretary of State Soledad Chacon and Superintendent of Public Instruction Isabel Eckles elected first women to hold statewide office. 1923-24 Oil is discovered on the Navajo Reservation. 1930-43 Great Depression. Federal New Deal funds provide employment for many and causes numerous public buildings to be constructed. 1942-45 New Mexico soldiers serving in the 200th Coast Artillery during World War II are captured by the Japanese and forced to endure the Bataan Death March. Navajo "Codetalkers" are influential in helping end the war. Secret atomic laboratories established at Los Alamos. 1945 World's first atomic bomb detonated at Trinity Site in southern New Mexico after its development at Los Alamos. 1947 UFO allegedly crashes between Roswell and Corona, believers claim U.S. government institutes massive coverup of the incident. 1948 Native Americans will the right to vote in state elections. 195O Uranium discovered near Grants. 1957 Buddy Holly records Peggy Sue at Norman Petty Studio in Clovis. 1966 New state capitol, the "Roundhouse," is dedicated. 1969 Proposed new state constitution is rejected by voters. 1982 Space shuttle Columbia lands at White Sands Space Harbor oil Holloman Air Force Base near Alamogordo. 1992 New Mexico observes Columbus Quincentenary, welcomes Cristobal Colon XX, direct descendent of Christopher Columbus. 1998 New Mexico celebrates its cuartocentenario, commemorating its 1598 founding by Juan de Onate. [For further information on the culture and history of New Mexico, try the new, New Mexico CultureNet website. It may be complicated to navigate right now, but it has interesting stories on the history of our state. - editor] Taken from the New Mexico Blue Book 1997-2000 Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
NORTH DAKOTA Settled: 1812 Date admitted to the Union: 2 Nov 1889 Order of admission: 39 Capital: Bismarck Extent in Miles (length): 340 Extent in Miles (width): 211 Area in square miles (land): 69,300 Area in square miles (inland water): 1,403 Area in square miles (total): 70,702 Rank in Area: 17 Official Nickname: Peace Garden State Motto: Liberty And Union, Now and Forever Flower: Wild Prarie Rose Bird: Western Meadowlark Tree: American Elm Song: North Dakota Hymn Population (1990): 638,800 Population Rank (1990): 47 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: agriculture, mining, tourism, manufacturing Annotated Link List: North Dakota Chronology The following chronology was compiled for the North Dakota Blue Book by Curt Eriksmoen, 1989 North Dakota Blue Book editor, Secretary of State's office, and Larry Remele, State Historical Society of North Dakota. The chronology ends at 1988, the eve of North Dakota's Centennial of Statehood. ca. 9,500 B.C.: Paleo-Indian peoples initially occupied the Northern Plains, hunting mammoths, giant bison, and other mega-fauna. Mining of Knife River Flint, North Dakota's first export commodity, began in Dunn and Mercer Counties. ca. 5,500 B.C.: Archaic peoples based their lifeways on hunting and gathering of essentially modern fauna since the previous era's mega-fauna were now extinct. The atlatl, a dart throwing device which drastically increased the range, effectiveness, and safety of hunting, came into use. ca. 700 B.C.: Ceramics were first used in North Dakota for cooking and food storage. ca. 550-410 B.C.: Early Woodland peoples living along the James River in Southeastern North Dakota built a log and brush house. Charred grape chenopod (Goosefoot), and Marshelder seeds were found together in the house remains when they were excavated in A. D. 1985. ca. 100 B.C.: Middle Woodland peoples began building burial mounds in North Dakota, including complex ceremonial centers. The bow and arrow were introduced during this period. ca. A.D. 30: Jamestown mounds, a complex burial and ceremonial site, were occupied. ca. A.D. 900: Late Woodland peoples used the bow and arrow extensively, produced ceramics resembling the later Plains Village wares, and gardened intensively. ca. A.D. 950: Plains Village peoples raised corn and other crops in sufficient quantities to store seed and trade for other goods. Seasonally occupied, permanent villages of earthlodges were built. ca. A.D. 1200: Jamestown mounds site was abandoned. ca. A.D. 1200-1400: A drought reduced agricultural production and fewer living sites were established on the open prairies. Plains Village peoples abandoned the lower James River area by A.D. 1300. ca. A.D. 1600: The Cheyenne, living in earthlodges, occupied the Sheyenne River valley; the Hidatsa moved west from Devils Lake to the Missouri; the Sioux moved onto the plains from the woodlands of Minnesota. 1610: Henry Hudson claimed the Hudson Bay watershed, which included much of eastern North Dakota for England. 1682: LaSalle claimed the entire Mississippi River drainage which included the Missouri River drainage in North Dakota, for France. 1738: La Verendrye, a French explorer, visited Mandan villages near the Missouri River. This is the first known Euro-American expedition into what is now North Dakota. 1742: The sons of La Verendrye returned to the Missouri River as part of an expedition in search of a western sea. Subsequent explorers to visit this region included Jonathan Carver (1768) and David Thompson (1797), among others. 1762: Spain received from France land claimed by LaSalle. 1763: Treaty of Paris granted to England part of the state drained by the Mouse and the Red Rivers. 1781: The first known business enterprise, a fur trading post, was briefly established near the Souris River, but was soon abandoned as a result of pressure from unfriendly Indians. 1792: Jacques D'Englise (Santiago Leglise) opened trade between Mandan villages and Spanish interests from St. Louis. 1794: René Jusseaume built a Fur Post near the Knife River. 1796: John Evans from St. Louis ascended the Missouri River to the Mandan villages near the Knife River. 1797: Chaboillez, a French trader, opened a post at Pembina, and David Thompson, an English explorer, mapped the northern part of the state. 1800: Alexander Henry Jr. established a fur post at Park River. Henry moved his establishment to Pembina in 1801, and it became the nucleus for the first white settlement in what is now North Dakota. By this date, fur traders from Canada were frequent visitors to this region and a trade route had been established between posts near Lake Winnipeg and the Missouri River Indian villages. 1801: John Cameron built a trading post at the current site of Grand Forks. 1802 : On March 12, the first non-Indian child was born in what is now North Dakota to Pierre Bonza and his wife, Black slaves of Alexander Henry, Jr. 1803: On November 20, Spain returned the Missouri River watershed to France. The Louisiana Purchase transferred the area of North Dakota drained by the Missouri River from France to the United States on December 30. 1804 & 1806: An expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark entered North Dakota and wintered near the present town of Washburn on its way to the Pacific Coast. This temporary post, Fort Mandan, was frequently visited by nearby Indians. 1806: The Lewis and Clark Expedition returned down the river on its way back to St. Louis. Their journey marked the first major American penetration of the area and was characterized by amicable relationships with native inhabitants. 1809: Fur Company entrepreneur Manuel Lisa of St. Louis led the first formal American business reconnaissance along the Missouri River in search of sites for trading posts. On December 29, the first white child was born in present-day North Dakota to fur post employees at Pembina. 1811: Scientific exploration of the Northern plains initiated by Lewis and Clark continued. Botanists John Bradbury and Thomas Nuttel surveyed the region during their journey to Oregon. Later expeditions included Prince Maximillian of Wied and artist George Catlin (1832-34) and naturalist John J. Audubon (1843) among many others. 1812: An agricultural colony was established near Pembina by settlers from Canada under the authority of a royal grant to Lord Selkirk. The ill-fated attempt failed after internal feuding, boundary changes, and grasshoppers destroyed the crops in 1820. Part of what is now North Dakota became part of the Missouri Territory. 1818: All of North Dakota became part of the Missouri Territory. Fathers Dumoulin and Provencher established a Roman Catholic mission at Pembina; the first school, taught by William Edge, operated in connection with this mission. The 49th parallel was agreed to as the boundary between the U.S. and Great Britain in a treaty whereby the United States acquired possession of the upper Red River drainage. 1822: Fur Trading posts were established in the Missouri Valley. 1823: An expedition led by Stephen J. Long fixed the boundary between the United States and Canada at a point north of Pembina. A second military expedition, led by Henry Leavenworth, attempted to make treaties with the Arikara and other tribes. Later expeditions included Atkinson-O'Fallon (1825), Fremont-Nicollet (1839), and the Stevens Survey (1853). 1829: Fort Union fur trading post was established. 1831: Fort Clark fur trading post was established. 1832: The Yellowstone, the first steamboat on the upper Missouri, reached Fort Union. 1834: Land east of the Missouri River became part of the Territory of Michigan. 1836: Land east of the Missouri River became part of the Territory of Wisconsin. 1837: A smallpox epidemic virtually annihilated the Mandan Indians near Fort Clark. 1838: Land east of the Missouri River became part of the Territory of Iowa. 1839: John C. Fremont and Jean Nicollet explored the east-central part of the state. 1842: The first Red River ox-cart caravan traversed trails between St. Joseph (Walhalla) and St. Paul, inaugurating a major commerce that continued for over 25 years. Major fur posts in this area were operated by Joseph Rolette (1842), Norman Kittson (1843), and Antoine Gingras (1843). 1845: Fort Berthold fur trading post was established. 1848: Father George Anthony Belcourt opened mission fields at Pembina, St. Joseph, and in the Turtle Mountains. Reverend Alonzo Barnard and James Tanner conducted the first Protestant services in the area at Pembina. 1849: Land east of the Missouri River became part of the Minnesota Territory. 1851: The first post office was established in what is now North Dakota at Pembina with Norman Kittson as Postmaster. A permanent agricultural settlement was established at Pembina under the leadership of Charles Cavileer and the first flour mill was established at St. Joseph by Father Belcourt. 1853: Issac I. Stevens crossed the state surveying the "Northern Route" for the proposed transcontinental railroad. 1854: Land east of the Missouri River became part of the Nebraska Territory. 1858: Land east of the Missouri River was left without territorial government when Minnesota became a state. Military occupation of North Dakota began with the establishment of Fort Abercrombie on the Red River and the present-day town of Abercrombie; the fort was abandoned in 1877. 1859: The Anson Northrup, first steamboat on the Red River, traveled from Fort Abercrombie to Winnipeg. 1860: Regular steamboat service on the Missouri River began. 1861: Dakota Territory was officially organized by the Federal government and William Jayne was appointed the first governor by President Abraham Lincoln. 1862: The First Territorial Legislature for Dakota Territory met at Yankton and Fort Abercrombie was besieged by Sioux during the Minnesota Uprising. 1863: Dakota Territory was opened for homesteading. Campaigns intended to punish Santee Sioux who participated in the Minnesota Uprising pushed through northern Dakota and were led by General Henry H. Sibley and General Alfred H. Sully. On September 3, Sully's forces attacked a peaceful hunting camp of Yanktonai Sioux at Whitestone Hill; this was the last major battle of the Indian Wars period to be fought east of the Missouri. 1864: The first newspaper to be published in northern Dakota, The Frontier Scout, was issued at Fort Union. An immigrant party led by James Fiske was besieged near present-day Marmarth for two weeks; members of the party constructed sod breastworks now known as Fort Dilts. A second military expedition led by Sully battled Sioux at Killdeer Mountain and in the Badlands. Military troops began temporary occupation of Fort Union (1864-65) and Fort Berthold (1864-67) pending establishment of new forts. The military post of Fort Rice (1864-78) was established. 1866: The military post of Fort Buford (1866-95) was established. 1867: The Fort Totten Indian Reservation was established and Sisseton and Wahpeton Sioux ceded lands to the U.S. government by treaty. The military posts of Fort Ransom (1867-72), Fort Totten (1867-90), and Fort Stevenson (1867-83) were established. 1868: A major peace council was held at Fort Rice; this led to the Laramie Treaty which defined Sioux lands as those west of the Missouri River in Dakota Territory. The first homestead entry in northern Dakota was made by Joseph Rolette in the northern Red River Valley. 1870: The Fort Berthold Indian Reservation was established and treaties between the Sioux and Chippewa and the U.S. government ceded most of present-day eastern North Dakota to the Federal government. The military post of Fort Pembina (1870-95) was established. 1872: The Northern Pacific Railway was built from the Red River to Jamestown; the NPRR reached Bismarck in 1873, but did not complete its main line to the Montana border until 1881. The first commercial telegraph line was extended from Fargo to Winnipeg and the military posts of Fort Abraham Lincoln (1872-91), Camp Hancock (1872-77), and Fort Seward (1872-77) were established. 1873: On July 11, Colonel Clement A. Lounsberry published the first issue of the Bismarck Tribune, now North Dakota's oldest newspaper. The first commercial lignite mine opened at Sims, but failed. 1874: A U.S. Weather Bureau station was established at Camp Hancock at Bismarck and The Fargo Express, first newspaper in the Red River Valley, began publication. A major reconnaissance from Fort Abraham Lincoln, led by Col. George A. Custer, explored the Black Hills and verified the existence of gold in that region. The military post of Fort Yates (1874-1903) was established. 1875: Bonanza farms were established in the Red River Valley. White settlement was permitted by the U.S. War Department on Indian lands reserved by the Laramie treaty, precipitating a major Indian uprising on the plains. 1876: The Seventh Cavalry, led by Col. George A. Custer, joined the Sioux Expedition of 1876. Leaving Fort Abraham Lincoln on May 17, Custer met decisive defeat at the Little Big Horn River in Montana on June 25. 1877: The first Bismarck to Deadwood stage left Bismarck and the first telephones in northern Dakota connected locations on the Grandin bonanza farm near Grandin. 1878: Ranching was introduced in western Dakota Territory. 1879: The Great Dakota land boom began and the military post at Cantonment Badlands (1879-83) was established. The St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Manitoba Railway (later the Great Northern Railway) entered northern Dakota near Grand Forks; The GNRR, led by James J. Hill, completed its main line to the Montana border in 1887. 1880: Military reserves in the eastern and central portion of northern Dakota were opened to homesteading. 1882: The last great Indian buffalo hunt took place and the Turtle Mountain Reservation was established. Fire destroyed a large portion of Grand Forks. 1883: The territorial capital was moved from Yankton to Bismarck and the first capitol was constructed. A university (UND) at Grand Forks and a Presbyterian College (now Jamestown College) were established. The Marquis de Mores began a packing plant and other businesses and planned the town of Medora; these enterprises failed in 1886. Theodore Roosevelt first visited Medora; he later established two ranches in that vicinity that he utilized periodically until 1888. 1884: Half the city of Devils Lake was destroyed by fire. 1885: The first meeting of the Territorial Legislature was held at Bismarck and the Marquis de Mores was acquitted of murder in a trial at Bismarck. The Hospital for the Insane (now North Dakota State Hospital) was opened at Jamestown and the territorial prison (now the State Penitentiary) opened at Bismarck. The great "Dakota Boom" in settlement increased the territory's population during this era and the territorial census was taken. 1886: Severe winter in the western part of Dakota Territory put an end to open range ranching and the Bank of Hamilton (oldest state bank in North Dakota) was opened. The Soo Line Railway began construction in northern Dakota at Fairmont; the Soo completed its lines to Portal in 1893. 1887: The Standing Rock Indian Reservation was opened to homesteading , and the Board of Pharmacy, North Dakota's first examining board, was founded. The North Dakota Medical Association was founded at Larimore. 1889: North Dakota was admitted to the Union as the 39th state on November 2, and a State Constitution was adopted in October. North Dakota's first Governor, John Miller of Dwight, took office and the first State Legislature convened at Bismarck on November 19. Constitutional prohibition of alcoholic beverages was instigated, and the North Dakota Farmers Alliance was formed. The Catholic diocese of Jamestown was established (the offices were moved to Fargo in 1891). 1890: State Normal Schools at Valley City and Mayville (now State Universities), the State Agricultural College (now North Dakota State University) at Fargo, and the School for the Deaf at Devils Lake were opened. A State Agricultural Experiment Station was opened at Fargo. Panic among White settlers, stemming from Ghost Dance activities among the Sioux, rushed through western North Dakota. During his arrest by Indian Policemen, Hunkpapa Sioux leader, Sitting Bull, was killed on Standing Rock Indian Reservation. 1892: Early Republican Party domination of state politics was overthrown by the fusion of Democrats and Populists; Eli C.D. Shortridge was elected Governor. Laura J. Eisenhuth, the first woman to hold state office, was elected Superintendent of Public Instruction. 1893: The Industrial School at Ellendale (later known as the State Normal and Industrial School) was opened; this institution existed until 1971 when its Constitutional status was removed by referendum. The North Dakota Soldiers' Home was opened at Lisbon and fire destroyed almost the entire business section of Fargo. 1894: The Republican Party regained control of state government, a domination that continued until 1907. Fire destroyed four city blocks in LaMoure. 1895: The State Historical Society of North Dakota was incorporated with Clement A. Lounsberry as president. 1897: The first free public library opened at Grafton. 1898: North Dakota sent troops to assist in the Spanish-American War and fire almost destroyed the entire Bismarck business section. 1899: North Dakota lost its reputation as being the national divorce mecca when a 90-day residency law expired. 1900: Frank White of Valley City was elected Governor; when reelected in 1902, he became the state's first Governor to serve more than one term. 1901: The first North Dakota Pure Foods Law was passed and Theodore Roosevelt, previously a ranch operator in Dakota Territory, became President of the United States. 1903: Ft. Lincoln, located south of Bismarck, was completed and garrisoned; this military base became the training center for the State Militia and was later used as a detention camp for prisoners of war during World War II. The State Industrial School opened at Mandan. 1904: The State School of Science at Wahpeton and the School for Retarded (now Grafton State School) at Grafton were opened. A state-owned street car line began operation in Bismarck; commercial lines were operating in Fargo and Grand Forks. 1905: The only execution at the State Penitentiary occurred and the first irrigation works were constructed in North Dakota. The State Historical Society of North Dakota was given legal status and 1905 was the single largest construction year for railroads in North Dakota (529.3 miles). 1906: Charles Service of Park River became North Dakota's first automobile fatality. 1907: The first gas well in North Dakota was discovered south of Westhope. The State School of Forestry (now North Dakota State University, Bottineau Branch) opened at Bottineau and the American Society of Equity established a North Dakota union. 1908: Alexander McKenzie resigned as Republican national committeeman. North Dakota held its first statewide primary election; the state's first Presidential preference primary was held in 1912. The battleship "U.S.S. North Dakota", the first tubine-powered ship in the U.S. Navy, was launched; it was later scrapped in 1931. 1909: The first child labor laws were enacted and the State Library Commission was created. The first law for the organization of cooperative businesses was passed. 1910: The first airplane flight in North Dakota occurred at an exhibition in Grand Forks; the passenger was Frank V. Kent. Democrat John Burke became North Dakota's first three-term Governor and the Catholic diocese of Bismarck was created. 1911: The North Dakota state flag was designated and the first state motor vehicle licenses were issued. 1912: Constitutional amendments allowing initiative and referendum were passed by the electorate. The first Farmers Educational Cooperative Union was brought to North Dakota; the Equity Cooperative Exchange was formed and began agitation for a state-owned terminal elevator located at Duluth or Minneapolis. 1913: The Legislature passed a law making bootlegging a crime punishable by penitentiary imprisonment. John Burke, former North Dakota Governor, became Treasurer of the United States; his service extended until 1921. The State Normal School (now Minot State University) opened at Minot, the first North Dakota Farmers Union local was organized at Bismarck, and the State Highway Commission was authorized by the Legislature. 1915: The Nonpartisan League, an insurgent political movement, began organizing; within one year it obtained over 40,000 members. North Dakota's wheat crop was the largest to that date and the Legislature passed laws outlawing the death penalty except in cases where prison guards are murdered. The first state organization for Farmers Educational and Cooperative Union in North Dakota was formed. 1916: The Nonpartisan League captured control of the majority of state offices; Lynn J. Frazier was elected Governor. Completion of the Wildrose-Grenora branch line by the Great Northern Railway (36.3 mi.) ended the last major railway construction in the state and the State Supreme Court disallowed a ballot proposal to remove the state capital to New Rockford. 1917: North Dakota units were ordered into Federal military service during World War I and the Independent Voters Association, opposed to the Nonpartisan League, was formed at Grand Forks. A women's suffrage bill was signed into law, ratified in 1919, and women were allowed to vote in the first general election in 1920. Attorney General William Langer and law enforcement officers conducted the state's biggest raid; 44 were arrested in Minot on charges of gambling, prostitution, etc. 1918: An Influenza epidemic swept the state killing 2,700 North Dakotans. The State Normal School (now Dickinson State University) opened at Dickinson and initiated measures sponsored by the Nonpartisan League allowed state-owned industries approved by the electorate. 1919: The Bank of North Dakota was established at Bismarck and the State Mill and Elevator Commission was organized. A State Industrial Commission was created to manage state industries, the State Workman's Compensation Bureau was formed, and a North Dakota Council of Churches was founded. A windstorm hit Williams and Divide Counties killing 8 and injuring 40. North Dakota's first airplane fatality occurred when Brian Kerr was killed in a crash near Sutton, and A.C. Townley was convicted on charges of sedition in Minnesota. 1920: A recall measure for state officials was added to the state constitution by a vote of the electorate. The beginning of rural economic depression came with the collapse of wartime prices for commodities, and the North Dakota branch of the Farm Bureau Federation was organized at Bismarck. Hazel Miner became a posthumous national hero when it was revealed that this fifteen-year old gave up her own life in a blizzard to save her younger siblings. 1921: Governor Lynn J. Frazier, Attorney General William Lemke, and Commissioner of Agriculture and Labor John N. Hagan, all Nonpartisan League members, were recalled by voters in the first successful gubernatorial recall in the nation. North Dakota's first bus line was established and former Governor Frank White became Treasurer of the United States, a position he held until 1928. 1922: Former Governor Lynn J. Frazier was elected to the U.S. Senate and the first motor vehicle bridge across the Missouri River was completed at Bismarck. North Dakota's first radio station, WDAY at Fargo, began broadcasting. The State Mill and Elevator began operations at Grand Forks and the North Dakota Wheat Growers Association was founded. 1923: A uniform system for numbering and marking state hiways was developed; the profile of Sioux leader Marcellus Red Tomahawk was designated as the state hiway symbol. 1924: The Liberty Memorial Building was completed on the state Capital grounds. 1927: The North Dakota Farmers Union state organization was chartered with 13,000 members. Big Viking Oil Company of Williston began drilling; the company was broke by 1930. 1928: An air mail service between the Twin Cities and Winnipeg through North Dakota was inaugurated, and Carl Ben Eielson of Hatton became the first person to fly nonstop over the arctic. 1929: June was one of the driest on record in North Dakota, followed by continuing drought conditions throughout the 1930s; this period is often referred to as the "Dirty Thirties." This also marks the beginning of the Great Depression which continued until the beginning of World War II. 1930: North Dakota's most severe windstorm was recorded with 1,847 buildings damaged, and the old territorial Capitol was destroyed by fire on December 28. 1931: A state-owned street car line between downtown Bismarck and the state Capitol was discontinued. The International Peace Garden site was selected in North Dakota and Manitoba and the last lynching in the state occurred at Schafer. 1932: The new Capitol building was dedicated; a second dedication was held the following year after allegations that the first cornerstone had been damaged. Prohibition agents hit a still at Jamestown making it the biggest raid west of Chicago; the still was capable of producing 1,000 gallons of moonshine a day. The prohibition clause of the state Constitution was repealed by the electorate and former Attorney General William Lemke was elected to congress. The Farmers Holiday Association was formed at Jamestown; farmers blockaded marketing points in northwestern North Dakota in an effort to raise commodity prices. 1933: Governor William L. Langer proclaimed moratoriums on mortgage foreclosure sales and on the shipment of farm commodities from North Dakota; the latter was declared unconstitutional in 1934 by a Federal judge. A Farm Holiday Association strike in May proved unsuccessful and a violent strike at the new Capitol construction site forced a call-up of the North Dakota National Guard. 1934: On July 18, the North Dakota Supreme Court disqualified Governor Langer as a result of his conviction for campaigning law violations and Lt. Governor Ole Olson assumed office. 1935: Thomas Moodie, a Williston Democrat, was inaugurated Governor. Former Governor William Langer produced evidence that Moodie had violated a North Dakota residency law by voting in Minnesota and, on February 2, the North Dakota Supreme Court declared Moodie ineligible. Moodie served in office formally for only 4 days. Walter Welford, Lt. Governor, succeeded to office and became the state's fourth Governor in 7 months. State Welfare and Planning boards and the North Dakota Hiway Patrol was created. North Dakota's new Capitol Building was completed and the first credit union law was passed by the state Legislature. 1936: William Langer became the first person in any state to be elected Governor in an individual column of state ballot and the sale of liquor was legalized by referendum. North Dakota recorded its lowest and highest official temperature readings (60 degrees below zero at Parshall and 120 degrees above at Steele). Drought devastated North Dakota's crops and congressman William Lemke ran for the Presidency on the Union Party ticket. 1937: The Bismarck Tribune won the Pulitzer Prize for reporting about North Dakota's drought. The Water Conservation Commission was established and the first Soil Conservation district in North Dakota was organized in Kidder County. Baker Rural Electric Cooperative at Cando became the first in North Dakota to energize its transmission lines. 1938: The first hard-surfaced hiway across North Dakota (U.S. 10) was completed. 1939: Bismarck Junior College (now Bismarck State College) was established and its first building was constructed on the Capitol grounds. 1940: The staff of the North Dakota National Guard was ordered into Federal service. 1941: Units of the North Dakota National Guard were ordered into Federal military service during World War II; the 164th Infantry became the first American unit to fight in the Pacific during the battle of Guadalcanal in 1942. Lake Region Junior College (now University of North Dakota - Lake Region) was established at Devils Lake and 90 persons, 39 in North Dakota, were killed by a Red River Valley blizzard. 1942: A committee ruling calling for Senator Langer's ouster on charges of political corruption was rejected by the U.S. Senate. Drought and the Depression was broken by bumper wheat crops and prosperity returned to the northern plains. 1943: A Republican Organizing Committee (ROC) was formed to oppose the Nonpartisan League in the Republican column and North Dakota led the Nation in per capita war bond sales. The North Dakota Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the state's anti-corporation farmer act. 1944: The Pick-Sloan Plan for the development of Missouri River waters was approved by Congress. 1945: Senator John Moses died in office; Governor Fred Aandahl selected Milton R. Young as replacement. Young served continuously until 1981 becoming the nation's longest serving GOP senator. A train wreck on the outskirts of Michigan, North Dakota, killed 34 people. 1946: Construction of Garrison Dam began. 1947: A bill authorizing the creation of Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park was passed by Congress and signed by President Harry S. Truman; the park was dedicated June 4, 1949. A tornado in Walsh County killed 9 people. 1950: The Dickey Rural Telephone Mutual Aid Corporation became the state's first modern rural telephone cooperative and the 231st Engineering Battalion of the North Dakota National Guard was ordered into Federal service for the Korean Emergency. 1951: A radar base was activated at Finley; this installation operated until 1980. Oil was discovered near Tioga in April on the farm of Clarence Iverson and voter registration was repealed in North Dakota (still the only state not to have voter registration). 1952: The William J. Neil Electrical Generation plant near Velva began service; at the time of its completion, it was the largest coal-fired power plant in the United States. The nation's first jewel bearing factory opened at Rolla. 1953: The Garrison Dam closure ceremonies featured President Dwight D. Eisenhower and the first North Dakota television stations began broadcasting. Construction began on a pipeline from Tioga to Mandan and Bismarck Businessman Harold Schafer won the Horatio Alger Award. The bones of Sitting Bull were allegedly stolen from a grave at Fort Yates and reburied near Mobridge, South Dakota. 1954: Mandan's oil refinery was dedicated and the first gasoline extracted from petroleum in a North Dakota refinery occurred at Dickinson. The Heskett Electrical generation plant at Mandan went into service; an addition to this plant was energized in 1963. President Eisenhower signed a law authorizing the establishment of Grand Forks and Minot Air Force bases. 1956: The Nonpartisan League and the Democratic Party merged and the first contracts were let for Interstate highway systems (I-94 and I-29) in North Dakota. Mary College (now University of Mary) was established at Bismarck and the Fargo Forum received the Pulitzer Prize for its reporting about a tornado that swept the northwestern edge of Fargo killing 11 people. Construction began at the Grand Forks Air Force base; the base was completed in 1960. 1957: Construction began at the Minot Air Force base; this base was operational in December, 1959. 1958: Quentin N. Burdick, Democrat, became the first member of that party to be elected to congress from North Dakota and the first potato flake plant in the state was established in Grand Forks. 1959: Longtime state political figures Senator William Langer and Arthur C. Townley, first president of the Nonpartisan League, died in November and the North Dakota Economic Development Commission was established. 1960: Seven years after the Garrison Dam closure ceremonies the reservoir was completed and Lake Sakakawea was formed. Highway 29 became the first interstate highway to reach an international border and the first airplanes arrived at Grand Forks Air Force base. The passage of an initiated measure changed the name of North Dakota Agricultural College to North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied Science. 1961: Roger Maris from Fargo broke Babe Ruth's single season home run record. 1963: The Leland Olds Generating plant, North Dakota's first major lignite-fired power facility, began construction near Stanton. Uranium recovery from ore-rich lignite beds in southwestern North Dakota began and a bus body plant began operation at Pembina. Minuteman Missiles arrived at Grand Forks and Minot Air Force bases and the UND hockey team won a national intercollegiate championship. 1965: The first sugar beet refinery in North Dakota was established near Drayton and North Dakota's first Minuteman Missile was installed in an underground site near Inkster. President Lyndon Johnson signed into law authorization for the Garrison Diversion project. 1966: The worst blizzard in state history struck most of North Dakota in March and the first Minuteman II Missile Wing in the United States was declared operational at the Grand Forks Air Force base. Ground was broken for a new State Highway Department building on the Capitol grounds in Bismarck. Leland Olds Power Station No. 1 at Stanton began service; a second station at this plant was completed in 1975. 1967: The United Power Cooperative Generation facility near Stanton was begun. 1968: The Garrison Diversion project was authorized by congress and ground-breaking was held for the Snake Creek pumping plant. William L. Guy, Democratic-NPL, was elected to a four-year term, thus obtaining a longer tenure in the office than any predecessor (12 years). North Dakota's worst traffic accident occurred near Jamestown when 8 teenagers were killed and the first recorded earthquake occurred in North Dakota with its epicenter near Ashley. 1969: Minot was hit by the worst flood in history and college students instituted the "Zip to Zap" party bash for which the Army National Guard was called into active service. First Western Bank officials in Minot were indicted and 126 Minot teachers were dismissed during a strike. The United Tribes Employment Training Center (now the United Tribes Educational and Technical Center) opened near Bismarck. 1970: An ABM Missile installation began construction near Nekoma; the facility was completed in 1974, but closed several months later. Construction was initiated on the McClusky Canal portion of the Garrison Diversion project and Gary McDaniel, First National Bank president of Minot was convicted of embezzlement. Robert McCarney won a three-vote victory over Richard Elkin in the Republican Primary for the U.S. House. 1971: A State Constitutional Convention was held at Bismarck; the resulting document was defeated by state voters in 1972. The last area of North Dakota to receive telephone service, Squaw Gap in McKenzie County, was "cut over" by Reservation Telephone Cooperative. Milton R. Young Power Station No. 1 near Center began service; a second station at this plant energized in 1977. An Ellendale branch of UND was closed and Amtrack went into effect. 1972: The first rural water system in North Dakota, Grand Forks-Traill Water Users Association, began operation and prices for wheat nearly doubled after huge grain sales to Red China and the Soviet Union. 1973: Record high grain prices enervated North Dakota's economy and a sales tax on groceries was repealed. Viet Nam POWs Captain Loren Torkelson of Crosby and Keith Hall of Devils Lake were released. The Drake school ordered the banning of the novel Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut. The largest breakout at the state Penitentiary occurred; 10 prisoners escaped but all were apprehended within a week. 1974: Incumbent Republican Senator Milton R. Young defeated the Democratic-NPL challenger William L. Guy in the closest senate race in North Dakota history; the margin of victory was only 186 votes. Coal mining in North Dakota was delayed until reclamation and environmental issues were resolved and the first attempted airplane hijack in the state occurred at the Grand Forks airport. 1975: Congress voted to dismantle the Safeguard antiballistic missle complex in northeastern North Dakota. The worst blizzard in half a century (60 to 70 m.p.h. winds, coupled with 20 below zero temperature and snow) resulted in the deaths of 12 state residents and countless cattle; the following floods cost North Dakota $1 billion in damages. Thomas Kleppe of Bismarck was appointed U.S. Secretary of Interior. North Dakota became the only state legislature to ratify the ERA in 1975 and the North Dakota Coal Impact Office was created. 1976: Ground-breaking for the North Dakota Heritage Center was held at Bismarck as part of the state's celebration of the national bicentennial. The National Audubon Society filed suit to stop construction of the Garrison Diversion Project and North Dakota experienced its driest year since the 1930s. The state House ended in a tie of 50 delegates for each party as Republican Janet Wentz got a one-vote victory in district 41 and a federal trial began in Bismarck for Russell Means, an Indian activist. 1977: The last section of Interstate 29 was completed, thus making North Dakota the first state in the union to finish its assigned mileage in the Federal Controlled Access Highway System. North Dakota experienced its wettest year on record and an investigation ensued following the failure of the Towner Bank. 1978: An oil boom began in western North Dakota and a tornado hit Elgin killing 4 people. Sunflowers became the state's second largest cash crop and extensive spring flooding made 23 counties eligible for disaster assistance. 1979: Coal Creek Power Station No. 1 near Underwood went "on-line" and heavy flooding of the Red River caused much of Hillsboro to be evacuated. 1980: Construction began at Beulah on the nation's first plant to convert lignite coal to synthetic gas. Allen Olson was elected Governor; he was the first Republican to hold that office in 20 years (the Republicans also won the agriculture, insurance, and State Treasurer positions). 1981: The North Dakota Heritage Center at Bismarck officially opened and gambling for charitable purposes was legalized in North Dakota. Coyote Station No. 1 near Beulah, a coal-fired electrical generating facility, was opened. 1982: The Northern Tier Pipeline began and the Democrats gained control of the House for the first time in 16 years. Northern Lights, a movie about the NPL in North Dakota, won the Neil Simon Award for best picture. 1983: Two Federal marshals were shot and killed north of Medina and U.S. Representative Mark Andrews brought a malpractice suit against a hospital in Fargo. The Payment in Kind (PIK) Program was implemented to help farmers. 1984: A Federal trial began for Leonard Peltier, accused of shooting 2 Federal Marshals in South Dakota. Ruth Meiers became the state's first woman Lieutenant Governor; Democrats won the executive positions of Governor, Lieutenant Governor, State Treasurer, Attorney General, and Insurance Commissioner, but the Republicans regained control of the House. 1985: North Dakota's first ethanol plant was built at Walhalla and Beryl Levine became the first woman Justice on the North Dakota Supreme Court. North Dakota became the last state to have a confirmed case of the disease AIDS. 1986: The Democratic Party gained control of the North Dakota Senate for the first time in the state's history and Lieutenant Governor Ruth Meiers was diagnosed as having cancer; her duties were curtailed. 1986 was a bad year for North Dakota businesses; Staiger, Great Plains and Gold Seal were all reorganized. 1987: The North Dakota Agriculture Department fell victim to botched Central American potato sales and higher oil and cattle prices started to boost the state's economy. Lieutenant Governor Ruth Meiers died after a six-month battle with cancer and was replaced by Lloyd Omdahl. Fire at an agricultural chemical warehouse in Minot forced 10,000 people to leave their homes until the toxic fumes dissipated. United Mine Workers went on strike at Indian Head Mine near Zap and Virgil Hill of Williston won the World Boxing Association light-heavyweight boxing title. 1988: The first major drought since the 1930s was recorded and the Institution at San Haven was closed. Larry Remele, State Historian and editor for the State Historical Society of North Dakota, died in early June. Copyright ©1999 State Historical Society of North Dakota. You are free to use information or non-copyrighted images from these pages for any non-commercial purpose. Any use of this information should credit the State Historical Society of North Dakota. e-mail State Historical Society of North Dakota Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
OKLAHOMA Settled: 1889 Date admitted to the Union: 16 Nov 1907 Order of admission: 46 Capital: Oklahoma City Extent in Miles (length): 400 Extent in Miles (width): 220 Area in square miles (land): 68,655 Area in square miles (inland water): 1,301 Area in square miles (total): 69,956 Rank in Area: 18 Official Nickname: Sooner State Motto: Labor Omnia Vincit (Labor Conquers All Things) Flower: Mistletoe Bird: Scissortailed Flycatcher Tree: Redbud Song: Oklahoma! Population (1990): 3,145,585 Population Rank (1990): 28 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: agriculture, mining, tourism, manufacturing Annotated Link List: Oklahoma State History and Information OKLAHOMA'S HISTORY * BEGINNINGS * OKLAHOMA FACTS * AFRICAN AMERICANS * STATE SONG * OKLAHOMA HERITAGE * STATE CHILDREN'S SONG * NATIVE PEOPLE * THE COWBOYS * LIST OF OKLAHOMA'S GOVERNORS * THE OUTLAWS * WILD WEST SHOWS * RODEOS BEGINNINGS Oklahoma's recorded history began in 1541 when Spanish explorer Coronado ventured through the area on his quest for the "Lost City of Gold." The land that would eventually be known as Oklahoma was part of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase. Beginning in the 1820s, the Five Civilized Tribes from the southeastern United States were relocated to Indian Territory over numerous routes, the most famous being the Cherokee "Trail of Tears." Forced off their ancestral lands by state and federal governments, the tribes suffered great hardships during the rigorous trips west. The survivors eventually recovered from the dislocation through hard work and communal support. Gradually, new institutions and cultural adaptations emerged and began a period of rapid development often called the "Golden Age" of Indian Territory. Following the destruction of the Civil War, Oklahoma became a part of the booming cattle industry, ushering in the era of the cowboy. Western expansion reached the territory in the late 1800s, sparking a controversy over the fate of the land. Treaties enacted after the Civil War by the U.S. government forced the tribes to give up their communal lands and accept individual property allotments to make way for expansion. There was talk of using Indian Territory for settlement by African Americans emancipated from slavery. However, the government relented to pressure, much of it coming from a group known as "Boomers," who wanted the rich lands opened to non-Indian settlement. The government decided to open the western parts of the territory to settlers by holding a total of six land runs between 1889 and 1895. Settlers came from across the nation and even other countries like Poland, Germany, Ireland and Slavic nations to stake their claims. And African Americans, some who were former slaves of Indians, took part in the runs or accepted their allotments as tribal members. In the years that followed, black pioneers founded and settled entire communities in or near Arcadia, Boley, Langston, and Taft. On November, 16, 1907, Oklahoma became the 46th state. Statehood had become a sure thing, in part due to a discovery which made Oklahoma the "place to go to strike it rich" -- oil. People came from all parts of the world to seek their fortunes in Oklahoma's teeming oil fields. Cities like Tulsa, Ponca City, Bartlesville, and Oklahoma City flourished. Oklahomans are filled with pride for their land of diverse cultures, hundreds of scenic lakes and rivers, and genuine warmth and friendliness. This proud Oklahoma spirit is echoed through the accomplishments of our citizens, such as humorist and "Cherokee Cowboy" Will Rogers, Olympian and American Indian Jim Thorpe, African American author Ralph Ellison, astronaut Thomas Stafford, jazz musician Charlie Christian, and country music superstars Reba McEntire, Vince Gill, and Garth Brooks. AFRICAN AMERICANS The history of African Americans in Oklahoma is a story unlike any to be found in the United States. African Americans came to this region as cowboys, settlers, gunfighters, and farmers. By statehood in 1907, they outnumbered both Indians and first- and second-generation Europeans. They created more all-black towns in Oklahoma than in the rest of the country put together, produced some of the country's greatest jazz musicians, and led some of the nation's greatest civil rights battles. One of the great omissions in the history books was the role African American soldiers played in the Civil War. Blacks first fought alongside whites during the Battle of Honey Springs, an engagement fought on July 17, 1863, on a small battlefield outside present-day Muskogee. Black troops held the Union's center line in that battle, breaking the Confederate's center and giving the Union a critical win that secured both the Arkansas River and the Texas Road (the region's major transportation routes). This ensured the Union a solid foothold in Indian Territory -- one it never relinquished. A year after the Civil War ended in 1865, Congress passed a bill providing provisions for black troops, what became the 9th and 10th cavalry. The 10th went on to be headquartered at Fort Gibson; the 9th was stationed at Fort Sill. Black soldiers built Oklahoma forts; fought bandits, cattle thieves, and Mexican revolutionaries (including Pancho Villa); and policed borders during the land runs. They also played a critical role in the Indian Wars of the late 1800s, earning the respect of Native Americans who gave them the name of "Buffalo Solders." After the Civil War, Freedmen and new African American settlers in Oklahoma could vote, study, and move about with relative freedom. Pamphlets distributed throughout the South urged African Americans to join land runs in Indian Territory, to create businesses, cities and perhaps even the first black state. Pamphlets promising a black paradise in Oklahoma lured tens of thousands of former slaves from the South. Eventually 27 black towns grew to encompass 10 percent of Indian Territory's population. Today many of Oklahoma's original black towns and districts are gone, but those that remain still host rodeos, Juneteenth celebrations, and community reunions. OKLAHOMA HERITAGE America is steeped in the traditions of the west and the American Indian, and no state boasts a richer heritage of both that Oklahoma. Indians from more than 67 tribes, including the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Seminole, Osage, Cheyenne, Sac and Fox, Delaware, Apache, and Pawnee, call Oklahoma their home today. Such famous Indians as Sequoyah, Black Beaver, Jim Thorpe, and Maria Tallchief contributed to Oklahoma's development. The state is also the setting for vast horse and cattle ranches, rodeos, and working cowboys. Such famous cowboys as Bill Pickett, Tom Mix, Gene Autry, and Will Rogers hail from Oklahoma. NATIVE PEOPLE Before Coronado and his colleagues landed on America's shores, Indians resided in what would become Oklahoma. Remnants of several different hunter-agricultural civilizations have been found in Oklahoma, including a site near Anadarko, where archaeologists discovered the bones of a mammoth and several spear points. Scientists estimate the mammoth was killed more than 11,000 years ago and have identified the spearheads as belonging to an ancient group of hunters known as the Clovis culture. From 500 to 1300 A.D., a group known as the Mound Builders lived in an area just west of the Arkansas/Oklahoma border in LeFlore County. Artifacts left in ceremonial burial site "mounds" show the Mound Builders were highly skilled artisans with a sophisticated economy. By the time explorers discovered the mysterious earthen mounds in the 17th and 18th centuries, the culture centered there was extinct, and the Osage and Quapay tribes laid claim to the region. Today, the area has been preserved for visitors and scientific study as Spiro Mound State Park. Osage Osage Indians settled in the rich woodlands of northeastern Oklahoma around 1796. Shortly thereafter, the area became United States property as part of the Louisiana Purchase. When a band of Cherokees settled near the Osage (after voluntarily moving from the East Coast), territorial violence erupted between the two tribes with white settlers caught in the middle. Eventually the United States negotiated a truce with Osage Chief Clermont, dropping all damage claims against the tribe if the Osage would cede seven million acres of land to the federal government. The Osage continued attacking, however, and were finally forced to cede the rest of their lands to the United States in 1825. They then moved to Kansas territory, but it was soon opened to white settlement. In 1870, Congress sold the rest of the Osage lands, turned the money over to the tribe and opened a reservation for them which later became Osage County. Before long, oil was struck on this land and the Osage became the wealthiest people per capita in the United States. Quapaw The Quapaw history is less violent, yet more tragic than that of the Osage. Prior to 1820, the tribe sold 45 million acres of their land south of the Arkansas river to the U.S. government for $18,000. The United States took the rest of their land in 1824 when four Quapaw chiefs, induced with alcohol and $500 each, ceded the property. Homeless, the tribe settled near the Red River on land received from the Caddos, a tribe from Texas. However, crop failures in successive years diminished the tribe, and the survivors scattered. In 1890, the Quapaw reorganized and obtained a sliver of property in northeastern Indian Territory. Zinc and lead were soon discovered on this land, and by the 1920s tribal members were gaining as much as $1.2 million a year in royalties from the mines. Five Civilized Tribes The lands which the Osage and Quapaw had ceded to the United States government were turned over to the Indians of the old Southeast, who were being relocated from their tribal homes. Five tribes of these Indians had come to be known as the Five Civilized Tribes because of their advanced systems of government, education and law enforcement. These tribes were the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek and Seminole. The most peaceful removal among the Five Civilized Tribes was the Choctaw in 1820. The other four tribes followed, with removals becoming increasingly bloodier from internal skirmishes and bouts with white men. The Seminoles were the last to make the westward journey in 1842. The Choctaw even brought their crack police force called the Lighthorsemen to Indian Territory. This law enforcement unit maintained justice and safety for much of the region. Although a relatively peaceful move, the most tragic Indian removal to Oklahoma was that of the Cherokee. A portion of the tribe had already moved to Arkansas in the late 18th century. The rest were forced to move after the removal Act of 1830. The Cherokees' travels across the Missouri and Arkansas wilderness during harsh winter months became known in history as the "Trail of Tears" because many members of the tribe died and were buried along the way. By 1856, each of the Five Civilized Tribes established territorial boundaries in the frontier. These were all national domains, not reservations. Settled in their new homes, the Five Civilized Tribes began building cultures out of the Oklahoma wilderness, laying the foundation of a society which would carry the territory to statehood and modern times. The Five Civilized Tribes each formed their own constitutional governments and established advanced public school systems. The nations had powerful judicial systems and strong economies. Some tribes brought black slaves and freedmen with them from the East and built plantations, villages, and towns in the new "Indian Territory." To protect the five nations from angry Plains Indians who were upset at having to share their lands with the newcomers, the U.S. Army built several forts. These included Fort Washita near Durant and Fort Gibson, near Muskogee. One Cherokee who moved west in 1829 was one of America's most honored Indians, Sequoyah. He was intrigued with the white man's ability to write, so after 12 years of experimenting and study, Sequoyah created an 86-letter syllabary for the Cherokee language. This alphabet was so efficient it could be learned in less than a month and became the standard means of communication for the Cherokee. Sequoyah's home is still standing near Sallisaw. During the Civil War, individual Indians were divided between loyalty to the Confederacy or neutrality. However, tribal governments officially sided with the South. The rivalry turned to violence as Confederate factions attacked those Indians favoring neutrality, forcing them to flee into Kansas. In the Reconstruction Era after the Civil War, the United States government confiscated the western portions of the Indian Territory and began resettling other tribes such as the Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, and Comanche. The separate nations of the Five Civilized Tribes would survive until Oklahoma's statehood in 1907. Plains Indians After the Civil War, many of the lands taken away from the Five Civilized Tribes in Oklahoma Territory were turned over to tribes from the West. As non-Indian expansion pressed westward and the railroads built networks of tracks, the federal government decided to relocate the western Indians, whose homes stood in the way of "progress." Moving in to these newly-designated lands were two great Indian leaders who lived their last days in the territory: Apache warrior Geronimo and Cheyenne Chief Black Kettle. Geronimo's relentless battle to stanch the expansion of settlers in the desert and mountains of the Southwest led him to incarceration at the Ft. Sill Military Reservation near Lawton where he lived to an old age. Chief Black Kettle was an outspoken proponent of peace with white men, but he was killed in the last great battle between Indians and the U.S. Army in Oklahoma. Black Kettle was among several chiefs who signed the peace treaty of Medicine Lodge, Kansas, in 1867, which guaranteed the Cheyenne and Arapaho land in Oklahoma along with goods and services. As with many other Indian treaties, the federal government failed to uphold the bargain. Several bands of Cheyenne and Arapaho grew impatient, carrying out raids on government installations and many inhabitants. Conflicts between Indians and settlers continued in Oklahoma until the 20th century, although not as violent as in the Washita River Battle. The Five Civilized Tribes' efforts to maintain autonomy disappeared in 1905 when they attempted to organize an Indian state named Sequoyah. The federal government rejected this idea in favor of a single state combining the Oklahoma and Indian Territories. Thus, Oklahoma became the 46th state on November 16, 1907. When Indian and Oklahoma territories achieved statehood under one banner, Indians and settlers joined efforts to develop the state's cultural and economic assets. According to the 1990 census, Oklahoma's Indian population is 252,420, the largest of any state. Currently, 35 tribes maintain tribal councils in Oklahoma. Although Indians in Oklahoma are an active part of modern society, many tribes continue their customs and ceremonial rites in powwows scheduled throughout the year. These colorful powwows feature Indians dancing in native dress and are generally open to the public. Many major Indian events and museums are found in Oklahoma, providing an authentic glimpse at one of Oklahoma's most important pieces of history. THE COWBOYS America's working cowboy began his history on the Texas plains where, after the Civil War, ranchers found they had a plentiful supply of beef with no place to sell it. Demand for beef existed along the East Coast, but to fulfill that need, Texas ranchers had to move cattle to the railroads, and the closest ones were in Kansas. Between the cattle ranches and railroads lay Oklahoma, the land of the great cattle trails between 1866 and 1889. As cattle drives crossed the Oklahoma plains, drovers recognized the value of Oklahoma's land for grazing, and the economical advantages of originating a herd in the territory. Oklahoma consequently turned into a prime site for cattle ranches and continues to be a thriving center for livestock. Although the ranch cowboys of history are still working the ranches today, their lifestyle has changed. Modern cowboys live with their families in comfortable homes and use advanced technology in working cattle. Horses are still used on the range, but trucks are more common. Helicopters and airplanes also supplement horses in herding cattle. Scientific knowledge of animal husbandry and irrigation planning are as practical to the modern-day cowboy as the rope and saddle were to the cowboy of yesterday. Branding irons are still used for identifying cattle by searing permanent marks into the animals hides. Brands were an early deterrent against cattle being lost or stolen, similar to serial numbers. Designed to be functional, brands are simple, legible and easily identifiable. Despite their simplicity, many cattlemen hold their brand symbols in high esteem and name their ranches after them. THE OUTLAWS After cattlemen and settlers came to Oklahoma and Indian territories, outlaws were attracted to this wild frontier country of the late 1800s. Law enforcement hadn't been firmly established in the territories and the landscape offered many places where outlaws and their gangs could hide, such as the rocks, caves and trees in what is now Robbers Cave State Park near Wilburton. Outlaws in Oklahoma robbed banks and trains, stole horses and cattle. Some were quite infamous and dangerous, achieving legendary status and making heroes out of the lawmen who brought the criminals to justice. Such was the fate of Bill Doolin, whose gang battled U.S. Marshals in one of the most historic shootouts in the West in 1893. Marshal Heck Thomas tracked Doolin for three years, finally ambushing and killing Doolin on a quiet country road in northeastern Payne County. Another famous lawman was Bass Reeves, believed to be the first African American deputy marshal west of the Mississippi River. A tough and fearless man, Reeves served for 35 years, longer than any lawman on record in Indian Territory. Reeves was born into slavery in Texas but escaped to Indian Territory before the Civil War. Reeves was one of 200 deputies commissioned by Judge Isaac C. Parker, the "Hanging Judge," after 1875 to track down criminals in lawless western Arkansas and Indian Territory. Many Indians distrusted white deputies, so Parker believed blacks would be particularly effective lawmen in Indian Territory. Associated with the Doolin Gang were a few female outlaws, including one of the most famous bad women of all times, Belle Starr. Judge Parker sentenced Starr in 1882 to federal prison on a horse-stealing charge. After her release, Starr lived quietly on her homestead near Eufaula, until she was murdered on a road one wintry day. Starr's killer has never been brought to justice. WILD WEST SHOWS The Hollywood and rodeo cowboys got their starts in wild west shows and circuses that became popular around 1900. Three of the more popular wild west shows originated in Oklahoma from the Mulhall Ranch, the Pawnee Bill Ranch and the Miller 101 Ranch. Zach Mulhall's ranch near Guthrie covered 80,000 acres in Oklahoma Territory. He started a wild west show starring his daughter Lucille, the world's first "cowgirl," who became a favorite of President Theodore Roosevelt. The show toured from 1900 to 1915. Gordon William Lillie built his ranch near Pawnee and became famous as "Pawnee Bill." This name was given to him by the Pawnee Indians, who made him their "white chief" after he saved the tribe from starvation during a harsh winter. Pawnee Bill and some of his Indian friends later joined Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, but in 1888, Lillie started his own. The Pawnee Bill Show featured his wife, May, a refined Philadelphian who learned to ride broncs sidesaddle and became a sharpshooter with guns. Pawnee Bill's show toured the world until 1913. The ranch, with many relics and memorabilia, is also the home of an authentic 60-foot poster advertisement for a 1900 Pawnee Bill Wild West Show performance in Blackwell. The ranch and museum are open to the public. Perhaps the most popular of all wild west shows originated on the Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch near Ponca City, built by Col. George Washington Miller and his three sons. Their show toured the world from 1908 until the Great Depression and even included a team of Cossacks, but it remained true to its western roots with headline acts featuring cowboys and Indians. RODEOS The rodeo was born on the range where cowboys pitted their herding skills against each other and ranches competed for bragging rights. The wild west shows picked up these competitions and included them as entertainment. Although the shows later dissolved, the competitions evolved into rodeos, the only national spectator sport originating entirely in the United States. A typical rodeo includes a variety of events to test a cowboy's skill. From calf roping and steer wrestling to saddle-bronc and bull riding, the degree of danger varies but the competition is always exciting. More than a hundred rodeos take place throughout the year in Oklahoma, ranging from junior rodeos to high school, intercollegiate and professional events. Oklahoma's rodeos also feature women's competitions where cowgirls compete in rodeo events, barrel racing contests and rodeo queen competitions. Indian rodeos are another major Oklahoma attraction. OKLAHOMA FACTS Oklahoma City is the state capitol of Oklahoma. The name "Oklahoma" comes from the Choctaw words: "okla" meaning people and "humma" meaning red, so the state's name literally means "red people." Oklahoma has the largest American Indian population of any state. Many of the 252,420 American Indians living in Oklahoma today are descendents from the original 67 tribes inhabiting Indian Territory. Thirty-nine of the American Indian tribes currently living in Oklahoma are headquartered in the state. The governor of Oklahoma is Frank Keating; the lieutenant governor is Mary Fallin. Oklahoma's bipartisan state government houses a bicameral legislature. Oklahoma has 43 colleges and universities. The highest point in the state is Black Mesa in Cimarron County (4,973 feet); the lowest is due east of Idabel in McCurtain County (287 feet). Oklahoma has more man-made lakes that any other state, with over one million surface areas of water and 2,000 more miles of shoreline than the Atlantic and Gulf coasts combined. Oklahoma is the third largest natural gas-producing state in the nation. Oklahoma ranks fourth in the nation in the production of all wheat, fourth in cattle and calf production; fifth in the production of pecans; sixth in peanuts and eight in peaches. Oklahoma's four mountain ranges include the Ouachitas, Arbuckles, Wichitas, and the Kiamichis. Forests cover approximately 24 percent of Oklahoma. Oklahoma is bordered by six states: Texas to the south and west, Arkansas and Missouri to the east, Kansas to the north and Colorado and New Mexico at the tip of the northwestern Oklahoma panhandle. Oklahoma is comprised of 77 counties. Oklahoma has a land area of 69,919 square miles and ranks 18 in the nation in size. According to 1990 U.S. census data, Oklahoma's population is 3,258,000. Of those, 82.1 percent are white, 8 percent American Indian, 7.4 percent African American, 2.7 Hispanics, and 1.1 Asian. Oklahoma's two most populous cities are Oklahoma City, with 463,201 residents, and Tulsa, with 374,851. The next largest cities are Norman, with a population of 87,290, and Lawton, which has 86,028 people. STATE SONG §25-94.1. The official song and anthem of the State of Oklahoma is "Oklahoma," composed and written by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein. "Brand new state, Brand new state, gonna treat you great! Gonna give you barley, carrots and pertaters, Pasture fer the cattle, Spinach and Termayters! Flowers on the prairie where the June bugs zoom, Plen'y of air and plen'y of room, Plen'y of room to swing a rope! Plen'y of heart and plen'y of hope! Oklahoma, where the wind comes sweepin' down the plain, And the wavin' wheat can sure smell sweet When the wind comes right behind the rain. Oklahoma, ev'ry night my honey lamb and I Sit alone and talk and watch a hawk makin' lazy circles in the sky. We know we belong to the land And the land we belong to is grand! And when we say - Yeeowþ A-yip-i-o-ee ay! We're only sayin' You're doin' fine, Oklahoma! Oklahoma - O.K." STATE CHILDREN'S SONG §25-94.5. The official children's song of the State of Oklahoma is the song "Oklahoma, My Native Land", composed and written by Martha Kemm Barrett. The words of the official state children's song are: "As I travel the roads of America, such wonderful sights I can see. But nothing compares to the place I love; The perfect home for you and for me. Yes, Oklahoma, my native land. I am proud to say your future's looking grand. Yes, Oklahoma, such history. Ev'ry day you give a gift just for me. I see a Scissortail Flycatcher cut through the clean air as mistletoe kisses the branches ev'rywhere. Redbuds open ev'ry single spring. I hear a Pow Wow beat the rhythm of the old ways as oil wells pump back mem'ries of the boom days. Only Oklahoma has these things. Yes, Oklahoma, my native land. I am proud to say your future's looking grand. Yes, Oklahoma, such history. Ev'ry day you give a gift just for me. Perfect home for you. The perfect home for me. It's only Oklahoma for me." The above text was taken from the Oklahoma Department of Tourism and Recreation's A Look at Oklahoma Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
OREGON Settled: 1811 Date admitted to the Union: 14 Feb 1859 Order of admission: 33 Capital: Salem Extent in Miles (length): 360 Extent in Miles (width): 261 Area in square miles (land): 96,184 Area in square miles (inland water): 889 Area in square miles (total): 97,073 Rank in Area: 10 Official Nickname: Beaver State Motto: She Flies with Her Own Wings Flower: Oregon Grape Bird: Western Meadowlark Tree: Douglas Fir Song: Oregon, My Oregon Population (1990): 2,842,321 Population Rank (1990): 29 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: forestry, agriculture, tourism, high technology, manufacturing Annotated Link List: OREGON HISTORY Here is a short version of Oregon History. For a more detailed look at Oregon's past, Oregon History Narrative offers much additional information. also: * Oregon County Map * Oregon Topographical County Map * Oregon Highway Map "Indians came to Oregon at least 10,000 years ago and included the BANNOCK, CHINOOK, KLAMATH, MODOC, and NEZ PERCE tribes. The Indians changed the landscape drastically in many areas, burning the forests and grasslands in order to attract game. The coast Indians had the most stable economy, depending heavily on abundant salmon, various shellfish, seals, and an occasional stranded whale. Tribes in the interior were hunters and gatherers. The first European fur traders, even before Lewis and Clark, were welcomed by the Indians for the trinkets,tools, guns, and whiskey they provided; but the Indians resented the arrival of perm anent settlers, and many battles were fought before the Indians were subdued and placed on reservations." "Many ships touched the Oregon coast in the late 1700s and early 1800s, but these contacts provided little information about the interior. From 1805 to 1806, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark made the first land exploration to the Northwest Territory. Although they visited only the Columbia River and a small part of the northwestern coast, they gleaned much information about the remainder of the state from friendly Indians. Their report created much excitement in the eastern United States, including the halls of Congress, and among fur traders who had previously trapped and traded in the Rocky Mountain region. Americans began to think of taking possession of this distant land, and Great Britain was also interested. In 1811, Astoria was founded as a fur-trading station by John Jacob Astor's American Fur Company, and the Hudson's Bay Company soon began to trap and trade in the area." "The Oregon Trail was an overland pioneer route to the northwestern United States. About 2000 miles long, the trail extended from Independence, Missouri, to the Columbia River in Oregon. Part of the route followed the Platte River for 540 miles through what is now Nebraska to Fort Laramie in present-day Wyoming. The trail continued along the North Platte and Sweetwater rivers to South Pass in the Wind River Range of the Rocky Moun- tains. From there the main trail went south to Fort Bridger, Wyoming, before turning into the Bear River valley and north to Fort Hall in present-day Idaho. In Idaho the Oregon Trail followed the Snake River to the Salmon Falls and then went north past Fort Boise. The route entered what is now Oregon, passed through the Grande Ronde River valley, crossed the Blue Mountains and followed the Umatilla River to the Columbia River. Shorter and more direct routes were developed along some parts of the trail, but they were often more difficult." "Originally, like many other main routes in the United States, sections of the Oregon Trail had been used by the Native Americans and trappers. As early as 1742, part of the trail in Wyoming had been blazed by the Canadian explorer Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye; the Lewis and Clark expedition, between 1804 and 1806, made more of it known. The German-American fur trader and financier John Jacob Astor, in establishing his trading posts, dispatched a party overland in 1811 to follow the trail of these explorers. Later, mountain men such as James Bridger, who founded Fort Bridger in 1843, contributed their knowledge of the trail and often acted as guides. The first emigrant wagon train, headed by the American pioneer physician Elijah White, reached Oregon in 1842. The trip took the early pioneers four to six months, a journey fraught with much hardship resulting from poor equipment, illness, and attack by the Native Americans, for whom the growing number of pioneers on the trail was an ever-constant threat. At first, the termination point of the Oregon Trail was Oregon City, Oregon; later, settlers continued south to the fertile and valuable land in the Willamette Valley." "Oregon's nickname, the Beaver State, harks back to the early years of the 19th century. Fur hats were fashionable at that time, in northeastern cities, and Oregon's streams were an important source of beaver. With competition fierce among the fur companies for control of the western lands, adventurous trappers, called mountain men, became the first white people to know the region well. Later, when the rage for beaver hats had passed and Oregon's beaver supply was all but exhausted, the mountain men showed the early pioneers a route they had picked out in their trapping years. Known as the Oregon Trail, it took thousands during the 1840s to the fertile Willamette Valley, where wheat, fruits, and vegetables thrived. Settlers were also drawn to other parts of the state, where a profitable timber industry later developed around Oregon's bountiful supply of Douglas fir trees. By the mid-1990s the timber industry, while still critical to Oregon's economy, was waning as access to old growth stands of trees diminished. Meanwhile, manufacturing was growing, fueled by technology industries in the Willamette Valley. The origin of the state name is uncertain. It may, however, be derived from the French ouragan, meaning storm or hurricane. The Columbia River may have been called the River of Storms by the early French Canadian trappers." Oregon History This is Google's cache of Google's cache is the snapshot that we took of the page as we crawled the web. The page may have changed since that time. Click here for the current page without highlighting [page not found] An Oregon historical time line 1778, March 7 Capt. James Cook gazes at the Oregon coast for the first time. 1811, Joseph Gervais arrives in Oregon with the hunt party of the Astor enterprise. 1810, The Pacific Fur Company was founded by John Jacob Astor of New York. The town of Astoria is named for Mr. Astor. The Astoria column that is a historical tourist attraction, was first named the Astor Coulmn and later renamed to the Astoria Column. 1829, Capt. John Dominis of the brig Owyhee, fills 60 empty rum hogsheads with Columbia River salmon. 1828, June 23 Jedediah Smith is the first white man to tour what becomes Coos and Curry counties 1834, October 6 Missionary Jason Lee and his party settle down north of Salem 1842, Portland's first cabin was built by William Johnson, a sailor on Old Ironsides in the war of 1812. Located at the corner of SW Macadam Avenue and Curry Street. A marker has been erected on this site by U.S. Daughters of 1812. 1844, June 22 Clatsop County is fourmed. 1845, August 19 Willamette Falls is the location of the Multnomah Circulating Library. 1846, August 16 Oregon's first jail in located in Oregon City is destroyed by fire. 1846, September 10 The schooner Shark under the command of Lieutenant Neil M. Howison U.S.N. wrecked. Part of a small iron cannon drifted ashore thus the name of Cannon Beach. The community of Cannon Beach is south of Seaside. 1847, February 1 "Webster's Speller, Abridged Edition" is the first book printed in Oregon at Oregon City. 1847, March 29 Oregon City post office opens. 1847, May 24 The first brick church in Oregon is built. 1849, January 19 Gold is discovered near Gold Hill. 1850, January 26 Portland Post Office receives its first mail. 1850, Columbia salmon trade becomes global. 1851, January 13 The Territorial Legislature at Oregon City votes to move the capital to Salem. 1851, April 19 Tualatin Indians gave up their lands for a small reservation at Wapato Lake. 1851, June 4 The original marker at the intersection of the Willamette Base Line and the Willamette Meridian was placed by John P. Presont. The marker was a cedar stake that lasted for 35 years. It was then replace by W.B. Marye with a stone obelisk. The obelisk lasted until 1985 when it was removed by vandals. Today the marker is a combination of stone and bronze. The original purpose of the marker was to aid in managing land claims. 1853 Justus Jones arrives with his family in the Clatskanie area. He bought a squatter's claim in Washington County. On Cedar Mill Creek he set up a water powered mill to saw logs. In 1869 the operation was sold to John Quincy Adams Young. Jones then moved to Portland and stated Jones Lumber Co. on SW Macadam Avenue. 1854, October 7 Eugene District Court cites Mason Benson for keeping a grocery store open on Sunday 1856, January 21 Marion County citizens organize Central Howell School District 1857, August 17 Oregon's Constitutional Convention convenes in Salem. 1859, March Oregon becomes a state. 1859, August 17 Postal Service in Randolph (Coquille River in Coos County) area begins with the opening of a local post office. 1863, April 21 Portland and Salem are linked for the first time by telegraph. 1864, March 28 Portland installs its first fire hydrant, at Southwest Washington Street and First Avenue 1866, William Hume's cannery on the Columia River shipped 6,000 cases of 48 1-pound cans. 1866, June 30 Members of Oregon's Volunteer from Polk and Benton Counties muster at Fort Yamhill. They were Comapny A. 1867, March 20 The Ladies Relief Society organizes in Portland. 1868, January 24 New library opened at Albany College. 1871, September 6 Portland Street Railway Co. was incorporated. Ben Holladay owner secured a 25 year city franchise. 1872, January 20 Klamath Falls post office is opened 1874, April 23 The first public library serving Eugene opens. 1875, March 18 Deschutes County gains a post office at Camp Polk. 1876, February 28 At the ranch of Thomas B. Hoover, the Fossil post office began. It was due to the fossil remains Mr. Hoover found on his ranch came the name of Fossil. 1880, May 27 Curry County's first newspaper is published today, the Port Orford Post. 1886, January 18 Bend post office opens it's doors 1887, William Britt homesteaded at the mouth of a creek one mile west of Idleyld Park on the North Umpqua River. 1887, April 12 The Morrison Street Bridge opens accross the Willamette River. 1889, January 14 Cowbells at night are outlawed in Roseburg. An anti-noise ordinance is adopted outlawing the use of cowbells at night. 1890, August 21 The Edgewood Post Office opens in Klamath County. 1891, February 4 US National Bank is granted its charter. It opens in the Kamin Building at 52 First Street on the 5th of February. 1891, May 25 The town Arlington is damaged by a tornado. 1892, March 3 Mount Angel monastery and college are destroyed by fire. 1892, May 3 Mount Angel Monistary and College burn to the ground. 1893, Western Transportation Company begins business, the company operated ships on Oregon rivers. 1894, March 24 University of Oregon plays its first football agme, beating Albany College 44-2 1897, Dinner Creek a tributary to the Clackamas River was named by W.C. Elliott. The name was selected because his surveying team stopped there for dinner. 1897, July 28 Francis Smith was the first Postmaster of the Plano Post Office. The Plano name came from the Plano Brand of farm equipment that was well known in the 1890s. 1898, April 20 Post Office opens in Pelican, Klamath County. 1899, September 22 The Poplar post office was estblished. Zachariah J. Martin was the first postmaster. 1903, January 30 Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition Commission is created to organize the upcoming event. 1903, May 6 The first automobile travels from Portland through Arlinington on it's way to Montana. Prior to this transportation methods included walking, horse, sailing the river and train. The Mary Hill Museum on the Washington side of the Columbia River provides a historical view of James Hill the railroad builder's life. 1904, May 4 Building of the Lewis & Clark Exposition begins in northwest Portland. If you are familiar with the NW Industrial area and NW Thurman road, take a look at some of the buildings. You will see that some of them participated in the Exposition. 1906, The Portland Railway Light & Power Company was formed. 1906, October 25 Peter Iredale is shipwrecked south of Astoria 1907, Oswald West became a member of the state Railway Commission, he helped reduce rates and eliminate corruption. 1908, May 26 The Post Offices of Arcadia is combined with Nyssa Post Office. 1910, October 5 Linnton is incorporated as a town 1911, January 31 Clackamas County Bank opens for business in Sandy. 1911, Oswald West was elected Governor, he remained in office until 1914 when he said, I have accomplished what I set out to do. 1912, January 29 Deschutes County gains a post office at Alfalfa. 1914, June 25 Klamath Falls, the Orpheus Theater opens it's doors to the community. 1915, The Gearhart Hotel burned to the ground. It was replaced enabling vactioning families from Portland to continue to enjoy the coast. 1916, March 23 The Shevlin-Hixon Mill in Bend saws its first log. 1918, May 5 Dedication of Vista House takes place. Vista House sits on Crown Point above the Columbia River. 1920, The U.S. War Department issued a construction permit to the Interstate Construction Corporation to build the Bridge of the Gods over the Columbia River. During the next five year the only acomplishments towards building the bridge were, acquisition of the right-of-way and building one pier. The Wauna Toll Bridge Company then puchased Interstate's interest and complete construction of the bridge. At a cost of $602,077.58 the project was finished in October 1926. 1923, July 3 The Oregon Trail Monument at Emigrant Spring in the Blue Mountians is dedicated by President Warren Harding. 1924, June 24 Klamath Falls has another theater open, the White Pelican. 1925, May 29 Ground breaking for the Ross Island Bridge was done today. 1926, May 28 The Burnside Bridge opens to traffice ($2,964,647 was thecost). 1926, July 22 The Astoria Column is dedicated. This monument sits 595 feet elevation on Coxcomb Hill in Astoria. It was paid for by Vincent Astor, the great-grandson of John Jacob Astor. John Astor was a New York fur trader and financier who organized the expedition that founded Astoria in 1810. The artwork covering the outside of the column is shows a living history of the area. The artists were Electus D. Litchfield and Attilio Pusterla. 1926, October 9 Multnomah Stadium opens with Oregon-Washington football game 1928, June 28 The first meeting of the Arlington Womens Club was held today. 1929, March 6 Public Theatre opens in Portland (known today as the Arlene Schnitzer Concerst Hall 1929, June 29 Women in Arlington organize a Women's Club. 1927,September 28 The Pondosa post office was established. Pondosa was the trade name for limber sawn from western yellow pine, Pinus ponderosa. 1933, August 2 Old Ironsides, USS Constitution came to Portland. The ship was the sole survivor of the fleet ordered in 1797 by President George Washington. During the early 1900's a significant portion of the ship was rebuilt using Oregon timber. 1938, Bonneville Dam raises the level of the Columbia River high enough that the Bridge of the God has to be raised to accomodate the higher water level. The whole bridge was raised 44 feet from it's prior higth of 91 feet. This project was funded with $762,276.00 from the Federal Congress. 1949, April 13 Northern Oregon is shaken by an earthquake. 1951, August 22 The Portland Airport becomes Portland International Airport. 1953, January 28 Construction of penitentiary in Portland is approved by the Legislature. The penitentiary was built to hold 150 inmates. 1953, February The Columbia River Bridge Company purchases the Bridge of the Gods over the Columbia River. 1956, January 27 The Western Security Bank opens for business in Salem. 1956, April 17 The Kalamth Basin Compact is ratified by both Oregon and California. 1957, March 9 Celilo was closed on this day as The Dalles Dam back filled with water covering the area. The historical Indian fishing grounds disapeared under hundreds of thousands of acre feet of water. 1961, November 1 Port of Cascade Locls purchases the Bridge of the Gods from the Columbia River Bridge Company. The purchase price was $950,000.00 with funding coming from revenue bonds. Since that time $300,000.00 has been spent to re-deck the bridge in 1966 and in 1991 $800,000.00 was spent to repaint the bridge. 1964, January 17 Siuslaw Valley Bank opens in Florence. 1964, December Oregon experienced a 100 year flood that did significant damage to numerous communities. 1967, Oregon beaches were declared public property by lawmakers. 1970, February 6 Porthland is granted a franchise by the National Basketball Association. 1971, July 2 The Oregon Bottle Bill is signed by Governor Tom McCall. 1976, June 26 Jack Ramsey was named coach of the Portland Trail Blazers 1983, March 5 President Reagan visits Klamath County. 1997, May Fossil has it's first local Internet access established. 1998, April 17 Western Transportation Company closes it's doors after operating for 105 years. The company is an example of how changing markets and corporate mergers can effect a company. 1998, April Arlinington has it's first local Internet access established. 1998, August The landmark Sandtrap Restaurant at Gearhart burned to the ground. It had been a destination for Portland vactioners since the late 1800's. In 1888, Marshall J. McKinney bought 200 acres from John Gearhart the son of pioneer settler Phillip Gearhart to build the establishment. Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
SOUTH DAKOTA Settled: 1859 Date admitted to the Union: 2 Nov 1889 Order of admission: 40 Capital: Pierre Extent in Miles (length): 380 Extent in Miles (width): 210 Area in square miles (land): 75,952 Area in square miles (inland water): 1,164 Area in square miles (total): 77,116 Rank in Area: 16 Official Nicknames: Coyote State, Sunshine State Motto: Under God, the People Rule Flower: Pasque Flower Bird: Ringnecked Pheasant Tree: Black Hills Spruce Song: Hail, South Dakota Population (1990): 696,004 Population Rank (1990): 45 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: agriculture, services, manufacturing Annotated Link List: South Dakota Timeline South Dakota Timeline 100 Million years ago: Dinosaurs roamed the Dakota landscape. 40,000 - 50,000 years ago: First humans reached North America. 500 - 1000: Mound builders lived throughout much of the midwest, including along the Big Sioux River. 1250 - 1500: Mandan-like tribe florished in Missouri River region. 1500s: Arikara (Ree) migrated northward from Texas seeking relief from drought. 1664: Charles II of England granted to James, Duke of York (his brother) all of the land west of the Hudson River (including South Dakota). James never exercised this grant. 1717: France granted to John Law all of Louisiana (including South Dakota) with full rights of governing, operating, and protecting the territory. 1720: Louisiana reverted to France. 1743: Verendrye claimed the Missouri Valley for France. Planted a lead engraved plate at Fort Pierre as proof. 1750: "Sioux" tribes move into Dakota. 1762: France ceded Louisiana to Spain. 1800: Louisiana reverted to France. 1803: France sold Louisana to the United States for $3 million. 1804: District of Louisiana created, administered by Indiana. Lewis and Clark reach South Dakota. 1812: Missouri Territory organized - South Dakota included within its borders. 1817: First permanent settlement - Ft. Pierre. 1831: Steamboat "Yellowstone" first operated on Missouri River. 1834: Michigan Territory organized - extended as far west as the Missouri River. 1836: Wisconsin Territory created - extended as far west as the Missouri River. 1838: Iowa Territory created - included all lands north of the present state of Missouri between the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. 1849: Minnesota Territory established - included all land north of present state of Iowa between the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. 1858: Minnesota admitted as a state with present boundaries. Dakota orphaned. Treaty with Yankton tribe to buy all their land between the Big Sioux and the Missouri Rivers, except 400,000 acres in the eastern portion of Charles Mix Co., creating the Yankton Sioux Reservation. 1861: Dakota Territory created - included everything from the Minnesota border to the Rocky Mountains. 1863: First homestead filed in Dakota Territory. 1874: Custer discovers gold in Black Hills. 1877: Land closed to settlement by President U. S. Grant. Dawes Act passed. Reservations to be broken into 160 acre allotments for Indian farms. 1879: Land re-opened for settlement by white people. 1889: South Dakota admitted as a state with present boundaries. 1892-1904: Rosebud Reservation in Gregory Co. thrown open to homesteaders. 1895: Excess land in in the Yankton Reservation thrown open to homesteaders. Land sold for up to $3.75 an acre. 1900: "Free Homes Bill" becomes law. Surplus lands given to settlers. 1904: Pierre becomes the capitol of South Dakota. 1907: Surplus lands in Tripp County opened for homesteads. 1908: Surplus lands on Cheyenne River and Standing Rock Reservations opened for settlement. 1912: Surplus lands in Bennett, Mellette, and Washabaugh Counties opened for homesteads. 1939: Badlands made a National Monument. 1941: Mt. Rushmore finished. Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
TEXAS Settled: 1682 Date admitted to the Union: 29 Dec 1845 Order of admission: 28 Capital: Austin Extent in Miles (length): 790 Extent in Miles (width): 660 Area in square miles (land): 262,017 Area in square miles (inland water): 4,790 Area in square miles (total): 266,807 Rank in Area: 2 Official Nickname: Lone Star State Motto: Friendship Flower: Bluebonnet Bird: Mockingbird Tree: Pecan Song: Texas, Our Texas Population (1990): 16,986,510 Population Rank (1990): 3 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: trade, services, manufacturing Annotated Link List: Texas Timeline (Key Events in early Texas) Texas History Timeline (Key Events in Early Texas) Contents Section 1: Early Exploration and Development Section 2: Revolution and the Republic Section 3: Statehood and Beyond References and Bibliography INDEX OF EVENTS Section 1: Early Exploration and Development Before 1500: Prior to the arrival of the first European explorers, numerous tribes of the Indians of Texas occupied the region between the Rio Grande to the south and the Red River to the north. Mid-1519: Sailing from a base in Jamaica, Alonso Alvarez de Pineda, a Spanish adventurer, was the first known European to explore and map the Texas coastline. November 1528: Cabeza de Vaca shipwrecked on what is believed today to be Galveston Island. After trading in the region for some six years, he later explored the Texas interior on his way to Mexico. 1540-1542: In search of the fabled Seven Cities of Cibola, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado lead an expedition into the present southwestern United States and across northern Texas. 18 February 1685: Robert Cavelier, Sieur de LaSalle established Fort St. Louis at Matagorda Bay, and thus formed the basis for France's claim to Texas. Two years later, LaSalle was murdered by his own men. 22 April 1689: Mexican explorer Alonso de Leon reached Fort St. Louis, and found it abandoned, during an expedition planned to reestablish Spanish presence in Texas. 1716-1789: Throughout the 18th century, Spain established Catholic missions in Texas, and along with the missions, the towns of San Antonio, Goliad and Nacogdoches. 8 August 1812: About 130-men strong, the Gutierrez-Magee Expedition crossed the Sabine from Louisiana in a rebel movement against Spanish rule in Texas. 1817-1820: Jean Laffite occupied Galveston Island and used it as a base for his smuggling and privateering operation. 3 January 1823: Stephen F. Austin received a grant from the Mexican government and began colonization in the region of the Brazos River. Mid-1824: The Constitution of 1824 gave Mexico a republican form of government. It failed, however, to define the rights of the states within the republic, including Texas. 6 April 1830--Relations between the Texans and Mexico reached a new low when Mexico forbid further emigration into Texas by settlers from the United States. 26 June 1832--The Battle of Velasco resulted in the first casualties in Texas' relations with Mexico. After several days of fighting, the Mexicans under Domingo de Ugartechea were forced to surrender for lack of ammunition. 1832-1833: The Convention of 1832 and the Convention of 1833 in Texas were triggered by growing dissatisfaction among the settlements with the policies of the government in Mexico City. Top of Page (Section 1) Section 3: Statehood and Beyond References and Bibliography Section 2: Revolution and the Republic 2 October 1835: Texans repulsed a detachment of Mexican cavalry at the Battle of Gonzales. The revolution began. 9 October 1835: The Goliad Campaign of 1835 ended when George Collingsworth, Ben Milam, and forty-nine other Texans stormed the presidio at Goliad and a small detachment of Mexican defenders. 28 October 1835: Jim Bowie, James Fannin and 90 Texans defeated 450 Mexicans at the Battle of Concepcion, near San Antonio. 3 November 1835: The Consultation met to consider options for more autonomous rule for Texas. A document known as the Organic Law outlined the organization and functions of a new Provisional Government. 8 November 1835: The Grass Fight near San Antonio was won by the Texans under Jim Bowie and Ed Burleson. Instead of silver, however, the Texans gained a worthless bounty of grass. 11 December 1835: Mexicans under Gen. Cos surrendered San Antonio to the Texans following the Siege of Bexar. Ben Milam was killed during the extended siege. 2 March 1836: The Texas Declaration of Independence was signed by members of the Convention of 1836. An ad interim government was formed for the newly created Republic of Texas. 6 March 1836: Texans under Col. William B. Travis were overwhelmed by the Mexican army after a two-week siege at the Battle of the Alamo in San Antonio. The Runaway Scrape began. 10 March 1836: Sam Houston abandoned Gonzales in a general retreat eastward to avoid the invading Mexican army. 27 March 1836: James Fannin and nearly 400 Texans were executed by the Mexicans at the Goliad Massacre, under order of Santa Anna. 21 April 1836: Texans under Sam Houston routed the Mexican forces of Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto. Thus, independence was won in one of the most decisive battles in history. November 1839: The Texas Congress first met in Austin, the frontier site selected for the capital of the Republic. 11 August 1840: The Battle of Plum Creek, near present-day Lockhart, ended the boldest and most penetrating Comanche challenge to the Texas Republic. June 1841: The Texan Santa Fe Expedition set out for New Mexico. Near Sante Fe, they were intercepted by Mexican forces and marched 2000 miles to prison in Mexico City. 5 March 1842:A Mexican force of over 500 men under Rafael Vasquez invaded Texas for the first time since the revolution. They briefly occupied San Antonio, but soon headed back to the Rio Grande. 11 September 1842: San Antonio was again captured, this time by 1400 Mexican troops under Adrian Woll. Again the Mexicans retreated, but this time with prisoners. Fall 1842: Sam Houston authorized Alexander Somervell to lead a retaliatory raid into Mexico. The resulting Somervell Expedition dissolved, however, after briefly taking the border towns of Laredo and Guerreo. 20 December 1842: Some 300 members of the Somervell force set out to continue raids into Mexico. Ten days and 20 miles later, the ill-fated Mier Expedition surrendered at the Mexican town of Mier. 29 December 1842: Under orders of Sam Houston, officials arrived in Austin to remove the records of the Republic of Texas to the city of Houston, touching off the bloodless Archives War. 25 March 1843: Seventeen Texans were executed in what became known as the Black Bean Episode, which resulted from the Mier Expedition, one of several raids by the Texans into Mexico. 27 May 1843: The Texan's Snively Expedition reached the Santa Fe Trail, expecting to capture Mexican wagons crossing territory claimed by Texas. The campaign stalled, however, when American troops intervened. Top of Page (Section 1) Section 2: Revolution and the Republic References and Bibliography Section 3: Statehood and Beyond 29 December 1845: U. S. President James Polk followed through on a campaign platform promising to annex Texas, and signed legislation making Texas the 28th state of the United States. 25 April 1846: The Mexican-American War ignited as a result of disputes over claims to Texas boundaries. The outcome of the war fixed Texas' southern boundary at the Rio Grande River. 25 November 1850: In a plan to settle boundary disputes and pay her public debt, Texas relinquished about one-third of her territory in the Compromise of 1850, in exchange for $10,000,000 from the United States. May 1852: The first Lone Star State Fair in Corpus Christi symbolized a period of relative prosperity in Texas during the 1850's. Organizer Henry L. Kinney persuaded Dr. Ashbel Smith to be the fair's manager. 29 April 1856: Backed by the US military, a shipment of 32 camels arrived at the port of Indianola. The resulting Texas Camel Experiment used the animals to transport supplies over the "Great American Desert." 1 February 1861: Texas seceded from the Federal Union following a 171 to 6 vote by the Secession Convention. Governor Sam Houston was one of a small minority opposed to secession. 22 October 1861: Advance units of the newly formed Brigade of General H. H. Sibley marched westward from San Antonio to claim New Mexico and the American southwest for the Confederacy. 1 January 1863: After several weeks of Federal occupation of Texas' most important seaport, the Battle of Galveston restored the island to Texas control for remainder of Civil War. 13 May 1865: The last land engagement of the Civil War was fought at the Battle of Palmito Ranch in far south Texas, more than a month after Gen. Lee's surrender at Appomattox, VA. 1866: The abundance of longhorn cattle in south Texas and the return of Confederate soldiers to a poor reconstruction economy marked the beginning of the era of Texas trail drives to northern markets. 30 March 1870: The United States Congress readmitted Texas into the Union. Reconstruction continued, however, for another four years. 17 January 1874: Coke-Davis Dispute ended peacefully in Austin as E. J. Davis relinquished the governor's office. Richard Coke began a democratic party dynasty in Texas that continued unbroken for over 100 years. 4 October 1876: The opening of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas marked the state's first venture into public higher education. Tuition totaled $10 per semester. 15 September 1883: The University of Texas opened its doors in Austin for its inaugural session. First courses were offered in the Academic Department and a Law Department. 16 May 1888: The dedication of the present state capitol in Austin ended seven years of planning and construction. The building was funded with 3,000,000 acres of land in north Texas. 20 January 1891: Based on a campaign platform calling for the regulation of railroads and big business, James Hogg took office as the first native-born governor of Texas. 10 January 1901: The discovery of "black gold" at the Spindletop oil field near Beaumont launched Texas into a century of oil exploration, electronics, and manned space travel. Bibliography The following references were used in the development of articles for "The Archives" part of Lone Star Junction, including all articles linked within the "People, Places, Documents, and Events" areas: Don Alberts (editor), Rebels on the Rio Grande, Albuquerque, NM, Merit Press, 1993 D. W. Baker (Compiler), A Texas Scrapbook, New York, A. S. Barnes & Company, 1875 Hubert Howe Bancroft, The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, Vol. XV: North Mexican States and Texas, 1153-1800, San Francisco, A. L. Bancroft & Co., Publishers, 1884; Vol. XVI: North Mexican States and Texas, 1801-1889, San Francisco, A. L. Bancroft & Co., Publishers, 1889. Donaly E. Brice, The Great Comanche Raid, Austin, Eakin Press, 1987 John Henry Brown, History of Texas: 1685-1892, 2 Volumes, St. Louis, L. E. Daniell, 1892 Donaly E. Brice, Indian Wars and Pioneers of Texas, Austin, L. E. Daniell, 1895 L. E. Daniell, Personnel of the Texas State Government, San Antonio, Maverick Printing House, 1892 David C. Edmonds, Yankee Autumn in Acadiana, Lafayette, LA, The Acadiana Press, 1979 Odie Faulk, General Tom Green: A Fightin' Texan, Waco, Texian Press, 1963 John Salmon Ford, Rip Ford's Texas, Austin, University of Texas Press, 1963 Donald S. Frazier, Blood & Treasure: Confederate Empire in the Southwest, College Station, Texas A&M University Press, 1995 Bill Groneman, Alamo Defenders, Austin, Eakin Press, 1990 Martin Hardwick Hall, The Confederate Army of New Mexico, Austin, Presidial Press, 1978 Martin Hardwick Hall, Sibley's New Mexico Campaign, Austin, University of Texas Press, 1960 Cleburne Huston, Deaf Smith: Incredible Texas Spy, Waco, Texian Press, 1973 John H. Jenkins and Kenneth Kesselus, Edward Burleson: Texas Frontier Leader, Austin, Jenkins Publishing Company, 1990 John Holland Jenkins, Recollections of Early Texas, The Memoirs of John Holland Jenkins, Austin, The University of Texas Press, 1958 Alvin M. Josephy, Jr., The Civil War in the American West, New York, Knopf, 1991 Francis Richard Lubbock, Six Decades in Texas, Austin, Ben C. Jones & Co. Printers, 1900 Joseph D. McCutchan (John M. Nance, ed.), Mier Expedition Diary, Austin, University of Texas Press, 1977 John M. Nance, After San Jacinto, Austin, University of Texas Press, 1963 Theophilus Noel, A Campaign From Santa Fe To the Mississippi, Shreveport, Shreveport News Printing Establishment, 1865. [Two separate reprints of this extremely rare original were published in the early 1960s.] W. C. Nunn, Texas Under the Carpetbaggers, Austin, University of Texas Press, 1962 Noah Smithwick, The Evolution of a State, Austin, H.P.N. Gammel, 1900 Andrew J. Sowell, Rangers and Pioneers of Texas, San Antonio, Shepard Brothers and Company, 1884 William Preston Stapp, Prisoners of Perote, Philadelphia, E. B. Zieber, 1845 Ralph W. Steen, The Texas Story, Austin, The Steck Company, 1948 Richard Taylor (Richard Harwell, ed.), Destruction and Reconstruction: Personal Experiences of the Late War, New Youk, Longman Green and Co., 1955 Jerry D. Thompson, Henry Hopkins Sibley: Confederate General of the West, Natchitoches, Northwestern State University Press, 1987 Jerry D. Thompson, Westward the Texans: The Civil War Journal of Private William Randolph Howell, El Paso, Texas Western Press, 1990 Ron Tyler (editor-in-chief), The New Handbook of Texas, Austin, Texas State Historical Association, 1996 Herbert Weaver (editor), Correspondence of James K. Polk, 5 Volumes, Nashville, Vanderbilt University Press, 1975 Gifford White, 1830 Citizens of Texas, Austin, Eakin Press, 1983 Gifford White, 1840 Citizens of Texas, Vol. 1: Land Grants, Austin, Self-Published, 1983; Vol. 2: Tax Rolls, St. Louis, Ingmire Publications, 1984. J. W. Wilbarger, Indian Depredations in Texas, Austin, Hutchings Printing House, 1889 Ernest William Winkler (editor), Journal of the Secession Convention of Texas, Austin, Austin Printing Company, 1912 John D. Winters, The Civil War in Louisiana, Baton Rouge, LSU Press, 1963 Dudley G. Wooten (editor), A Comprehensive History of Texas: 1685-1897, 2 Volumes, William G. Scarff, Dallas, 1898 Return to Lone Star Junction Home Page Copyright © 1995-97 Lone Star Junction Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
UTAH Settled: 1847 Date admitted to the Union: 4 Jan 1896 Order of admission: 45 Capital: Salt Lake City Extent in Miles (length): 350 Extent in Miles (width): 270 Area in square miles (land): 82,073 Area in square miles (inland water): 2,826 Area in square miles (total): 84,899 Rank in Area: 11 Official Nickname: Beehive State Motto: Industry Animal: Rocky Mountain Elk Bird: California Seagull Cooking Pot: Dutch Oven Emblem: Beehive Fish: Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Flower: Sego Lily Folk Dance: Square Dance Fossil: Allosaurus Fruit: Cherry Gem: Topaz Grass: Indian Rice Grass Insect: Honey Bee Mineral: Copper Rock: Coal Tree: Blue Spruce Song: "Utah, We Love Thee" by Evan Stephen Population (1990): 1,722,850 Population Rank (1990): 35 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: trade, services, manufacturing Annotated Link List: A Chronology of Utah's Struggle for Statehood COMPILED BY LINDA THATCHER Division of State History, Utah State Historical Society Events in Utah's History Division of State History, Utah State Historical Society 1776: Fathers Silvestre Velez de Escalante and Francisco Atanasio Dominguez seek a new route from New Mexico to California and explore Utah. 1821: Mexico wins independence from Spain and claims Utah. 1824: General William H. Ashley sends trappers to northern Utah and Jim Bridger discovers the Great Salt Lake. 1826: Jedediah Smith leads the first overland expedition to California. 1832: Antoine Robidoux builds a trading post in the Uintah Basin. 1841: Capt. John Bartleson leads first wagon train of settlers across Utah to California. 1843: John C. Fremont and Kit Carson explore the Great Basin. 1844-45: Miles Goodyear builds Fort Buenaventura. 1847: First party of Mormon pioneers arrive in the Salt Lake Valley. 1848: U.S. wins Mexican War and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo is signed which cedes Utah to the United States. 1849: Constitutional convention proposes the State of Deseret which encompasses the entire Great Basin. 1850: U.S. Senate passes a bill providing for the organization of Utah Territory (rejecting the name Deseret and shrinking its borders). 1850: University of Deseret (later University of Utah) is chartered). 1850: The Deseret News starts in June. 1852: LDS Church authorities publicly acknowledge the doctrine of plural marriage. 1853: LDS Church begins the construction of the Salt Lake Temple. 1853: The Walker War with the Ute Indians begins over slavery among the Indians. 1854: Grasshopper plagues endanger crops. 1856-1860: Handcarts are used by the pioneers traveling to Utah. 1857-1858: Brigham Young is removed as governor by President James Buchanan who sends a 2,500-man military force to accompany the new governor Alfred Cumming to the territory, starting the Utah War. 1861: Telegraph joins in Tooele County. 1861-1862: Third movement for Statehood begins in December 1861. 1863: Discovery of silver and lead in Bingham Canyon. 1865-1868: Ute Black Hawk War last major Indian conflict in Utah. 10 May 1869: Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads meet at Promontory. 1869: First non-Mormon church building in Utah (Church of the Good Samaritan) in Corinne is constructed. 1869: John Wesley Powell explores the Colorado River. 1871: Dedication of First Catholic Church in Utah (St. Mary Madeleine). 1874: Poland Act passed in Congress making it legal to prosecute Mormons for practicing polygamy. 1875: Holy Cross Sisters open Holy Cross Hospital their first hospital in the U. S. 1879: First telephone service established in Ogden. 1882: Edmunds Act passed by Congress making it unlawful to cohabitate. 1887: The Edmunds-Tucker Act is passed by Congress. 1890: LDS Church President Wilford Woodruff issues the Manifesto ending church-sanctioned polygamy. 1891: B'Nai Israel Temple dedicated in Salt Lake City. 1896: Utah becomes the 45th state on January 4 and Heber M. Wells is inaugurated as the first governor. 1906: Open pit copper mining starts in Bingham Canyon. 1909: Discovery of Rainbow Bridge. 1911: Strawberry Reservoir is completed. 1914: Auto racing begins on the Bonneville Salts Flats near the Great Salt Lake. 1915: State Capitol is completed. 1919: Zion National Park is created. 1919: First Salt Lake Chapter of the NAACP founded. 1928: Bryce Canyon National Park is established. 1942-1945: Topaz (Japanese-American Relocation Camp) operates near Delta. 1943: Geneva steel plant begins operation in Utah County. 1952: Six-mile Duchesne Tunnel is completed for irrigation. 1956: Congress creates Colorado River Storage Project. 1964: Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River is dedicated. 1964: Arizona's Glen Canyon Dam creates Lake Powell, the nation's second largest artificial lake. 1965: Canyonlands National Park is opened. 1985: Jake Garn, is first U.S. Senator to fly in space. 1995: Salt Lake City is announced as the site for the 2002 Winter Olympics. 1996: Overcrowded highways along the Wasatch Front force the governor and Legislature to address raising taxes to pay for rebuilding of I-15 in northern Utah in time for the 2002 Winter Olympics. 1996: Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument is created by President Clinton. 1996: Utah celebrates its 100's birthday of Statehood. The year is filled with parades, balls, county histories and other activities to celebrate Utah's entrance into the Union. 1997: Utah celebrates its Sesequentennial anniversary (150 year) since the Mormon pioneers entered the Salt Lake Valley. This event included a variety of local activities plus the reenactment of the pioneer wagon trail from Winter Quarters to the Salt Lake Valley. 1997: The $1.325 billion bid is awarded to Wasatch Constructions to reconstruct 17 miles of I-15, the main corridor around Salt Lake City. 1998: Sen. Bob Bennett, R-Utah is named chairmen of the new Senate Select Committee on the Year 2000 Technology Problem. 1999: On August 11 a tornado ripped through downtown Salt Lake City doing over $100 million of dollars in damage. Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
WASHINGTON Settled: 1811 Date admitted to the Union: 11 Nov 1889 Order of admission: 42 Capital: Olympia Extent in Miles (length): 360 Extent in Miles (width): 240 Area in square miles (land): 66,511 Area in square miles (inland water): 1,627 Area in square miles (total): 68,139 Rank in Area: 20 Official Nickname: Evergreen State Motto: Alki (By and By) Flower: Western Rhododendron Bird: Willow Goldfinch Tree: Western Hemlock Song: Washington, My Home Population (1990): 4,866,692 Population Rank (1990): 18 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: aerospace, forest products, food products, primary metals, agriculture WASHINGTON STATE HISTORY LINKS: Center for Columbia River History Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest Gonzaga University Special Collections HistoryLink Home Page Washington Karpeles Manuscript Library, Tacoma Museum National Archives--Pacific Northwest Region Pacific Northwest Historians Guild Seattle Municipal Archives Seattle Public Library - Seattle History Collection Tacoma Public Library - Special Collections University of Washington Libraries Manuscripts Washington Academic Skills Coalition Journal Washington Commission for the Humanities Washington Public Libraries Online Washington State Historical Society Washington State and Local Government Washington State Regional Archives Washington Social Studies Home Page Washington State University - Special Collections WASHINGTON STATE MUSEUMS: Burek Museum of Natural History and Culture Cheney Cowles Museum Gig Harbor Peninsula Historical Museum Jefferson County Historical Society Kitsap Historical Museum Museum of Flight Museum of History and Industry, Seattle Swedish Finn Historical Society Whatcom Museum Archives Wing Luke Asian Museum Yakima Valley Museum Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
WISCONSIN NOT a Western state; bordered on the West by the Mississippi and St.Croix rivers. Settled: 1766 Date admitted to the Union: 29 May 1848 Order of admission: 30 Capital: Madison Extent in Miles (length): 310 Extent in Miles (width): 260 Area in square miles (land): 54,426 Area in square miles (inland water): 1,727 Area in square miles (total): 56,153 Rank in Area: 26 Official Nickname: Badger State Motto: Forward Flower: Wood Violet Bird: Robin Tree: Sugar Maple Song: Oh, Wisconsin Population (1990): 4,891,769 Population Rank (1990): 16 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: manufacturing, trade, services, government, transportation, communications, agriculture, tourism Annotated Link List: {to be done} Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
WYOMING Settled: 1834 Date admitted to the Union: 10 July 1890 Order of admission: 44 Capital: Cheyenne Extent in Miles (length): 360 Extent in Miles (width): 280 Area in square miles (land): 96,989 Area in square miles (inland water): 820 Area in square miles (total): 97,809 Rank in Area: 9 Official Nickname: Equality State Motto: Equal Rights Flower: Indian Paintbrush Bird: Meadowlark Tree: Cottonwood Song: Wyoming Population (1880): 20,789 Population (1890): 62,553 Population (1900): 92,531 Population (1910): 145,965 Population (1920): 194,531 Population (1930): 225,565 Population (1990): 453,588 Population Rank (1990): 50 Population (2000): {to be done} Population Rank (2000): {to be done} Principal Industries: mineral extraction, tourism and recreation, agriculture Annotated Link List: Wyoming Chronology This chronology is from: Wyoming, A Guide to Its History, Highways, and People, American Guide Series, Compiled by workers of the Writers' Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of Wyoming, Sponsored by Dr. Lester C. Hunt, Secretary of State, Oxford University Press, New York, 1941. 1743: The Verendryes and companions are first white men to sight the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming. 1803: Louisiana Purchase (including present Wyoming) is completed. 1805: General James Wilkinson is appointed governor of region embracing Wyoming., Lewis and Clark employ Sacajawea as guide. 1806: John Colter comes to region (credited with being first nativeborn American to enter what is now Wyoming). 1807: Ezekiel Williams heads trapping party that enters Wyoming. John Colter is first white man to enter Tog-Wo-Tee. I807-08: Edward Rose takes up permanent residence in Big Horn Basin (first American to do so). 1809: Many white trappers operate in what now is eastern Wyoming. 1811: Wilson Price Hunt's party, employed by John Jacob Astor, crosses Wyoming. 1812: Robert Stuart and companions returning from Astoria (it is believed) discover South Pass; build first cabin erected by whites in Wyoming. 1822: General William Ashley establishes trading post on the Yellowstone, Jim Bridger arrives with Ashley. 1824: Ashley party names Sweetwater River. 1824: South Pass is crossed by Ashley trappers, headed by Thomas Fitzpatrick and Jedediah Smith. 1825: Ashley and his men descend Green River (first white men to navigate that stream). 1826: General Ashley sells his trapping interests in Wyoming. 1827: First wheeled vehicle, a four-pounder cannon, crosses South Pass. 1828: The first of Wyoming posts, known as 'Portuguese Houses,' is established on Middle Fork of Powder River, 11 miles east of Kaycee. 1829: Smith, Jackson, and Sublette bring supplies to the rendezvous near the mouth of Popo Agie in wagons drawn by mules (first wagons ever brought to Wyoming). 1830: Kit Carson, noted scout, arrives. 1832: Captain B. L. E. Bonneville, with 110 men, 20 wagon loads of provisions, goods and ammunition, headed for Pierre's Hole, takes first wagons through South Pass and establishes temporary fortification on tributary of Green River. 1832: Bonneville records presence of oil in Popo Agie region of Wyoming. 1834: Fort William, is established, first permanent trading post in Wyoming. 1835: Samuel Parker and Marcus Whitman are first missionaries to traverse Wyoming. 1836: Mrs. H. H. Spalding and Mrs. Marcus Whitman accompany their missionary husbands across Wyoming. 1838: Jim Baker joins American Fur Company; becomes noted scout and guide. 1840: Father P. J. De Smet celebrates first Mass in Wyoming on Green River. 1842: Fort Bridger established. 1842: John C. Fremont leads an expedition to select sites for a line of military posts with a view to territorial acquisitions in the Far West. 1842: Elijah White leads large party of missionaries and settlers across Wyoming to Oregon. Gold discovered near South Pass. 1843: Fort Bridger opened to trade. Fremont's second expedition crosses Laramie Plains. 1845: Federal troops under Colonel Stephen W. Kearny march from Fort Leavenworth to Fort Laramie. 1846: President Polk approves an act to establish military posts along the Oregon Trail. 1847: Brigham Young leads first group of Mormons across Wyoming. Mormons build a ferry across Platte River near Fort Caspar site. 1849: Fort Laramie is purchased by the United States for $4,000. 1851: Captain Howard Stansbury completes a reconnaissance for a railway route. 1851: Steamboat 'El Paso' sails up the Platte River to Guernsey, first steamship on the Platte River in Wyoming. 1853: Party of Mormons form a settlement at old Fort Bridger. 1854: Grattan Massacre occurs near Fort Laramie. 1855: General W. S. Harney leads military expedition against the Sioux. 1856: Mormon 'hand-cart' exodus enters Wyoming' en route to Utah. 1857: Colonel A. S. Johnston's expedition marches across Wyoming against Mormons. 1857: Mormons burn buildings at Fort Bridger and Fort Supply. 1857: Camp Scott is established as winter quarters for Johnston's army, 1857: Jim Bridger leases Fort Bridger to the Government. 1857: Lieutenant G. K. Warren explores Wyoming from Fort Laramie to the western slope of the Black Hills: 1857: Coloniel E. V. Sumner leads troops against the Cheyenne. 1858-59: Russell, Majors, and Waddell transport more than 16,000,000 pounds of freight to Utah, passing through Wyoming on Oregon Trail. 1859: Central, Overland, California and Pike's Peak Express Company is established by Russell, Majors, and Waddell. 1859: Fort Bridger becomes a Government military reservation. 1860: Pony Express riders cross Wyoming. 1861: Creighton completes transcontinental telegraph line across Wyoming. 1862: March. Ben Holladay takes over equipment of Russell, Majors, and Waddell. 1862: Indians raid stage line and steal equipment. 1862: July. Government mail route is changed from central Wyoming to southern part of State because of Indian depredations. 1863: Bozeman Road through Wyoming established. 1863: A Mormon freights a cargo of soda to Salt Lake, the first known export of mineral from the territory. 1863: Troops under General P. E. Connor sent to Wyoming to suppress Indians. 1863: De Lacy prospecting expedition discovers Shoshone Lake. 1864: Indians wage war along Platte in Wyoming as a result of Sand Creek Massacre in Colorado. 5 January 1865: First proposal for temporary government for Territory of Wyoming is made by James M. Ashley, later governor of Montana Territory. July 1865: Platte Bridge Fight. 1866: Forts Reno and Phil Kearny are built along the Bozeman Trail. 1866: Fetterman Massacre occurs. 1866: Fort Sanders is built on Laramie Plains. 9 January 1867: Laramie County is created by Dakota Legislature 27 December 1867: Carter County is created by Dakota Legislature. 1867: Union Pacific builds into Wyoming. 1867: Fort Fetterman is established. 1867: Town of Cheyenne is founded. 1867: Wagon Box Fight takes place in the Big Horns. 1867: Fort D. A. Russell (now Fort F. E. Warren) is established. 1867: Carissa lode is discovered at South Pass. 1868: Peace Commission signs treaties with Sioux, Crow, and Arapaho at Fort Laramie; with Bannock and Eastern Shoshone at Fort Bridger. 1868: Shoshone Reservation established. 25 July 1868: Territory of Wyoming is created by Congress. 1868: Camp Augur is established (later called Camp Brown, then changed in 1878 to Fort Washakie). 1868: Fort Fred Steele is established. 1868: Albany and Carter Counties are organized. 1868: Episcopal church builds first church building in Wyoming at Cheyenne. 15 Apr 1869: J. A. Campbell inaugurated as first governor of Wyoming. 1869: Cheyenne designated as territorial capital. 12 October 1869: First territorial legislature convenes. 10 December 1869: Act granting suffrage to women is approved (the first in United States). 1869: Union Pacific Railway is completed across territory. 1869: Act is passed prohibiting intermarriage of whites and Negroes. 1869: Carter County is changed to Sweetwater County. 1869: Uinta County is organized. 1870: Wyoming Population (U. S. Census): 9,118. 1870: First homestead entry is perfected in the territory. 1870: Women serve on grand and petit juries at Laramie. 1870: Mrs. Esther M. Morris, of South Pass, is appointed first woman justice of the peace. 1870: Washburn and Doane Expedition explores Yellowstone National Park region. 1871: Legislature passes Militia Act; three militia districts created. 1872: 'Yellowstone Wonderland' is established as first national park. 1872: State Penitentiary is built at Laramie; destroyed by fire soon after; partially rebuilt in 1873. 1873: Wyoming Stock Growers Association organizes. 1876: Cheyenne and Black Hills stage line is launched. 1876: Custer leads expedition in northern Wyoming. 1876: Custer Massacre occurs in Montana. 1877: Arapaho are moved to Shoshone Reservation for temporary quarters (have remained there ever since). 1879: Lotteries and games of chance are outlawed by legislation. 1880: Population 20,789. 1883: Cheyenne completes incandescent lighting system. 1884: Fremont County is organized. 1885: Anti-Chinese 'Riot' in Rock Springs. 1886: Governor Warren approves act providing for capitol building. Commission is appointed to build capitol and State university. 1886: Legislature provides for construction of Institution for Deaf, Dumb and Blind at Cheyenne. 1886: Severe winter kills thousands of cattle. 1886: Fremont and Elkhorn Valley Railroad builds branch to Douglas called Wyoming and Central. 1887: Corner stone of capitol building is laid at Cheyenne. 6 September 1888: University of Wyoming opens at Laramie. 1888: Crook and Pease (Johnson) Counties are organized. 1888: 400 Mormon families move into Big Horn Basin. 1888: Wyoming National Guard is established. 1888: Legislature appropriates funds for penitentiary at Rawlins. 1888: Converse, Natrona, and Sheridan Counties are created. November 1889: Wyoming adopts State constitution. 1890: Population, 62,553. 10 July 1890: Wyoming is admitted into the Union as the forty-fourth State. 14 October1890: Francis E. Warren (last territorial governor) is in augurated as governor of State. 1890: First Wyoming congressmen are elected: Joseph M. Carey (last delegate) and Francis E. Warren, U. S. senators; Clarence D. Clark, representative-at-large. 1890: Big Horn and Weston Counties are created. 1890: First oil well is brought in by Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Company in the Shannon field of the Salt Creek district. 1891: President Harrison establishes Yellowstone Timber Land Reserve, first in the United States. 1892: Johnson County Cattle War. 1895: Oil refinery is built at Casper. 1895: Dupont Powder Company begins development of soda deposits in Wyoming. 1896: Hot Springs is purchased from Shoshone Indians. 1897: First Cheyenne Frontier Day is celebrated. 1898: New penitentiary is completed at Rawlins. 1898: Legislature enacts law taxing migratory stock from adjoining States. 1899: U.P. mail train is robbed of $60,000 in unsigned bank notes at Wilcox. 1900: Population: 92,531. 1901: Stinking Water River is renamed Shoshone by the legislature. 1903: Tom Horn is hanged in Cheyenne. 1905: Governor's Mansion is ready for occupancy. 1905: State Fair is established at Douglas. 1906: Riverton townsite is thrown open to settlers. 1906: First auto accident in Wyoming occurs. 1906: Devil's Tower National Monument is established. 1909: Pathfinder Dam is completed. 1909: Park County is organized. 1910: Population: 145,965. 1910: Willis Van Devanter of Wyoming is appointed associate justice of the U. S. Supreme Court. 1910: Colonel Theodore Roosevelt visits Cheyenne Frontier Days Celebration. 1911: Campbell, Goshen, Hot Springs, Lincoln, Niobrara, Platte, and Washakie Counties are organized. 1913: First automobile license in Wyoming is issued to J. M. Schwoob. 1913: A wolf is trained to carry mail over deep snows. 1915: Workmen's Compensation Law is enacted. 1916: Non-partisan judiciary Law is passed. 1916: 'Bill' Carlisle robs U.P. train. 1916: Sunrise is made model town by Colorado Fuel & Iron Company. 1916: Homestead tax exemption is increased to $2,500. 1917: Buffalo Bill dies in Denver. 1917: State Flower and State Flag are adopted by legislature. 1917: The State highway department is created. 1917: Jim Baker's cabin is moved to Cheyenne. 1917: Wyoming male citizens register for World War draft. 1918: Wyoming purchases $10,000,000 worth of Liberty bonds. 1918: State votes for prohibition three to one. 1919: All Wyoming breweries suspend operations during national emergency. 1919: President Wilson makes several stops in Wyoming. 1919: 'Bill' Carlisle, train bandit, escapes from penitentiary. 1920: Population: 194,531. 1920: Transcontinental air mail planes are launched. 1920: Night air mail flying is inaugurated across Wyoming. 1921: Great oil well roars in at the Teapot Dome. 1921: Prize fighting is legalized in Wyoming. 1921: Teton and Sublette Counties are organized. 1922: Union Pacific stores six months' supply of coal along tracks as a precautionary measure in strike situation. 1923: Governor William B. Ross dies in office. 1923: Frances Warren Pershing Memorial Hospital is dedicated in Cheyenne. 1923: 99 coal miners die in explosion at Kemmerer mine. 1924: Senator Francis E. Warren obtains $3,000,000 appropriation for aid in night flying service. 1924: State receives $1,700,000 from oil royalties, for schools. 1924: Nellie Tayloe Ross made governor, first woman to hold such office in the United States. (In 1933 she is appointed Director of the United States Mint, first woman to hold that office.) 1925: Teapot Dome oil case is tried before judge Kennedy at Cheyenne; decision upholds Sinclair lease. 1925: 3,500,000 pounds of honey are produced in Wyoming. 1925: New Douglas airplane makes first flight across the State. 1925: Gros Ventre River is dammed by huge slide. 1925: State legislature votes ratification of the Colorado River Compact. 1926: John E. Higgins wills entire estate of $500,000 to Wyoming. 1926: Queen Marie of Roumania visits Wyoming. 1927: Wyoming aeronautics law is passed. 1927: Gros Ventre dam breaks and wipes out town of Kelley. 1927: Senator Francis E. Warren dies; served as U. S. senator 1890-93; 1929: Honorable Patrick J. Sullivan is appointed to fill unexpired term as U. S. Senator, on December 5. 1929: Grand Teton National Park is established. 1930: Population, 225,565. 1931: Fort D. A. Russell is officially renamed Fort Francis E. Warren. 1931: 6,000 people stage outdoor celebration at Independence Rock. 1931: Governor Frank Emerson dies in office. 1931: Wyoming Air Service officials fly to Sheridan from Casper with passengers and mail. 1933: Allocation of $22,700,000 is made for Casper-Alcova Reclamation Project. 1933: New Federal Building is completed in Cheyenne. 1933: Senator John B. Kendrick dies in office. 1933: Hon. Joseph C. O'Mahoney, assistant U. S. postmaster general, is designated U. S. senator on December 18 for remainder of term; elected 1934 for full term ending 1941. 1934: Wyoming Air Service begins air mail route between Cheyenne, Wyoming, and Billings, Montana. 1934: Democrats win every State elective office and majority of seats of State legislature. 1935: Lethal gas made official method of capital punishment. 1935: A 2 per cent sales tax is put in effect. 1935: Wyoming Democratic regime takes over entire State government for first time. 1935: State liquor commission created; State becomes a wholesaler of intoxicating liquors, not including beer. 1935: Holiday divorce law is enacted. 1935: December 10 is designated as Wyoming Day, commemorating Governor John A. Campbell's signing of the act granting women in Wyoming Territory the right of suffrage. 1936: Aeronautical Commission is created. 1936: Terms of county elective officers are lengthened to 4 years. 1936: Columbus Day, October 12, is made a public holiday by legislature. 1936: Wyoming home for dependent children completed in Casper. 1936: General John Pershing visits Cheyenne. 1936: Old Cheyenne Club, landmark, is demolished. 1936: President Franklin D. Roosevelt visits Wyoming three times during the summer. 1936: Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard, eminent historian, dies. 1936: Harry H. Schwartz is elected U. S. senator for term ending 1943. 1937: New Supreme Court and Library Building are dedicated. 1936: Justice Willis Van Devanter resigns from the United States Supreme Court. 1936: Ex-Senator Robert D. Carey dies. 1936: Social Security and Unemployment Insurance laws are enacted. 1936: Old Fort Laramie is purchased by Wyoming Landmark Commission. 1936: University of Wyoming holds Semi-Centennial Celebration. 1936: A United Airlines passenger plane crashes in Wasatch Mountains with 19 aboard. 1938: Fort Laramie is taken over by Federal Government and made 74th National Monument. 1938: Alcova Dam is completed. 1938: Republicans gain political control of State government by electing three out of five State officials and a majority of legislators. 1938: Final judgment of $6,364,677, less costs of suit and all of the Government's non-treaty expenditures for the Shoshone since 1868 is granted to Shoshone Tribe in' satisfaction of claims brought against Federal Government for the value of land in the Shoshone Reservation occupied by the Arapahoe for 60 years. This decision clears title to 2,343,540 acres of Wyoming land;gives legal status to homes of more than 1,000 Arapaho; and brings to the Shoshone about $4,000,000. 1939-Present: {to be done} Return to Top of American Western State-by-State
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